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Global deregulation of ginseng products may be a safety hazard to warfarin takers: solid evidence of ginseng-warfarin interaction.

ABSTRACT: Recent global deregulation of ginseng as the table food raises our concern about the possible ginseng-warfarin interaction that could be life-threatening to patients who take warfarin for preventing fatal strokes and thromboembolism while using ginseng products for bioenergy recovery. Here we show that quality-control ginsenosides, extracted from ginseng and containing its major active ingredients, produce dose- and time-dependent antagonism in rats against warfarin's anti-coagulation assessed by INR and rat thrombosis model. The interactions between ginsenosides and warfarin on thrombosis, pharmacokinetics, activities of coagulation factors and liver cytochrome P450 isomers are determined by using thrombosis analyzer, UPLC/MS/MS, ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The antagonism correlates well with the related pharmacokinetic interaction showing that the blood plateaus of warfarin reached by one-week warfarin administration are significantly reduced after three-week co-administration of warfarin with ginsenosides while 7-hydroxywarfarin is increased. The one-week warfarin and three-week warfarin-ginsenosides regimen result in restoring the suppressed levels by warfarin of the coagulating factors II, VII and protein Z, and significantly enhance activities of P450 3A4 and 2C9 that metabolize warfarin. The present study, for the first time, provides the solid evidence to demonstrate the warfarin-ginsenoside interaction, and warns the warfarin users and regulation authorities of the dangerous interaction.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5517508 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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