Hybrid assembly with long and short reads improves discovery of gene family expansions.
ABSTRACT: Long-read and short-read sequencing technologies offer competing advantages for eukaryotic genome sequencing projects. Combinations of both may be appropriate for surveys of within-species genomic variation.We developed a hybrid assembly pipeline called "Alpaca" that can operate on 20X long-read coverage plus about 50X short-insert and 50X long-insert short-read coverage. To preclude collapse of tandem repeats, Alpaca relies on base-call-corrected long reads for contig formation.Compared to two other assembly protocols, Alpaca demonstrated the most reference agreement and repeat capture on the rice genome. On three accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula, Alpaca generated the most agreement to a conspecific reference and predicted tandemly repeated genes absent from the other assemblies.Our results suggest Alpaca is a useful tool for investigating structural and copy number variation within de novo assemblies of sampled populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chloroplasts are organelles that conduct photosynthesis in plant and algal cells. The information chloroplast genome contained is widely used in agriculture and studies of evolution and ecology. Correctly assembling chloroplast genomes can be challenging because the chloroplast genome contains a pair of long inverted repeats (10-30?kb). Typically, it is simply assumed that the gross structure of the chloroplast genome matches the most commonly observed structure of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats. The advent of long-read sequencing technologies should remove the need to make this assumption by providing sufficient information to completely span the inverted repeat regions. Yet, long-reads tend to have higher error rates than short-reads, and relatively little is known about the best way to combine long- and short-reads to obtain the most accurate chloroplast genome assemblies. Using Eucalyptus pauciflora, the snow gum, as a test case, we evaluated the effect of multiple parameters, such as different coverage of long-(Oxford nanopore) and short-(Illumina) reads, different long-read lengths, different assembly pipelines, with a view to determining the most accurate and efficient approach to chloroplast genome assembly. RESULTS:Hybrid assemblies combining at least 20x coverage of both long-reads and short-reads generated a single contig spanning the entire chloroplast genome with few or no detectable errors. Short-read-only assemblies generated three contigs (the long single copy, short single copy and inverted repeat regions) of the chloroplast genome. These contigs contained few single-base errors but tended to exclude several bases at the beginning or end of each contig. Long-read-only assemblies tended to create multiple contigs with a much higher single-base error rate. The chloroplast genome of Eucalyptus pauciflora is 159,942?bp, contains 131 genes of known function. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that very accurate assemblies of chloroplast genomes can be achieved using a combination of at least 20x coverage of long- and short-reads respectively, provided that the long-reads contain at least ~5x coverage of reads longer than the inverted repeat region. We show that further increases in coverage give little or no improvement in accuracy, and that hybrid assemblies are more accurate than long-read-only or short-read-only assemblies.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used in genome-wide association studies and population genetics analyses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become convenient, and many SNP-calling pipelines have been developed for human NGS data. We took advantage of a gap knowledge in selecting the appropriated SNP calling pipeline to handle with high-throughput NGS data. To fill this gap, we studied and compared seven SNP calling pipelines, which include 16GT, genome analysis toolkit (GATK), Bcftools-single (Bcftools single sample mode), Bcftools-multiple (Bcftools multiple sample mode), VarScan2-single (VarScan2 single sample mode), VarScan2-multiple (VarScan2 multiple sample mode) and Freebayes pipelines, using 96 NGS data with the different depth gradients of approximately 5X, 10X, 20X, 30X, 40X, and 50X coverage from 16 Rhode Island Red chickens. The sixteen chickens were also genotyped with a 50K SNP array, and the sensitivity and specificity of each pipeline were assessed by comparison to the results of SNP arrays. For each pipeline, except Freebayes, the number of detected SNPs increased as the input read depth increased. In comparison with other pipelines, 16GT, followed by Bcftools-multiple, obtained the most SNPs when the input coverage exceeded 10X, and Bcftools-multiple obtained the most when the input was 5X and 10X. The sensitivity and specificity of each pipeline increased with increasing input. Bcftools-multiple had the highest sensitivity numerically when the input ranged from 5X to 30X, and 16GT showed the highest sensitivity when the input was 40X and 50X. Bcftools-multiple also had the highest specificity, followed by GATK, at almost all input levels. For most calling pipelines, there were no obvious changes in SNP numbers, sensitivities or specificities beyond 20X. In conclusion, (1) if only SNPs were detected, the sequencing depth did not need to exceed 20X; (2) the Bcftools-multiple may be the best choice for detecting SNPs from chicken NGS data, but for a single sample or sequencing depth greater than 20X, 16GT was recommended. Our findings provide a reference for researchers to select suitable pipelines to obtain SNPs from the NGS data of chickens or nonhuman animals.
Project description:Despite the ever-increasing output of next-generation sequencing data along with developing assemblers, dozens to hundreds of gaps still exist in de novo microbial assemblies due to uneven coverage and large genomic repeats. Third-generation single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology avoids amplification artifacts and generates kilobase-long reads with the potential to complete microbial genome assembly. However, due to the low accuracy (~85%) of third-generation sequences, a considerable amount of long reads (>50X) are required for self-correction and for subsequent de novo assembly. Recently-developed hybrid approaches, using next-generation sequencing data and as few as 5X long reads, have been proposed to improve the completeness of microbial assembly. In this study we have evaluated the contemporary hybrid approaches and demonstrated that assembling corrected long reads (by runCA) produced the best assembly compared to long-read scaffolding (e.g., AHA, Cerulean and SSPACE-LongRead) and gap-filling (SPAdes). For generating corrected long reads, we further examined long-read correction tools, such as ECTools, LSC, LoRDEC, PBcR pipeline and proovread. We have demonstrated that three microbial genomes including Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, Meiothermus ruber DSM1279 and Pdeobacter heparinus DSM2366 were successfully hybrid assembled by runCA into near-perfect assemblies using ECTools-corrected long reads. In addition, we developed a tool, Patch, which implements corrected long reads and pre-assembled contigs as inputs, to enhance microbial genome assemblies. With the additional 20X long reads, short reads of S. cerevisiae W303 were hybrid assembled into 115 contigs using the verified strategy, ECTools + runCA. Patch was subsequently applied to upgrade the assembly to a 35-contig draft genome. Our evaluation of the hybrid approaches shows that assembling the ECTools-corrected long reads via runCA generates near complete microbial genomes, suggesting that genome assembly could benefit from re-analyzing the available hybrid datasets that were not assembled in an optimal fashion.
Project description:Novel methods of targeted sequencing of unique regions from complex eukaryotic genomes have generated a great deal of excitement, but critical demonstrations of these methods efficacy with respect to diploid genotype calling and experimental variation are lacking. To address this issue, we optimized microarray-based genomic selection (MGS) for use with the Illumina Genome Analyzer (IGA). A set of 202 fragments (304 kb total) contained within a 1.7 Mb genomic region on human chromosome X were MGS/IGA sequenced in ten female HapMap samples generating a total of 2.4 GB of DNA sequence. At a minimum coverage threshold of 5X, 93.9% of all bases and 94.9% of segregating sites were called, while 57.7% of bases (57.4% of segregating sites) were called at a 50X threshold. Data accuracy at known segregating sites was 98.9% at 5X coverage, rising to 99.6% at 50X coverage. Accuracy at homozygous sites was 98.7% at 5X sequence coverage and 99.5% at 50X coverage. Although accuracy at heterozygous sites was modestly lower, it was still over 92% at 5X coverage and increased to nearly 97% at 50X coverage. These data provide the first demonstration that MGS/IGA sequencing can generate the very high quality sequence data necessary for human genetics research. All sequences generated in this study have been deposited in NCBI Short Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra, Accession # SRA007913).
Project description:Long-read sequencing technologies were launched a few years ago, and in contrast with short-read sequencing technologies, they offered a promise of solving assembly problems for large and complex genomes. Moreover by providing long-range information, it could also solve haplotype phasing. However, existing long-read technologies still have several limitations that complicate their use for most research laboratories, as well as in large and/or complex genome projects. In 2014, Oxford Nanopore released the MinION® device, a small and low-cost single-molecule nanopore sequencer, which offers the possibility of sequencing long DNA fragments.The assembly of long reads generated using the Oxford Nanopore MinION® instrument is challenging as existing assemblers were not implemented to deal with long reads exhibiting close to 30% of errors. Here, we presented a hybrid approach developed to take advantage of data generated using MinION® device. We sequenced a well-known bacterium, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 and applied our method to obtain a highly contiguous (one single contig) and accurate genome assembly even in repetitive regions, in contrast to an Illumina-only assembly. Our hybrid strategy was able to generate NaS (Nanopore Synthetic-long) reads up to 60 kb that aligned entirely and with no error to the reference genome and that spanned highly conserved repetitive regions. The average accuracy of NaS reads reached 99.99% without losing the initial size of the input MinION® reads.We described NaS tool, a hybrid approach allowing the sequencing of microbial genomes using the MinION® device. Our method, based ideally on 20x and 50x of NaS and Illumina reads respectively, provides an efficient and cost-effective way of sequencing microbial or small eukaryotic genomes in a very short time even in small facilities. Moreover, we demonstrated that although the Oxford Nanopore technology is a relatively new sequencing technology, currently with a high error rate, it is already useful in the generation of high-quality genome assemblies.
Project description:Insertion sequences (IS) are small transposable elements, commonly found in bacterial genomes. Identifying the location of IS in bacterial genomes can be useful for a variety of purposes including epidemiological tracking and predicting antibiotic resistance. However IS are commonly present in multiple copies in a single genome, which complicates genome assembly and the identification of IS insertion sites. Here we present ISMapper, a mapping-based tool for identification of the site and orientation of IS insertions in bacterial genomes, directly from paired-end short read data.ISMapper was validated using three types of short read data: (i) simulated reads from a variety of species, (ii) Illumina reads from 5 isolates for which finished genome sequences were available for comparison, and (iii) Illumina reads from 7 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates for which predicted IS locations were tested using PCR. A total of 20 genomes, including 13 species and 32 distinct IS, were used for validation. ISMapper correctly identified 97 % of known IS insertions in the analysis of simulated reads, and 98 % in real Illumina reads. Subsampling of real Illumina reads to lower depths indicated ISMapper was able to correctly detect insertions for average genome-wide read depths >20x, although read depths >50x were required to obtain confident calls that were highly-supported by evidence from reads. All ISAba1 insertions identified by ISMapper in the A. baumannii genomes were confirmed by PCR. In each A. baumannii genome, ISMapper successfully identified an IS insertion upstream of the ampC beta-lactamase that could explain phenotypic resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The utility of ISMapper was further demonstrated by profiling genome-wide IS6110 insertions in 138 publicly available Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes, revealing lineage-specific insertions and multiple insertion hotspots.ISMapper provides a rapid and robust method for identifying IS insertion sites directly from short read data, with a high degree of accuracy demonstrated across a wide range of bacteria.
Project description:The development of high-quality chromosomally assigned reference genomes constitutes a key feature for understanding genome architecture of a species and is critical for the discovery of the genetic blueprints of traits of biological significance. South American camelids serve people in extreme environments and are important fiber and companion animals worldwide. Despite this, the alpaca reference genome lags far behind those available for other domestic species. Here we produced a chromosome-level improved reference assembly for the alpaca genome using the DNA of the same female Huacaya alpaca as in previous assemblies. We generated 190X Illumina short-read, 8X Pacific Biosciences long-read and 60X Dovetail Chicago® chromatin interaction scaffolding data for the assembly, used testis and skin RNAseq data for annotation, and cytogenetic map data for chromosomal assignments. The new assembly VicPac3.1 contains 90% of the alpaca genome in just 103 scaffolds and 76% of all scaffolds are mapped to the 36 pairs of the alpaca autosomes and the X chromosome. Preliminary annotation of the assembly predicted 22,462 coding genes and 29,337 isoforms. Comparative analysis of selected regions of the alpaca genome, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the region involved in the Minute Chromosome Syndrome (MCS) and candidate genes for high-altitude adaptations, reveal unique features of the alpaca genome. The alpaca reference genome VicPac3.1 presents a significant improvement in completeness, contiguity and accuracy over VicPac2 and is an important tool for the advancement of genomics research in all New World camelids.
Project description:The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies produced using short read sequencing. First, we whole-genome-sequenced a pedigree to produce a linkage map incorporating 99% of the genome. Second, we incorporated haplotype scaffolds extensively to produce a more complete haploid version of the draft genome. Third, we incorporated ?20x coverage of Pacific Biosciences sequencing, and scaffolded the haploid genome using an assembly of this long-read sequence. These improvements result in a genome of 795 scaffolds, 275 Mb in length, with an N50 length of 2.1 Mb, an N50 number of 34, and with 99% of the genome placed, and 84% anchored on chromosomes. We use the new genome assembly to confirm that the Heliconius genome underwent 10 chromosome fusions since the split with its sister genus Eueides, over a period of about 6 million yr.
Project description:To date we have little knowledge of how accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are in sequencing repetitive sequences beyond known limitations to accurately sequence homopolymers. Only a handful of previous reports have evaluated the potential of NGS for sequencing short tandem repeats (microsatellites) and no empirical study has compared and evaluated the performance of more than one NGS platform with the same dataset. Here we examined yeast microsatellite variants from both long-read (454-sequencing) and short-read (Illumina) NGS platforms and compared these to data derived through Sanger sequencing. In addition, we investigated any locus-specific biases and differences that might have resulted from variability in microsatellite repeat number, repeat motif or type of mutation. Out of 112 insertion/deletion variants identified among 45 microsatellite amplicons in our study, we found 87.5% agreement between the 454-platform and Sanger sequencing in frequency of variant detection after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests. For a subset of 21 microsatellite amplicons derived from Illumina sequencing, the results of short-read platform were highly consistent with the other two platforms, with 100% agreement with 454-sequencing and 93.6% agreement with the Sanger method after Benjamini-Hochberg correction. We found that the microsatellite attributes copy number, repeat motif and type of mutation did not have a significant effect on differences seen between the sequencing platforms. We show that both long-read and short-read NGS platforms can be used to sequence short tandem repeats accurately, which makes it feasible to consider the use of these platforms in high-throughput genotyping. It appears the major requirement for achieving both high accuracy and rare variant detection in microsatellite genotyping is sufficient read depth coverage. This might be a challenge because each platform generates a consistent pattern of non-uniform sequence coverage, which, as our study suggests, may affect some types of tandem repeats more than others.
Project description:High-throughput sequencing technologies produce short sequence reads that can contain phase information if they span two or more heterozygote genotypes. This information is not routinely used by current methods that infer haplotypes from genotype data. We have extended the SHAPEIT2 method to use phase-informative sequencing reads to improve phasing accuracy. Our model incorporates the read information in a probabilistic model through base quality scores within each read. The method is primarily designed for high-coverage sequence data or data sets that already have genotypes called. One important application is phasing of single samples sequenced at high coverage for use in medical sequencing and studies of rare diseases. Our method can also use existing panels of reference haplotypes. We tested the method by using a mother-father-child trio sequenced at high-coverage by Illumina together with the low-coverage sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP). We found that use of phase-informative reads increases the mean distance between switch errors by 22% from 274.4 kb to 328.6 kb. We also used male chromosome X haplotypes from the 1000GP samples to simulate sequencing reads with varying insert size, read length, and base error rate. When using short 100 bp paired-end reads, we found that using mixtures of insert sizes produced the best results. When using longer reads with high error rates (5-20 kb read with 4%-15% error per base), phasing performance was substantially improved.