Project description:Osteoclasts are resident cells of the bone that are primarily involved in the physiological and pathological remodeling of this tissue. Mature osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that are generated from the fusion of circulating precursors originating from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. During inflammatory bone conditions in vivo, de novo osteoclastogenesis is observed but it is currently unknown whether, besides increased osteoclast differentiation from undifferentiated precursors, other cell types can generate a multinucleated giant cell phenotype with bone resorbing activity. In this study, an animal model of calvaria-induced aseptic osteolysis was used to analyze possible bone resorption capabilities of dendritic cells (DCs). We determined by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy that injected GFP-labeled immature DCs were readily recruited to the site of osteolysis. Upon recruitment, the cathepsin K-positive DCs were observed in bone-resorbing pits. Additionally, chromosomal painting identified nuclei from female DCs, previously injected into a male recipient, among the nuclei of giant cells at sites of osteolysis. Finally, osteolysis was also observed upon recruitment of CD11c-GFP conventional DCs in Csf1r(-/-) mice, which exhibit a severe depletion of resident osteoclasts and tissue macrophages. Altogether, our analysis indicates that DCs may have an important role in bone resorption associated with various inflammatory diseases.
Project description:The bone microenvironment is composed of niches that house cells across variable oxygen tensions. However, the contribution of oxygen gradients in regulating bone and blood homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we generated mice with either single or combined genetic inactivation of the critical oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes (PHD1-3) in osteoprogenitors. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activation associated with Phd2 and Phd3 inactivation drove bone accumulation by modulating osteoblastic/osteoclastic cross-talk through the direct regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, combined inactivation of Phd1, Phd2, and Phd3 resulted in extreme HIF signaling, leading to polycythemia and excessive bone accumulation by overstimulating angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. We also demonstrate that genetic ablation of Phd2 and Phd3 was sufficient to protect ovariectomized mice against bone loss without disrupting hematopoietic homeostasis. Importantly, we identify OPG as a HIF target gene capable of directing osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis to regulate bone homeostasis. Here, we show that coordinated activation of specific PHD isoforms fine-tunes the osteoblastic response to hypoxia, thereby directing two important aspects of bone physiology: cross-talk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and angiogenic-osteogenic coupling.
Project description:Osteoclast-mediated bone destruction is amplified in the hypoxic synovial microenvironment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This increased bone resorption is driven by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF. We identified hypoxic induction of the HIF-regulated adenosine A2B receptor in primary human osteoclasts (mRNA, 3.8-fold increase, p < 0.01) and sought to identify the role(s) of purinergic signaling via this receptor in the bone resorption process. Primary human osteoclasts were differentiated from CD14+ monocytes and exposed to hypoxia (2% O2) and A2B receptor inhibitors (MRS1754, PSB603). The hypoxic increase in bone resorption was prevented by the inhibition of the A2B receptor, at least partly by the attenuation of glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism via inhibition of HIF. A2B receptor inhibition also reduced osteoclastogenesis in hypoxia by inhibiting early cell fusion (day 3-4, p < 0.05). The A2B receptor is only functional in hypoxic or inflammatory environments when the extracellular concentrations of adenosine (1.6-fold increase, p < 0.05) are sufficient to activate the receptor. Inhibition of the A2B receptor under normoxic conditions therefore did not affect any parameter tested. Reciprocal positive regulation of HIF and the A2B receptor in a hypoxic microenvironment thus enhances glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism in osteoclasts to drive increased bone resorption. A2B receptor inhibition could potentially prevent the pathological osteolysis associated with hypoxic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-driven bone resorption. Hypoxia modulates this relationship partially via direct and indirect effects of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) transcription factor on osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Little data is available on the role(s) of the HIF-2? isoform of HIF in osteoclast biology. Here we describe induction of HIF-1? and HIF-2? during the differentiation of human CD14+?monocytes into osteoclasts. Knockdown of HIF-1? did not affect osteoclast differentiation but prevented the increase in bone resorption that occurs under hypoxic conditions. HIF-2? knockdown did not affect bone resorption but moderately inhibited osteoclast formation. Growth of osteoclasts in 3D gels reversed the effect of HIF-2? knockdown; HIF-2? siRNA increasing osteoclast formation in 3D. Glycolysis is the main HIF-regulated pathway that drives bone resorption. HIF knockdown only affected glucose uptake and bone resorption in hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) reduced osteoclast formation and activity under both basal and hypoxic conditions, emphasising the importance of glycolytic metabolism in osteoclast biology. In summary, HIF-1? and HIF-2? play different but overlapping roles in osteoclast biology, highlighting the importance of the HIF pathway as a potential therapeutic target in osteolytic disease.
Project description:Metastatic bone disease is generally incurable and leads to pathological fractures, pain, hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression and decreased mobility. The skeleton is the major site of bone metastases from solid cancers, including breast and prostate carcinoma. Bone metastasis is facilitated by activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, terminally differentiated multinucleated cells formed by fusion from monocytic precursors. Cancer cells are known to produce specific factors that stimulate osteoclast differentiation and function. Of interest, cancer cells are also known to alter their own bioenergetics increasing the use of glycolysis for their survival and function. Such change in energy utilization by cancer cells would result in altered levels of cell-permeable metabolites, including glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. Osteoclast resorption is energy-expensive, and we have previously demonstrated that during differentiation osteoclasts actively adapt to their bioenergetics microenvironment. We hypothesize that altered bioenergetics state of cancer cells will also modify the bioenergetics substrate availability for the tissue-resident bone cells, potentially creating a favorable milieu for pathological osteolysis. The goals of this review are to analyze how metastasizing cancer cells change the availability of energy substrates in bone microenvironment; and to assess how the altered bioenergetics may affect osteoclast differentiation and activity.
Project description:Osteoporosis, which results from excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts, is the major cause of morbidity for elder people. Identification of clinically relevant regulators is needed to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Rho GTPases have essential functions in osteoclasts by regulating actin dynamics. This is of particular importance because actin cytoskeleton is essential to generate the sealing zone, an osteoclast-specific structure ultimately mediating bone resorption. Here we report that the atypical Rac1 exchange factor Dock5 is necessary for osteoclast function both in vitro and in vivo. We discovered that establishment of the sealing zone and consequently osteoclast resorbing activity in vitro require Dock5. Mechanistically, our results suggest that osteoclasts lacking Dock5 have impaired adhesion that can be explained by perturbed Rac1 and p130Cas activities. Consistent with these functional assays, we identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of Dock5 capable of hindering osteoclast resorbing activity. To investigate the in vivo relevance of these findings, we studied Dock5(-/-) mice and found that they have increased trabecular bone mass with normal osteoclast numbers, confirming that Dock5 is essential for bone resorption but not for osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, our findings characterize Dock5 as a regulator of osteoclast function and as a potential novel target to develop antiosteoporotic treatments.
Project description:Osteoclasts, highly differentiated bone-resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin, have two conflicting tendencies: a lower capacity to survive and a higher capacity to execute energy-consuming activities such as bone resorption. Here, we report that when compared with their precursors, mature mitochondria-rich osteoclasts have lower levels of intracellular ATP, which is associated with receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL)-induced Bcl-x(L) down-regulation. Severe ATP depletion, caused by disrupting mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) gene, leads to increased bone-resorbing activity despite accelerated apoptosis. Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by ATP depletion is not involved in the regulation of osteoclast function, the release of ATP from intracellular stores negatively regulates bone-resorbing activity through an autocrine/paracrine feedback loop by altering cytoskeletal structures. Furthermore, osteoclasts derived from aged mice exhibit reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and intracellular ATP levels with increased bone-resorbing activity, implicating the possible involvement of age-related mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoporosis. Thus, our study provides evidence for a mechanism underlying the control of cellular functions by reciprocal changes in intracellular and extracellular ATP, which regulate the negative correlation between osteoclast survival and bone resorption.
Project description:Investigations on the therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have focused on the suppression of autoantibody and immune complex-mediated inflammatory pathogenesis. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by excessive bone erosion but the effect of IVIG on osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells, has not been studied. Here, we investigate whether IVIG directly regulates osteoclast differentiation and has therapeutic potential for suppressing osteoclast-mediated pathologic bone resorption. IVIG or cross-linking of Fc? receptors with plate-bound IgG suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-? B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and expression of osteoclast-related genes such as integrin ?3 and cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, IVIG or plate-bound IgG suppressed osteoclastogenesis by downregulating RANKL-induced expression of NFATC1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. IVIG suppressed NFATC1 expression by attenuating RANKL-induced NF-?B signaling, explained in part by induction of the inflammatory signaling inhibitor A20. IVIG administration attenuated in vivo osteoclastogenesis and suppressed bone resorption in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced calvarial osteolysis model. Our findings show that, in addition to suppressing inflammation, IVIG directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis through a mechanism involving suppression of RANK signaling. Direct suppression of osteoclast differentiation may provide beneficial effects on preserving bone mass when IVIG is used to treat rheumatic disorders.
Project description:Wear particle-induced peri-implant loosening (Aseptic prosthetic loosening) is one of the most common causes of total joint arthroplasty. It is well established that extensive bone destruction (osteolysis) by osteoclasts is responsible for wear particle-induced peri-implant loosening. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption should prevent wear particle induced osteolysis and may serve as a potential therapeutic avenue for prosthetic loosening. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that saliphenylhalamide, a new V-ATPase inhibitor attenuates wear particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model. In vitro biochemical and morphological assays revealed that the inhibition of osteolysis is partially attributed to a disruption in osteoclast acidification and polarization, both a prerequisite for osteoclast bone resorption. Interestingly, the V-ATPase inhibitor also impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of RANKL-induced NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways. In conclusion, we showed that saliphenylhalamide affected multiple physiological processes including osteoclast differentiation, acidification and polarization, leading to inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption in vitro and wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. The results of the study provide proof that the new generation V-ATPase inhibitors, such as saliphenylhalamide, are potential anti-resorptive agents for treatment of peri-implant osteolysis.
Project description:Periprosthetic osteolysis induced by orthopedic implant-wear particles continues to be the leading cause of arthroplasty failure in majority of patients. Release of the wear debris results in a chronic local inflammatory response typified by the recruitment of immune cells, including macrophages. The cellular mediators derived from activated macrophages favor the osteoclast-bone resorbing activity resulting in bone loss at the site of implant and loosening of the prosthetic components. Emerging evidence suggests that chemokines and their receptors are involved in the progression of periprosthetic osteolysis associated with aseptic implant loosening. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of chemokine C-motif-ligand-1 (XCL1) in the pathogenesis of inflammatory osteolysis induced by wear particles. Expressions of XCL1 and its receptor XCR1 were evident in synovial fluids and tissues surrounding hip-implants of patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore, murine calvarial osteolysis model induced by ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles was used to study the role of XCL1 in the development of inflammatory osteolysis. Mice received single injection of recombinant XCL1 onto the calvariae after implantation of particles exhibited significantly greater osteolytic lesions than the control mice. In contrast, blockade of XCL1 by neutralizing antibody significantly reduced bone erosion and the number of bone-resorbing mature osteoclasts induced by UHMWPE particles. In consistence with the results, transplantation of XCL1-soaked sponge onto calvariae caused osteolytic lesions coincident with excessive infiltration of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. These results suggested that XCL1 might be involved in the development of periprosthetic osteolysis through promoting infiltration of inflammatory cells and bone resorbing-osteoclasts. Our further results demonstrated that supplementing recombinant XCL1 to cultured human monocytes stimulated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) promoted osteoclastogenesis and the osteoclast-bone resorbing activity. Moreover, recombinant XCL1 promoted the expression of inflammatory and osteoclastogenic factors, including IL-6, IL-8, and RANKL in human differentiated osteoblasts. Together, these results suggested the potential role of XCL1 in the pathogenesis of periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Our data broaden knowledge of the pathogenesis of aseptic prosthesis loosening and highlight a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention.