Characterization of an androgen-responsive, ornithine decarboxylase-related protein in mouse kidney.
ABSTRACT: We have investigated and characterized a novel ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) related protein (ODCrp) also annotated as gm853. ODCrp shows 41% amino acid sequence identity with ODC and 38% with ODC antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1). The Odcrp gene is selectively expressed in the epithelium of proximal tubuli of mouse kidney with higher expression in males than in females. Like Odc in mouse kidney, Odcrp is also androgen responsive with androgen receptor (AR)-binding loci within its regulatory region. ODCrp forms homodimers but does not heterodimerize with ODC. Although ODCrp contains 20 amino acid residues known to be necessary for the catalytic activity of ODC, no decarboxylase activity could be found with ornithine, lysine or arginine as substrates. ODCrp does not function as an AZIN, as it neither binds ODC antizyme 1 (OAZ1) nor prevents OAZ-mediated inactivation and degradation of ODC. ODCrp itself is degraded via ubiquination and mutation of Cys363 (corresponding to Cys360 of ODC) appears to destabilize the protein. Evidence for a function of ODCrp was found in ODC assays on lysates from transfected Cos-7 cells where ODCrp repressed the activity of endogenous ODC while Cys363Ala mutated ODCrp increased the enzymatic activity of endogenous ODC.
Project description:Polyamines are multivalent organic cations essential for many cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. However, elevated polyamine levels are associated with a slew of pathological conditions, including multiple cancers. Intracellular polyamine levels are primarily controlled by the autoregulatory circuit comprising two different protein types, Antizymes (OAZ) and Antizyme Inhibitors (AZIN), which regulate the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). While OAZ functions to decrease the intracellular polyamine levels by inhibiting ODC activity and exerting a negative control of polyamine uptake, AZIN operates to increase intracellular polyamine levels by binding and sequestering OAZ to relieve ODC inhibition and to increase polyamine uptake. Interestingly, OAZ and AZIN exhibit autoregulatory functions on polyamine independent pathways as well. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the dysregulation of AZIN expression in multiple cancers. Additionally, RNA editing of the <i>Azin1</i> transcript results in a "gain-of-function" phenotype, which is shown to drive aggressive tumor types. This review will discuss the recent advances in AZIN's role in cancers via aberrant polyamine upregulation and its polyamine-independent protein regulation. This report will also highlight AZIN interaction with proteins outside the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and its potential implication to cancer pathogenesis. Finally, this review will reveal the protein interaction network of AZIN isoforms by analyzing three different interactome databases.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (Oaz3) is expressed in spermatids, makes up the antizyme family of Oaz genes with Oaz1 and Oaz2, and was proposed to encode a 22 kDa antizyme protein involved in polyamine regulation similar to the 22 kDa OAZ1 and OAZ2 proteins. Here we demonstrate however that the major product encoded by Oaz3 is a 12 kDa protein, p12, which lacks the antizyme domain that interacts with ornithine decarboxylase. We show that p12 does not affect ornithine decarboxylase levels, providing an explanation for the surprising observation made in Oaz3 knock-out male mice, which do not display altered testis polyamine metabolism. This suggested a novel activity for Oaz3 p12. Using immuno-electron microscopy we localized p12 to two structures in the mammalian sperm tail, viz. the outer dense fibers and fibrous sheath, as well as to the connecting piece linking head and tail. We identified myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 3 (MYPT3), a regulator of protein phosphatase PP1?, as a major p12-interacting protein, and show that MYPT3 is present in sperm tails and that its ankyrin repeat binds p12. We show that MYPT3 can also bind protein phosphatase PP1?2, the only protein phosphatase present in sperm tails, and that p12- MYPT3 interaction modulates the activity of both PP1? and PP1?2. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a novel activity for an Oaz-encoded protein.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, organic cations that are implicated in many cellular processes. The enzyme is regulated at the post-translational level by an unusual system that includes antizymes (AZs) and antizyme inhibitors (AZINs). Most studies on this complex regulatory mechanism have been focused on human and rodent cells, showing that AZINs (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are homologues of ODC but devoid of enzymatic activity. Little is known about Xenopus ODC and its paralogues, in spite of the relevance of Xenopus as a model organism for biomedical research. We have used the information existing in different genomic databases to compare the functional properties of the amphibian ODC1, AZIN1 and AZIN2/ODC2, by means of transient transfection experiments of HEK293T cells. Whereas the properties of xlODC1 and xlAZIN1 were similar to those reported for their mammalian orthologues, the former catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-ornithine preferentially to that of L-lysine, xlAZIN2/xlODC2 showed important differences with respect to human and mouse AZIN2. xlAZIN2 did not behave as an antizyme inhibitor, but it rather acts as an authentic decarboxylase forming cadaverine, due to its higher affinity to L-lysine than to L-ornithine as substrate; so, in accordance with this, it should be named as lysine decarboxylase (LDC) or lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LODC). In addition, AZ1 stimulated the degradation of xlAZIN2 by the proteasome, but the removal of the 21 amino acid C-terminal tail, with a sequence quite different to that of mouse or human ODC, made the protein resistant to degradation. Collectively, our results indicate that in Xenopus there is only one antizyme inhibitor (xlAZIN1) and two decarboxylases, xlODC1 and xlLDC, with clear preferences for L-ornithine and L-lysine, respectively.
Project description:Polyamines are organic polycations essential for cell growth and differentiation; their aberrant accumulation is often associated with diseases, including many types of cancer. To maintain polyamine homeostasis, the catalytic activity and protein abundance of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the committed enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis, are reciprocally controlled by the regulatory proteins antizyme isoform 1 (Az1) and antizyme inhibitor (AzIN). Az1 suppresses polyamine production by inhibiting the assembly of the functional ODC homodimer and, most uniquely, by targeting ODC for ubiquitin-independent proteolytic destruction by the 26S proteasome. In contrast, AzIN positively regulates polyamine levels by competing with ODC for Az1 binding. The structural basis of the Az1-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis has remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of human Az1 complexed with either ODC or AzIN. Structural analysis revealed that Az1 sterically blocks ODC homodimerization. Moreover, Az1 binding triggers ODC degradation by inducing the exposure of a cryptic proteasome-interacting surface of ODC, which illustrates how a substrate protein may be primed upon association with Az1 for ubiquitin-independent proteasome recognition. Dynamic and functional analyses further indicated that the Az1-induced binding and degradation of ODC by proteasome can be decoupled, with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail fragment of ODC being required only for degradation but not binding. Finally, the AzIN-Az1 structure suggests how AzIN may effectively compete with ODC for Az1 to restore polyamine production. Taken together, our findings offer structural insights into the Az-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis and proteasomal degradation.
Project description:Polyamines are known to play important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells. Although considerable amounts of polyamines are synthesized and stored in the testes, their roles remain unknown. Ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (OAZs) control the intracellular concentration of polyamines in a feedback manner. OAZ1 and OAZ2 are expressed ubiquitously, whereas OAZ-t/OAZ3 is expressed specifically in germline cells during spermiogenesis. OAZ-t reportedly binds to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and inactivates ODC activity. In a prior study, polyamines were capable of inducing a frameshift at the frameshift sequence of OAZ-t mRNA, resulting in the translation of OAZ-t. To investigate the physiological role of OAZ-t, we generated OAZ-t-disrupted mutant mice. Homozygous OAZ-t mutant males were infertile, although the polyamine concentrations of epididymides and testes were normal in these mice, and females were fertile. Sperm were successfully recovered from the epididymides of the mutant mice, but the heads and tails of the sperm cells were easily separated in culture medium during incubation. Results indicated that OAZ-t is essential for the formation of a rigid junction between the head and tail during spermatogenesis. The detached tails and heads were alive, and most of the headless tails showed straight forward movement. Although the tailless sperm failed to acrosome-react, the heads were capable of fertilizing eggs via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. OAZ-t likely plays a key role in haploid germ cell differentiation via the local concentration of polyamines.
Project description:The gutfeeling (guf) gene was uncovered in a genetic screen for genes that are required for proper development of the embryonic peripheral nervous system. Mutations in guf cause defects in growth cone guidance and fasciculation and loss of expression of several neuronal markers in the embryonic peripheral and central nervous systems. guf is required for terminal differentiation of neuronal cells. Mutations in guf also affect the development of muscles in the embryo. In the absence or guf activity, myoblasts are formed properly, but myoblast fusion and further differentiation of muscle fibers is severely impaired. The guf gene was cloned and found to encode a 21-kD protein with a significant sequence similarity to the mammalian ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ). In mammals, OAZ plays a key regulatory role in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway through its binding to, and inhibition of, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme in the pathway. The elaborate regulation of ODC activity in mammals still lacks a defined developmental role and little is known about the involvement of polyamines in cellular differentiation. GUF is the first antizyme-like protein identified in invertebrates. We discuss its possible developmental roles in light of this homology.
Project description:Polyamines are essential organic cations with multiple cellular functions. Their synthesis is controlled by a feedback regulation whose main target is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. In mammals, ODC has been shown to be inhibited and targeted for ubiquitin-independent degradation by ODC antizyme (AZ). The synthesis of mammalian AZ was reported to involve a polyamine-induced ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. High levels of polyamine therefore inhibit new synthesis of polyamines by inducing ODC degradation. We identified a previously unrecognized sequence in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding an orthologue of mammalian AZ. We show that synthesis of yeast AZ (Oaz1) involves polyamine-regulated frameshifting as well. Degradation of yeast ODC by the proteasome depends on Oaz1. Using this novel model system for polyamine regulation, we discovered another level of its control. Oaz1 itself is subject to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the proteasome. Degradation of Oaz1, however, is inhibited by polyamines. We propose a model, in which polyamines inhibit their ODC-mediated biosynthesis by two mechanisms, the control of Oaz1 synthesis and inhibition of its degradation.
Project description:A better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor-initiating events. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine-to-inosine (A?I) RNA editing of AZIN1 (encoding antizyme inhibitor 1) is increased in HCC specimens. A?I editing of AZIN1 transcripts, specifically regulated by ADAR1 (encoding adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1), results in a serine-to-glycine substitution at residue 367 of AZIN1, located in ?-strand 15 (?15) and predicted to cause a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and conferred gain-of-function phenotypes that were manifested by augmented tumor-initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form has a stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher AZIN1 protein stability promotes cell proliferation through the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A?I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
Project description:We have previously reported that cyclical phases of accumulation and depletion of polyamines occur during cell-cycle progression. Regulatory ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the first step of polyamine biosynthesis. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), induced by high polyamine levels, inhibits ODC activity and prevents extracellular polyamine uptake. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates the polyamine degradation/excretion pathway. Here we show that 24 h transient transfection of immortalized human prostatic epithelial cells (PNT1A and PNT2) with antisense ODC RNA or OAZ cDNA, or both, while effectively causing marked decreases of ODC activity and polyamine (especially putrescine) concentrations, resulted in accumulation of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Transfection with SSAT cDNA led to more pronounced decreases in spermidine and spermine levels and resulted in accumulation of cells in the G2/M phases. Transfection with all three constructs together produced maximal depletion of all polyamines, accompanied by accumulation of PNT1A cells in the S phase and PNT2 cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Accumulation of PNT1A cells in the S phase progressively increased at 15, 18 and 24 h of transfection with antisense ODC and/or OAZ cDNA. At 24 h, the DNA content was always reduced, as a possible outcome of altered chromosome condensation. A direct link between polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation and chromatin structure is thus proposed.