Hemodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Proximal Aorta in Young and Middle-Aged Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension: The Dallas Heart Study.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess characteristic impedance (Zc) of the proximal aorta in young and middle-aged individuals with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Zc is an index of aortic stiffness relative to aortic size. In the Dallas Heart Study, 2001 untreated participants 18 to 64 years of age (mean age: 42.3 years; 44% black race) were divided into the following groups based on office blood pressure (BP) measurements: (1) optimal BP (systolic BP [SBP] <120 mm?Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm?Hg; n=837); (2) prehypertension (SBP 120-139 mm?Hg and DBP 80-89 mm?Hg; n=821); (3) ISH (SBP ?140 mm?Hg and DBP <90 mm?Hg; n=121); (4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm?Hg and DBP ?90 mm?Hg; n=44); and (5) systolic-diastolic hypertension (SBP ?140 mm?Hg and DBP ?90 mm?Hg; n=178). Zc, aortic arch pulse wave velocity, and minimum ascending aortic size were quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, Zc was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (103.2±4.0 versus 68.3±2.1, 75.4±6.0, and 88.9±4.8 dyne*seconds/cm5, respectively; all P<0.05). The Zc-ISH association did not differ by race. Aortic pulse wave velocity was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (6.3±0.3 versus 4.3±0.1, 4.4±0.4 and 5.5±0.3 m/s, respectively; all P<0.05), whereas aortic size was similar across groups (all P>0.2). Results were similar in a subgroup of 1551 participants 18 to 49 years of age. In a multiracial population-based sample, we found evidence of a mismatch between proximal aortic stiffness and diameter in young and middle-aged adults with ISH.
Project description:Background The epidemiology of hypertension subtypes has not been well characterized in the recent era. Methods and Results We delineated the prevalence, predictors, progression, and prognostic significance of hypertension subtypes in 8198 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 46.5 years; 54% women). The prevalence of hypertension subtypes was as follows: nonhypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <90 mm Hg), 79%; isolated systolic hypertension (ISH; SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg), 8%; isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg), 4%; and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH; SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg), 9%. The prevalence of ISH and SDH increased with age. Analysis of a subsample of nonhypertensive participants demonstrated that increasing age, female sex, higher heart rate, left ventricular mass, and greater left ventricular concentricity were predictors of incident ISH and SDH. Higher baseline DBP was associated with the risk of developing isolated diastolic hypertension and SDH, whereas higher SBP was associated with all 3 hypertension subtypes. On follow-up (median, 5.5 years), isolated diastolic hypertension often reverted to nonhypertensive BP (in 42% of participants) and ISH progressed to SDH (in 26% of participants), whereas SDH frequently transitioned to ISH (in 20% of participants). During follow-up (median, 14.6 years), 889 participants developed cardiovascular disease. Compared with the nonhypertensive group (referent), ISH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.30-1.90) and SDH (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.36-2.01) were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, whereas isolated diastolic hypertension was not (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.68-1.57). Conclusions Hypertension subtypes vary in prevalence with age, are dynamic during short-term follow-up, and exhibit distinctive prognoses, underscoring the importance of blood pressure subphenotyping.
Project description:We aimed to investigate the association between isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and central blood pressure (BP) in a nationally representative population, with a focus on the young and middle-aged adults (<50 years old). A total of 2029 adults without taking antihypertensive medications, aged ≥ 19 years old, participated in the 2013-2016 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Central and brachial BP were simultaneously measured using a cuff-based stand-alone central blood pressure monitor purporting to measure invasive central BP (type II device). Central hypertension was defined by central systolic (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) ≥130 or 90 mm Hg, and ISH was defined by brachial SBP ≥ 140 and DBP < 90 mm Hg. Overall, the prevalence rates of ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, brachial SBP < 140 and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg), and systolic/diastolic hypertension (SDH, brachial SBP ≥ 140 and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg) were 6.51%, 1.92%, and 4.34%, respectively. ISH subjects had significantly higher central pulse pressure (PP) (62.8 ± 9.7 mm Hg for age < 50 years and 72.4 ± 13.5 mmHg for age ≥ 50 years) than those subjects with either IDH (44.7 ± 10.7 and 44.9 ± 10.6 mmHg) or SDH (55.2 ± 14.0 and 62.6 ± 17.1 mmHg). All ISH adults had central hypertension, and a higher prevalence of central obesity than the normotensives (80.95% vs. 26.15%, for age < 50 years; and 63.96% vs. 43.37% for age ≥ 50 years). All untreated subjects with ISH, whether younger or older, had central hypertension and had significantly higher central PP than those with IDH or SDH. Central obesity was one of the major characteristics of ISH, especially in the young- and middle-aged adults.
Project description:The impact of age-related differences in blood pressure (BP) components on new-onset hypertension is not known. A follow-up examination of 93 303 normotensive individuals (mean age 41.1 years) who underwent a health checkup in 2005 was conducted every year for 8 years. The primary end point was new-onset hypertension (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or the initiation of antihypertensive medications with self-reported hypertension). During the mean 4.9 years of follow-up, 14 590 subjects developed hypertension. The impact of DBP on the risk of developing hypertension compared with optimal BP (SBP <120 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg) was significantly greater than that of SBP in subjects younger than 50 years (hazard ratios, 17.5 for isolated diastolic high-normal vs 10.5 for isolated systolic high-normal [P<.001]; 8.0 for isolated diastolic normal vs 4.1 for isolated systolic normal [P<.001]). Among the subjects 50 years and older, the corresponding effects of DBP and SBP were similar. Regarding the risk of new-onset hypertension, high DBP is more important than SBP in younger adults (<50 years) with normal or high-normal BP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ?135/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?130/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?120/70 mm?Hg) have been derived from European, Asian, and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African American adults. METHODS:We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African American adults (n=5306). Analyses were restricted to 1016 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Mean SBP and DBP levels were calculated for daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm), 24-hour (all available readings), and nighttime (midnight-6:00 am) periods, separately. Daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension were identified using regression- and outcome-derived approaches. The composite of a cardiovascular disease or an all-cause mortality event was used in the outcome-derived approach. For this latter approach, BP thresholds were identified only for SBP because clinic DBP was not associated with the outcome. Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive medication use. RESULTS:Among participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 134/85 mm?Hg, 130/81 mm?Hg, and 123/73 mm?Hg, respectively. The outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP corresponding to a clinic SBP ?140 mm?Hg were 138 mm?Hg, 134 mm?Hg, and 129 mm?Hg, respectively. Among participants taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 135/85 mm?Hg, 133/82 mm?Hg, and 128/76 mm?Hg, respectively. The corresponding outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP were 140 mm?Hg, 137 mm?Hg, and 133 mm?Hg, respectively, among those taking antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of the outcome-derived approach for SBP and regression-derived approach for DBP, the following definitions for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime hypertension corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP ?140/90 mm?Hg are proposed for African American adults: daytime SBP/DBP ?140/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?135/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?130/75 mm?Hg, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The relationship between pediatric severe obesity (SO) and central aortic blood pressure (BP) has yet to be established.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional study of 348 youth (48.5% male, age 12.7 ± 0.1 years) with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) values: normal weight (NW; ≥5th and <85th BMI percentiles), overweight/obesity (OW/OB; 85th to <120% of the 95th BMI percentile), and SO (≥120% of the 95th BMI percentile). Measures of central aortic BP were obtained via applanation tonometry with SphygmoCor MM3 software.<h4>Results</h4>After adjustment for covariates, no significant sex differences were observed for radial-aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0.39), carotid-aortic SBP (P = 0.99), radial-aortic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.44), and carotid-aortic DBP (P = 0.53). Compared to youth with NW, youth with SO exhibited higher radial-aortic SBP (SO vs. NW: 102 ± 1 mm Hg vs. 90 ± 1 mm Hg, P<0.001), carotid-aortic SBP (SO vs. NW: 121 ± 1 mm Hg vs. 109 ± 1 mm Hg, P<0.001), and carotid-aortic DBP (SO vs. NW: 60 ± 1 mm Hg vs. 56 ± 1 mm Hg, P = 0.04). Compared to youth with OW/OB, youth with SO had higher radial-aortic SBP (OW/OB: 97 ± 1 mm Hg, P = 0.002) and carotid-aortic SBP (OW/OB: 114 ± 1 mm Hg, P = 0.007). After adjusting for either total-body percent fat mass or visceral adipose tissue, BMI was still a significant predictor of both radial-aortic and carotid-aortic SBP and DBP (P<0.001, all).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a cohort of youth with a wide range of adiposity levels, central aortic BP was elevated among individuals with SO and associated with BMI but not body fatness.
Project description:Background Studies of the association of hypertension with incident colorectal cancer (CRC) may have been confounded by including individuals taking antihypertensive medication, at high risk for CRC (ie, colorectal polyps and inflammatory bowel disease), or with shared risk factors (eg, obesity and diabetes). We assessed whether adults with untreated hypertension are at higher risk for incident CRC compared with those with normal blood pressure (BP), and whether any association is evident among individuals without obesity or metabolic abnormalities. Methods and Results Analyses were conducted using a nationwide health claims database collected in the JMDC Claims Database between 2005 and 2018 (n=2 220 112; mean age, 44.1±11.0 years; 58.4% men). Participants who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a history of CRC, colorectal polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. Each participant was categorized as having normal BP (systolic BP [SBP]<120 mm Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm Hg, n=1 164 807), elevated BP (SBP 120-129 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg, n=341 273), stage 1 hypertension (SBP 130-139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg, n=466 298), or stage 2 hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, n=247 734). Over a mean follow-up of 1112±854 days, 6899 incident CRC diagnoses occurred. After multivariable adjustment, compared with normal BP, hazard ratios for incident CRC were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-1.01) for elevated BP, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99-1.15) for stage 1 hypertension, and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.08-1.28) for stage 2 hypertension. The hazard ratios for incident CRC for each 10-mm Hg-higher SBP or DBP were 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09), respectively. These associations were present among adults who did not have obesity, high waist circumference, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Conclusions Higher SBP and DBP, and stage 2 hypertension are associated with a higher risk for incident CRC, even among those without shared risk factors for CRC. BP measurement could identify individuals at increased risk for subsequent CRC.
Project description:Background Blood pressure (BP) guidelines for patients with aortic stenosis or a history of aortic stenosis treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR) match those in the general population, but this extrapolation may not be warranted. Methods and Results Among patients enrolled in the Medtronic intermediate, high, and extreme risk trials, we included those with a transcatheter AVR (n=1794) or surgical AVR (n=1103) who were alive at 30 days. The associations between early (average of discharge and 30 day post-AVR) systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) measurements and clinical outcomes between 30 days and 1 year were evaluated. Among 2897 patients, after adjustment, spline curves demonstrated an association between lower SBP (<120 mm Hg, representing 21% of patients) and DBP (<60 mm Hg, representing 30% of patients) and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and repeat hospitalization. These relationships were unchanged when patients with moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation post-AVR were excluded. After adjustment, compared with DBP 60 to <80 mm Hg, DBP 30 to <60 mm Hg was associated with increased all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.14) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.52-3.00), but DBP 80 to <100 mm Hg was not. Similarly, after adjustment, compared with SBP 120 to <150 mm Hg, SBP 90 to <120 mm Hg was associated with increased all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.21) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.25-2.61), but SBP 150 to <180 mm Hg was not. Conclusions Lower BP in the first month after transcatheter AVR or surgical AVR is common and associated with increased mortality and repeat hospitalization. Clarifying optimal BP targets in these patients ought to be a priority and may improve patient outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration Information URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01586910, NCT01240902.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP), notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP). The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR) indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), in the management of hypertension. METHODS:Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP?140/90 mm Hg) or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP?160/100 mm Hg) received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg) was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (?SBP) versus diastolic BP reduction (?DBP) was evaluated (?SBP/?DBP) from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS:Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years) was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6), while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7). BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 85% patients. ?SBP/?DBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n?=?3 [2%]) reported side effects, and most (n?=?194 [99%]) adhered to treatment. CONCLUSION:In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively--especially SBP--over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trial Registry-India CTRI/2010/091/000114.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate trends in blood pressure (BP) and hypertension prevalence in Korea.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998), II (2001), III (2005), IV (2007-2009), V (2010-2012), and VI (2013-2014), 56077 participants (23974 men and 32103 women) were included.<h4>Results</h4>Mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) decreased in both sexes (male SBP: 128.1 to 120.2 mm Hg, male DBP: 82.0 to 78.5 mm Hg; female SBP: 125.7 to 116.0 mm Hg and female DBP: 77.4 to 73.2 mm Hg from the KNHANES I-VI). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was significantly decreased in both sexes (male; 33.3% to 30.3%, female; 28.7% to 22.7%, all p for trend <0.001). Regardless of taking anti-hypertensive medication or not, SBP and DBP declined universally in both sexes. Compared to the KNHANES I, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the KNHANES II to VI for less-than-normotensive and less-than-hypertensive BP increased in both sexes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Mean BP levels in both sexes and hypertension prevalence showed downward trends during the 16-year period.
Project description:Both sodium reduction and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lower blood pressure (BP); however, the patterns of their effects on BP over time are unknown. In the DASH-Sodium trial, adults with pre-/stage 1 hypertension, not using antihypertensive medications, were randomly assigned to either a typical American diet (control) or DASH. Within their assigned diet, participants randomly ate each of 3 sodium levels (50, 100, and 150 mmol/d, at 2100 kcal) over 4-week periods. BP was measured weekly for 12 weeks; 412 participants enrolled (57% women; 57% black; mean age, 48 years; mean systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP], 135/86 mm Hg). For those assigned control, there was no change in SBP/DBP between weeks 1 and 4 on the high-sodium diet (weekly change, -0.04/0.06 mm Hg/week) versus a progressive decline in BP on the low-sodium diet (-0.94/-0.70 mm Hg/week; P interactions between time and sodium <0.001 for SBP and DBP). For those assigned DASH, SBP/DBP changed -0.60/-0.16 mm Hg/week on the high- versus -0.42/-0.54 mm Hg/week on the low-sodium diet (P interactions between time and sodium=0.56 for SBP and 0.10 for DBP). When comparing DASH to control, DASH changed SBP/DBP by -4.36/-1.07 mm Hg after 1 week, which accounted for most of the effect observed, with no significant difference in weekly rates of change for either SBP (P interaction=0.97) or DBP (P interaction=0.70). In the context of a typical American diet, a low-sodium diet reduced BP without plateau, suggesting that the full effects of sodium reduction are not completely achieved by 4 weeks. In contrast, compared with control, DASH lowers BP within a week without further effect thereafter. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000608.