Manganese transporter Slc39a14 deficiency revealed its key role in maintaining manganese homeostasis in mice.
ABSTRACT: SLC39A14 (also known as ZIP14), a member of the SLC39A transmembrane metal transporter family, has been reported to mediate the cellular uptake of iron and zinc. Recently, however, mutations in the SLC39A14 gene have been linked to manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain and childhood-onset parkinsonism dystonia. It has therefore been suggested that SLC39A14 deficiency impairs hepatic Mn uptake and biliary excretion, resulting in the accumulation of Mn in the circulation and brain. To test this hypothesis, we generated and characterized global Slc39a14-knockout (Slc39a14-/- ) mice and hepatocyte-specific Slc39a14-knockout (Slc39a14fl/fl;Alb-Cre+ ) mice. Slc39a14-/- mice develop markedly increased Mn concentrations in the brain and several extrahepatic tissues, as well as motor deficits that can be rescued by treatment with the metal chelator Na2CaEDTA. In contrast, Slc39a14fl/fl;Alb-Cre+ mice do not accumulate Mn in the brain or other extrahepatic tissues and do not develop motor deficits, indicating that the loss of Slc39a14 expression selectively in hepatocytes is not sufficient to cause Mn accumulation. Interestingly, Slc39a14fl/fl;Alb-Cre+ mice fed a high Mn diet have increased Mn levels in the serum, brain and pancreas, but not in the liver. Taken together, our results indicate that Slc39a14-/- mice develop brain Mn accumulation and motor deficits that cannot be explained by a loss of Slc39a14 expression in hepatocytes. These findings provide insight into the physiological role that SLC39A14 has in maintaining Mn homeostasis. Our tissue-specific Slc39a14-knockout mouse model can serve as a valuable tool for further dissecting the organ-specific role of SLC39A14 in regulating the body's susceptibility to Mn toxicity.
Project description:Solute carrier family 39, member 14 (SLC39A14) is a transmembrane transporter that can mediate the cellular uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese (Mn). Studies of Slc39a14 knockout (Slc39a14-/-) mice have documented that SLC39A14 is required for systemic growth, hepatic zinc uptake during inflammation, and iron loading of the liver in iron overload. The normal physiological roles of SLC39A14, however, remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that Slc39a14-/- mice spontaneously display dramatic alterations in tissue Mn concentrations, suggesting that Mn is a main physiological substrate for SLC39A14. Specifically, Slc39a14-/- mice have abnormally low Mn levels in the liver coupled with markedly elevated Mn concentrations in blood and most other organs, especially the brain and bone. Radiotracer studies using 54Mn reveal that Slc39a14-/- mice have impaired Mn uptake by the liver and pancreas and reduced gastrointestinal Mn excretion. In the brain of Slc39a14-/- mice, Mn accumulated in the pons and basal ganglia, including the globus pallidus, a region susceptible to Mn-related neurotoxicity. Brain Mn accumulation in Slc39a14-/- mice was associated with locomotor impairments, as assessed by various behavioral tests. Although a low-Mn diet started at weaning was able to reverse brain Mn accumulation in Slc39a14-/- mice, it did not correct their motor deficits. We conclude that SLC39A14 is essential for efficient Mn uptake by the liver and pancreas, and its deficiency results in impaired Mn excretion and accumulation of the metal in other tissues. The inability of Mn depletion to correct the motor deficits in Slc39a14-/- mice suggests that the motor impairments represent lasting effects of early-life Mn exposure.
Project description:The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice.We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured.Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450.In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism.
Project description:Background and Purpose- Cellular Fn-EDA (fibronectin containing extra domain A) is expressed in activated endothelial cells and elevated in circulation in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Although global deficiency of Fn-EDA in mice improves stroke outcome, the specific contribution of plasma versus endothelium Fn-EDA in stroke outcome is currently unknown. We investigated the role of plasma versus endothelial Fn-EDA in stroke exacerbation in the comorbid condition of hyperlipidemia. Methods- We generated novel plasma Fn-EDA-/- ( Fn-EDA fl/fl Alb Cre) and endothelial Fn-EDA-/- ( Fn-EDA fl/fl Tie2 Cre) strains on hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient ( ApoE-/-) background. By following the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable guidelines, we evaluated stroke outcome in male and female mice. Susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury was evaluated in 2 different models of stroke: intraluminal monofilament and embolic model on days 1, 3, and 7. Quantitative assessment of stroke outcome was evaluated by measuring infarct volume (by magnetic resonance imaging), cerebral blood flow (by laser speckle imaging), neurological and sensory-motor outcome, and postischemic thrombo-inflammation (platelet thrombi, fibrin, neutrophil, phospho-NF?B [nuclear factor ?B], TNF? [tumor necrosis factor ?], and IL1? [interleukin 1?]). Results- Stroke outcome was comparable in ApoE-/- Fn-EDA fl/fl Tie2 Cre and control ApoE-/- Fn-EDA fl/fl mice suggesting endothelial Fn-EDA does not contribute to stroke. ApoE-/- Fn-EDA fl/fl Alb Cre mice exhibited significantly smaller infarcts and improved neurological and sensory-motor outcome at days 1, 3, and 7 in monofilament and embolic models of stroke. Improved stroke outcome was concomitant with enhanced survival, and decreased postischemic thrombo-inflammatory response ( P<0.05 versus ApoE-/- Fn-EDA fl/fl). No sex-based differences were observed. Laser speckle imaging revealed significantly improved regional cerebral blood flow at 1 hour in ApoE-/- Fn-EDA fl/fl Alb Cre mice suggesting plasma Fn-EDA promotes postischemic secondary thrombosis. Coinfusion of anti-Fn-EDA antibody with r-tPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator) in ApoE-/- mice, 1 hour after embolization, improved stroke outcome with enhanced survival, and improved neurological outcome ( P<0.05 versus r-tPA). Conclusions- Genetic evidence suggests that plasma Fn-EDA exacerbates stroke outcome by promoting postischemic thrombo-inflammation. Interventions targeting plasma Fn-EDA may reduce brain damage after reperfusion.
Project description:Inflammatory stimuli induce the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which contributes to anaemia of inflammation (AI). Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. Prior results indicate that the BMP type I receptor ALK3 is mainly involved in the acute inflammatory hepcidin induction four and 72 h after IL-6 administration. In this study, the role of ALK3 in a chronic model of inflammation was investigated. The intact, heat-killed bacterium Brucella abortus (BA) was used to analyse its effect on the development of inflammation and hypoferremia in mice with hepatocyte-specific Alk3-deficiency (Alk3fl/fl; Alb-Cre) compared to control (Alk3fl/fl) mice.An iron restricted diet prevented development of the iron overload phenotype in mice with hepatocyte-specific Alk3 deficiency. Regular diet leads to iron overload and increased haemoglobin levels in these mice, which protects from the development of AI per se. Fourteen days after BA injection Alk3fl/fl; Alb-Cre mice presented milder anaemia (Hb 16.7 g/dl to 11.6 g/dl) compared to Alk3fl/fl control mice (Hb 14.9 g/dl to 8.6 g/dl). BA injection led to an intact inflammatory response in all groups of mice. In Alk3fl/fl; Alb-Cre mice, SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation was reduced after BA as well as after infection with Staphylococcus aureus. The reduction of the SMAD1/5/8 signalling pathway due to hepatocyte-specific Alk3 deficiency partly suppressed the induction of STAT3 signalling.The results reveal in vivo, that 1) hepatocyte-specific Alk3 deficiency partly protects from AI, 2) the development of hypoferremia is partly dependent on ALK3, and 3) the ALK3/BMP/hepcidin axis may serve as a possible therapeutic target to attenuate AI.
Project description:The mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 and 2 are essential intracellular mediators of numerous transmembrane signals. To investigate neural-specific functions of ERK2 in the brain, we used a Cre/lox strategy using Nestin:Cre to drive recombination in neural precursor cells. Nestin:Cre;ERK2(fl/fl) conditional knockout (cKO) mice have architecturally normal brains and no gross behavioral deficits. However, all cKO mice developed early-onset (postnatal day 35 to 40) frontal cortical astrogliosis, without evidence of neuronal degeneration. Frontoparietal cortical gray matter, but not underlying white matter, was found to contain abundant pericapillary and parenchymal reticulin fibrils, which were shown by immunohistochemistry to contain fibrillar collagens, including type I collagen. ERK1 general KO mice showed neither fibrils nor astrogliosis, indicating a specific role for ERK2 in the regulation of brain collagen. Collagen fibrils were also observed to a lesser extent in GFAP:Cre;ERK2(fl/fl) mice but not in CamKII-Cre;ERK2(fl/fl) mice (pyramidal neuron specific), consistent with a possible astroglial origin. Primary astroglial cultures from cKO mice expressed elevated fibrillar collagen levels, providing further evidence that the phenotype may be cell autonomous for astroglia. Unlike most other tissues, brain and spinal cord parenchyma do not normally contain fibrillar collagens, except in disease states. Determining mechanisms of ERK2-mediated collagen regulation may enable targeted suppression of glial scar formation in diverse neurological disorders.
Project description:Previous work has established that HGF/c-Met signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating the onset of S phase following partial hepatectomy (PH). In this study, we used Met(fl/fl);Alb-Cre(+/-) conditional knockout mice to determine the effects of c-Met dysfunction in hepatocytes on kinetics of liver regeneration.The priming events appeared to be intact in Met(fl/fl);Alb-Cre(+/-) livers. Up-regulation of stress response (MAFK, IKBZ, SOCS3) and early growth response (c-Myc, c-Jun, c-Fos, DUSP1 and 6) genes as assessed by RT-qPCR and/or microarray profiling was unchanged. This was consistent with an early induction of MAPK/Erk and STAT3. However, after a successful completion of the first round of DNA replication, c-Met deficient hepatocytes were blocked in early/mid G2 phase as shown by staining with phosphorylated form of histone H3. Furthermore, loss of c-Met in hepatocytes diminished the subsequent G1/S progression and delayed liver recovery after partial hepatectomy. Upstream signaling pathways involved in the blockage of G2/M transition included lack of persistent Erk1/2 activation and inability to up-regulate the levels of Cdk1, Plk1, Aurora A and B, and Mad2 along with a defective histone 3 phosphorylation and lack of chromatin condensation. Continuous supplementation with EGF in vitro increased proliferation of Met(fl/fl);Alb-Cre(+/-) primary hepatocytes and partially restored expression levels of mitotic cell cycle regulators albeit to a lesser degree as compared to control cultures.In conclusion, our results assign a novel non-redundant function for HGF/c-Met signaling in regulation of G2/M gene expression program via maintaining a persistent Erk1/2 activation throughout liver regeneration.
Project description:To investigate the role of enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 1 and EZH2 in liver homeostasis, mice were generated that carried Ezh1(-/-) and EZH2(fl/fl) alleles and an Alb-Cre transgene. Only the combined loss of EZH1 and EZH2 in mouse hepatocytes caused a depletion of global trimethylation on Lys 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) marks and the specific loss of over ?1900 genes at 3 mo of age. Ezh1(-/-),Ezh2(fl/fl)Alb-Cre mice exhibited progressive liver abnormalities manifested by the development of regenerative nodules and concomitant periportal fibrosis, inflammatory infiltration, and activation of A6-positive hepatic progenitor cells at 8 mo of age. In response to chronic treatment with carbon tetrachloride, all experimental mice, but none of the controls (n = 27 each), showed increased hepatic degeneration associated with liver dysfunction and reduced ability to proliferate. After two-thirds partial hepatectomy, mutant mice (n = 5) displayed increased liver injury and a blunted regenerative response. Genome-wide analyses at 3 mo of age identified 51 genes that had lost H3K27me3 marks, and their expression was significantly increased. These genes were involved in regulation of cell survival, fibrosis, and proliferation. H3K27me3 levels and liver physiology were unaffected in mice lacking either EZH1 globally or EZH2 specifically in hepatocytes. This work demonstrates a critical redundancy of EZH1 and EZH2 in maintaining hepatic homeostasis and regeneration.
Project description:Background:The immune system of human and mouse neonates is relatively immature. However, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), commonly divided into the subsets ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, are already present in the placenta and other fetal compartments and exhibit higher activity than what is seen in adulthood. Recent reports have suggested the potential role of ILCs, especially ILC2s, in spontaneous preterm labor, which is associated with brain damage and subsequent long-term neurodevelopmental deficits. Therefore, we hypothesized that ILCs, and especially ILC2s, play a role in preterm brain injury. Methods:C57Bl/6J mice at postnatal day 6 were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) insult induced by left carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 10% oxygen in nitrogen. The presence of ILCs and ILC2s in the brain was examined at different time points after HI. The contribution of ILC2s to HI-induced preterm brain damage was explored using a conditionally targeted ILC2-deficient mouse strain (Ror? fl/fl IL7r Cre ), and gray and white-matter injury were evaluated at 7 days post-HI. The inflammatory response in the injured brain was assessed using immunoassays and immunochemistry staining. Results:Significant increases in ILCs and ILC2s were observed at 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days post-HI in the injured brain hemisphere compared with the uninjured hemisphere in wild-type mice. ILC2s in the brain were predominantly located in the meninges of the injured ipsilateral hemispheres after HI but not in the brain parenchyma. Overall, we did not observe changes in cytokine/chemokine levels in the brains of Ror? fl/fl IL7r Cre mice compared with wild type animals apart from IL-13. Gray and white-matter tissue loss in the brain was not affected after HI in Ror? fl/fl IL7r Cre mice. Correspondingly, we did not find any differences in reactive microglia and astrocyte numbers in the brain in Ror? fl/fl IL7r Cre mice compared with wild-type mice following HI insult. Conclusion:After HI, ILCs and ILC2s accumulate in the injured brain hemisphere. However, ILC2s do not contribute to the development of brain damage in this mouse model of preterm brain injury.
Project description:The GNPAT variant rs11558492 (p.D519G) was identified as a novel genetic factor that modifies the iron-overload phenotype in homozygous carriers of the HFE p.C282Y variant. However, the reported effects of the GNPAT p.D519G variant vary among study populations. Here, we investigated the role of GNPAT in iron metabolism using Gnpat-knockout (Gnpat-/- ), Gnpat/Hfe double-knockout (Gnpat-/- Hfe-/- or DKO) mice and hepatocyte-specific Gnpat-knockout mice (Gnpatfl/fl ;Alb-Cre). Our analysis revealed no significant difference between wild-type (Gnpat+/+ ) and Gnpat-/- mice, between Hfe-/- and DKO mice, or between Gnpatfl/fl and Gnpatfl/fl ;Alb-Cre with respect to serum iron and tissue iron. In addition, the expression of hepcidin was not affected by deleting Gnpat expression in the presence or absence of Hfe. Feeding Gnpat-/- and DKO mice a high-iron diet had no effect on tissue iron levels compared with wild-type and Hfe-/- mice, respectively. Gnpat knockdown in primary hepatocytes from wild-type or Hfe-/- mice did not alter hepcidin expression, but it repressed BMP6-induced hepcidin expression. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that deleting Gnpat expression has no effect on either systemic iron metabolism or the iron-overload phenotype that develops in Hfe-/- mice, suggesting that GNPAT does not directly mediate iron homeostasis under normal or high-iron dietary conditions.
Project description:Platelets are crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis and exacerbate tissue injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Important regulators of platelet function are G proteins controlled by seven transmembrane receptors. The Gi protein G?(i2) mediates platelet activation in vitro, but its in vivo role in hemostasis, arterial thrombosis, and postischemic infarct progression remains to be determined. Here we show that mice lacking G?(i2) exhibit prolonged tail-bleeding times and markedly impaired thrombus formation and stability in different models of arterial thrombosis. We thus generated mice selectively lacking G?(i2) in megakaryocytes and platelets (Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice) and found bleeding defects comparable to those in global G?(i2)-deficient mice. To examine the impact of platelet G?(i2) in postischemic thrombo-inflammatory infarct progression, Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice were subjected to experimental models of cerebral and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice developed significantly smaller brain infarcts and fewer neurological deficits than littermate controls. Following myocardial ischemia, Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice showed dramatically reduced reperfusion injury which correlated with diminished formation of the ADP-dependent platelet neutrophil complex. In conclusion, our data provide definitive evidence that platelet G?(i2) not only controls hemostatic and thrombotic responses but also is critical for the development of ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.