Prevalence and factors associated with recent intimate partner violence and relationships between disability and depression in post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa.
ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by pregnant and post-partum women has negative health effects for women, as well as the foetus, and the new-born child. In this study we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recent IPV amongst post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and explore the relationship between IPV, depression and functional limitations/disabilities. Past 12 month IPV-victimisation was 10.55%. Logistic regression modelled relationships between IPV, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, socio-economic measures, and sexual relationship power. In logistic regression models, overall severity of functional limitations were not associated with IPV-victimisation when treated as a continuous overall score. In this model relationship power (aOR0.22, p = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (aOR1.26, p = 0.001) were significant. When the different functional limitations were separated out in a second model, significant factors were relationship power (aOR0.20, p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (aOR1.20, p = 0.011) and mobility limitations (aOR2.96, p = 0.024). The study emphasises that not all functional limitations are associated with IPV-experience, that depression and disability while overlapping can also be considered different drivers of vulnerability, and that women's experience of IPV is not dependent on pregnancy specific factors, but rather wider social factors that all women experience.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence (IPV) experience heightened risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to abused and non-abused women in the general population. However, few theory-guided studies have examined what cognitive-emotional symptoms might underlie this increased risk. METHODS:Guided by fluid vulnerability theory, this cross-sectional, survey study tested whether depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and hopelessness mediate the association between IPV (coercive control and physical violence) and suicide ideation and whether suicide attempt history facilitated these mediated relations in 134 women seeking shelter from IPV. RESULTS:Depressive symptoms, but not PTSD symptoms or hopelessness, mediated the relation between coercive control and suicide ideation, and suicide attempt history facilitated this association. No variables mediated the association between physical violence and suicide ideation. LIMITATIONS:The small sample size may have limited statistical power. The cross-sectional design precludes temporal conclusions from being drawn. CONCLUSIONS:Shelter-seeking women subjected to coercive control who experience associated depressive symptoms may be at risk of suicide ideation, with history of a suicide attempt increasing this risk. Fluid vulnerability theory may help guide suicide risk assessment and intervention efforts among women seeking shelter from IPV.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) strongly predicts depression, but it is unknown if women experiencing IPV can benefit from depression treatments in contexts where depression and IPV are prevalent. This study explored whether women experiencing IPV in Goa, India, can benefit from the Healthy Activity Program (HAP), a culturally adapted behavioral activation treatment, compared with enhanced usual care (EUC). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed on data from a clinical trial. Measures assessed at baseline and 3 and 12 months included depressive symptoms. Measures assessed at 3 and 12 months included activation and IPV. Independent t tests were conducted to assess if participants experiencing IPV had higher depressive symptoms and lower activation at 3 and 12 months; hierarchical linear regression was conducted to determine if 3-month IPV predicted 12-month depressive symptoms across trial arms (Hypothesis 1). Hierarchical linear regression was then conducted to examine if the relationship between 3-month activation and 12-month depressive symptoms was moderated by 3-month IPV within each trial arm (Hypothesis 2). As expected, participants experiencing IPV had significantly lower activation levels and higher depressive symptoms compared with participants who did not experience IPV at 3 and 12 months in cross-sectional analyses. Similarly, IPV endorsed at 3 months significantly predicted depressive symptoms at 12 months. However, activation was significantly associated with less severe depressive symptoms at 12 months, irrespective of IPV endorsement among HAP participants. For EUC participants, IPV remained the only significant predictor of depressive symptoms at 12 months. Results suggest that women experiencing IPV can still benefit from behavioral activation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the psychometric properties of a novel, brief measure of physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and estimate the overall prevalence of and gender differences in this violence. DESIGN:Data are from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a birth-cohort study. SETTING:Avon, UK. PARTICIPANTS:2128 women and 1145 men who completed the questionnaire assessment at age 21. OUTCOME MEASURES:Participants responded to eight items on physical, psychological and sexual IPV victimisation at age 21. Participants indicated whether the violence occurred before age 18 and/or after and led to any of eight negative impacts (eg, fear). We estimated the prevalence of IPV and tested for gender differences using χ2 or t-tests. We evaluated the IPV victimisation measure based on internal consistency (alpha coefficient), dimensionality (exploratory factor analysis) and convergent validity with negative impacts. RESULTS:Overall, 37% of participants reported experiencing any IPV and 29% experienced any IPV after age 18. Women experienced more frequent IPV, more acts of IPV and more negative impacts than men (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The IPV measure showed high internal consistency (α=0.95), strong evidence for unidimensionality and was highly correlated with negative impacts (r=0.579, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of IPV victimisation in the ALSPAC cohort was considerable for both women and men. The strong and consistent gender differences in the frequency and severity of IPV suggest clinically meaningful differences in experiences of this violence. The ALSPAC measure for IPV victimisation was valid and reliable, indicating its suitability for further aetiological investigations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) is high (54%) in Bangladesh. Moreover, female garment workers report higher rates of IPV and are also vulnerable to workplace violence (WPV). Experience of violence puts women at increased risk of developing depressive symptoms, which are related with low self-esteem, lower life satisfaction and lower productivity. To our knowledge, there has been no previous research on depression among female garment workers and its connections to IPV and WPV in Bangladesh. This paper aims to address this gap by studying the relationship of IPV, WPV and depression among female garment workers.<h4>Methods</h4>The data for this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey of female garment workers (n = 800) conducted as baseline survey of a quasi-experimental study known as HERrespect. Survey data were collected during September-December, 2016 among randomly selected female garment workers from eight garment factories in and around Dhaka city. Structural equation modelling was conducted to explore the relationship among IPV, WPV and depression.<h4>Results</h4>The findings show high rates of any IPV (69%); WPV (73%, experienced or witnessed) and depressive symptomatology (40%) among female garment workers. The analysis of pathways shows that IPV impacts a woman's experience of WPV and work related stress leading to the development of depression; while WPV had direct and mediated pathways to depression. Experience of controlling by their husband leads to WPV and increased work related stress, and thus leads to depression. It also reveals that a worker's ability to mobilize resources in emergency, however, increased self-esteem and reduced work related stress.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study shows the pathways through which experience of IPV and WPV lead to development of depressive symptoms among female garment workers. The link between women's ability to mobilize resources with self-esteem and work related stress indicates the need for socio-economic empowerment of women and may suggest that combined intervention to address IPV and women's empowerment could be successful in dealing with WPV and mental health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Violence against women by their male intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We examined the role of IPV as a potential risk factor for miscarriage in Guatemala. Our objectives were: (1) To describe the magnitude and pattern of verbal, physical and sexual violence by male intimate partners in the last 12 months (IPV) in a sample of pregnant Guatemalans; (2) To evaluate the influence of physical or sexual IPV on miscarriage as a pregnancy outcome. METHODS:All pregnant women reporting to the maternity of a major tertiary care public hospital in Guatemala City from June 1st to September 30th, 2006 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The admitting physician assessed occurrence of miscarriage, defined as involuntary pregnancy loss up to and including 28 weeks gestation. Data on IPV, social and demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and medical history were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Laboratory testing was performed for HIV and syphilis. The relationship between IPV and miscarriage was assessed through multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:IPV affected 18% of the 1897 pregnant Guatemalan women aged 15-47 in this sample. Verbal IPV was most common (16%), followed by physical (10%) and sexual (3%) victimisation. Different forms of IPV were often co-prevalent. Miscarriage was experienced by 10% of the sample (n = 190). After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, physical or sexual victimisation by a male intimate partner in the last 12 months was significantly associated with miscarriage (ORadj 1.1 to 2.8). Results were robust under a range of analytic assumptions. CONCLUSIONS:Physical and sexual IPV is associated with miscarriage in this Guatemalan facility-based sample. Results cohere well with findings from population-based surveys. IPV should be recognised as a potential cause of miscarriage. Reproductive health services should be used to screen for spousal violence and link to assistance.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Women in South Africa also have high rates of depression and intimate partner violence, and they often co-occur. Women living with HIV who experience IPV are particularly likely to experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms and such symptoms are more likely to persist. Although the association between IPV and depression has been examined extensively, the role of depression on IPV has not. Therefore, this study examined the bidirectional association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression in South Africa (SA).<h4>Method</h4>Participants were <i>N=</i>699 pregnant women with HIV in rural SA who completed measures of depressive symptoms and IPV at baseline (<i>M=</i>17.52±5.77 weeks of pregnancy), 32 weeks antenatally, and 6- and 12-months postnatally.<h4>Results</h4>Depressive symptoms were linked to increased psychological IPV from baseline to 32-weeks, and from 32-weeks to 6-months. However, from 6-months to 12-months, depressive symptoms were associated with decreased psychological IPV. Psychological IPV was linked to depressive symptoms from baseline to 32-weeks. Depressive symptoms were associated with physical IPV from 32-weeks to 6-months, and 6-months to 12-months. Physical IPV was associated with increased depressive symptoms from baseline to 32-weeks, and from 32-weeks to 6-months.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Findings merit replication, as there may be measurement differences of psychological IPV in SA. However, targeting depressive symptoms and IPV concurrently in prevention and intervention programs may help optimize maternal and child outcomes in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Project description:Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies?=?1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I² ?= ?50.4%, p(heterogeneity?=?0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies?=?1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I² ?= ?0%, p?=?0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts.
Project description:Research has mainly studied women's empowerment assessing personal (e.g., self-esteem) or relational (e.g., decision-making) empowerment indicators. Women are not isolated individuals; they are embedded in social relationships. This is especially relevant in more collectivist societies. The current research provides a relational perspective on how husbands may hamper women's empowerment by inflicting intimate partner violence (IPV) assessing women's self-reported experience. We tested the link between self-esteem and experienced IPV on financial intra-household decision-making power among women entrepreneurs (N = 1,347) in Northern Vietnam, a collectivistic society undergoing economic development. We report two measurement points. As expected, self-esteem (and not IPV) was positively related to more power in intra-household decision-making on small expenditures, which are traditionally taken by women. However, IPV (and not self-esteem) was related to less decision-making power on larger expenditures, traditionally a domain outside women's power. We test and discuss the directionality of the effects and stress the importance of considering women's close relationship when investigating signs of women's empowerment.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed.