Structures and Corresponding Functions of Five Types of Picornaviral 2A Proteins.
ABSTRACT: Among the few non-structural proteins encoded by the picornaviral genome, the 2A protein is particularly special, irrespective of structure or function. During the evolution of the Picornaviridae family, the 2A protein has been highly non-conserved. We believe that the 2A protein in this family can be classified into at least five distinct types according to previous studies. These five types are (A) chymotrypsin-like 2A, (B) Parechovirus-like 2A, (C) hepatitis-A-virus-like 2A, (D) Aphthovirus-like 2A, and (E) 2A sequence of the genus Cardiovirus. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis and found that there was almost no homology between each type. Subsequently, we aligned the sequences within each type and found that the functional motifs in each type are highly conserved. These different motifs perform different functions. Therefore, in this review, we introduce the structures and functions of these five types of 2As separately. Based on the structures and functions, we provide suggestions to combat picornaviruses. The complexity and diversity of the 2A protein has caused great difficulties in functional and antiviral research. In this review, researchers can find useful information on the 2A protein and thus conduct improved antiviral research.
Project description:Messenger RNA is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eIF4G and the RNA helicase eIF4A. To shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eIF4G is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eIF4E is unclear. We have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (Lb(pro)), human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) 2A proteinase (2A(pro)) and coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) 2A(pro) with purified eIF4GII, eIF4E and the eIF4GII/eIF4E complex. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we completed (13)C/(15) N sequential backbone assignment of human eIF4GII residues 551-745 and examined their binding to murine eIF4E. eIF4GII551-745 is intrinsically unstructured and remains so when bound to eIF4E. NMR and biophysical techniques for determining stoichiometry and binding constants revealed that the papain-like Lb(pro) only forms a stable complex with eIF4GII(551-745) in the presence of eIF4E, with KD values in the low nanomolar range; Lb(pro) contacts both eIF4GII and eIF4E. Furthermore, the unrelated chymotrypsin-like 2A(pro) from HRV2 and CVB4 also build a stable complex with eIF4GII/eIF4E, but with K(D) values in the low micromolar range. The HRV2 enzyme also forms a stable complex with eIF4E; however, none of the proteinases tested complex stably with eIF4GII alone. Thus, these three picornaviral proteinases have independently evolved to establish distinct triangular heterotrimeric protein complexes that may actively target ribosomes involved in mRNA recruitment to ensure efficient host cell shut-off.
Project description:Like all positive strand RNA viruses, the picornaviruses replicate their genomes using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme known as 3Dpol. Over the past decade we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of 3Dpol structure and function, including the discovery of a novel mechanism for closing the active site that allows these viruses to easily fine tune replication fidelity and quasispecies distributions. This review summarizes current knowledge of picornaviral polymerase structure and how the enzyme interacts with RNA and other viral proteins to form stable and processive elongation complexes. The picornaviral RdRPs are among the smallest viral polymerases, but their fundamental molecular mechanism for catalysis appears to be generally applicable as a common feature of all positive strand RNA virus polymerases.
Project description:Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the prototype aphthovirus. ERAV has recently gained interest as an FMDV alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. As described for FMDV, current data support that acidic pH inside cellular endosomes triggers ERAV uncoating. In order to provide further insights into aphthovirus uncoating mechanism, we have isolated a panel of ERAV mutants with altered acid sensitivity and that differed on their degree of sensitivity to the inhibition of endosome acidification. These results provide functional evidence of the involvement of acidic pH on ERAV uncoating within endosomes. Remarkably, all amino acid substitutions found in acid-labile or acid-resistant ERAVs were located in the capsid protein VP3, indicating that this protein plays a pivotal role for the control of pH stability of the ERAV capsid. Moreover, all amino acid substitutions mapped at the intraprotomer interface between VP3 and VP2 or between VP3 and the N terminus of VP1. These results expand our knowledge on the regions that regulate the acid stability of aphthovirus capsid and should be taken into account when using ERAV as a surrogate of FMDV. IMPORTANCE:The viral capsid constitutes a sort of dynamic nanomachine that protects the viral genome against environmental assaults while accomplishing important functions such as receptor attachment for viral entry or genome release. We have explored the molecular determinants of aphthovirus capsid stability by isolating and characterizing a panel of equine rhinitis A virus mutants that differed on their acid sensitivity. All the mutations were located within a specific region of the capsid, the intraprotomer interface among capsid proteins, thus providing new insights into the regions that control the acid stability of aphthovirus capsid. These findings could positively contribute to the development of antiviral approaches targeting aphthovirus uncoating or the refinement of vaccine strategies based on capsid stabilization.
Project description:The 3C protein is a master regulator of the picornaviral infection cycle, responsible for both cleaving viral and host proteins, and interacting with genomic RNA replication elements. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to show that 3C is conformationally dynamic across multiple timescales. Binding of peptide and RNA lead to structural dynamics changes at both the protease active site and the RNA-binding site, consistent with these sites being dynamically coupled. Indeed, binding of RNA influences protease activity, and likewise, interactions at the active site affect RNA binding. We propose that RNA and peptide binding re-shapes the conformational energy landscape of 3C to regulate subsequent functions, including formation of complexes with other viral proteins. The observed channeling of the 3C energy landscape may be important for regulation of the viral infection cycle.
Project description:Picornaviral proteinases are responsible for maturation cleavages of the viral polyprotein, but also catalyze the degradation of cellular targets. Using graphical visualization techniques and neural network algorithms, we have investigated the sequence specificity of the two proteinases 2Apro and 3Cpro. The cleavage of VP0 (giving rise to VP2 and VP4), which is carried out by a so-far unknown proteinase, was also examined. In combination with a novel surface exposure prediction algorithm, our neural network approach successfully distinguishes known cleavage sites from noncleavage sites and yields a more consistent definition of features common to these sites. The method is able to predict experimentally determined cleavage sites in cellular proteins. We present a list of mammalian and other proteins that are predicted to be possible targets for the viral proteinases. Whether these proteins are indeed cleaved awaits experimental verification. Additionally, we report several errors detected in the protein databases. A computer server for prediction of cleavage sites by picornaviral proteinases is publicly available at the e-mail address NetPicoRNA@cbs.dtu.dk or via WWW at http:@www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPicoRNA/.
Project description:Equine rhinovirus 1 (ERhV1) is a respiratory pathogen of horses which has an uncertain taxonomic status. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the ERhV1 genome except for a small region at the 5' end. The predicted polyprotein was encoded by 6741 nucleotides and possessed a typical picornavirus proteolytic cleavage pattern, including a leader polypeptide. The genomic structure and predicted amino acid sequence of ERhV1 were more similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs), the only members of the aphthovirus genus, than to those of other picornaviruses. Features which were most similar to FMDV included a 16-amino acid 2A protein which was 87.5% identical in sequence of FMDV 2A, a leader (L) protein similar in size to FMDV Lab and the possibility of a truncated L protein similar in size to FMDV Lb, and a 3C protease which recognizes different cleavage sites. However, unlike FMDV, ERhV1 had only one copy of the 3B (VPg) polypeptide. The phylogenetic relationships of the ERhV1 sequence and nucleotide sequences of representative species of the five genera of the family Picornaviridae were examined. Nucleotide sequences coding for the complete polyprotein, the RNA polymerase, and VP1 were analyzed separately. The phylogenetic trees confirmed that ERhV1 was more closely related to FMDV than to other picornaviruses and suggested that ERhV1 may be a member, albeit very distant, of the aphthovirus genus.
Project description:Picornaviruses replicate their RNA genomes through a highly conserved mechanism that involves an interaction between the principal viral protease (3C(pro)) and the 5'-UTR region of the viral genome. The 3C(pro) catalytic site is the target of numerous replication inhibitors. This paper describes the first structural model of a complex between a picornaviral 3C(pro) and a region of the 5'-UTR, stem-loop D (SLD). Using human rhinovirus as a model system, we have combined NMR contact information, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, and previous mutagenesis results to determine the shape, position and relative orientation of the 3C(pro) and SLD components. The results clearly identify a 1:1 binding stoichiometry, with pronounced loops from each molecule providing the key binding determinants for the interaction. Binding between SLD and 3C(pro) induces structural changes in the proteolytic active site that is positioned on the opposite side of the protease relative to the RNA/protein interface, suggesting that subtle conformational changes affecting catalytic activity are relayed through the protein.
Project description:Cloning of multiple genes in a single vector has greatly facilitated both basic and translational studies that require co-expression of multiple factors or multi-units of complex protein. Many strategies have been adopted, among which 2A "self-cleaving" peptides have garnered increased interest for their polycistronic nature, small size and high "cleavage" efficiency. However, broad application of 2?A peptides is limited by the lack of systematic comparison of different 2As alone or in combination. Here we characterized the effect of varying gene position and 2As on the expression of proteins encoded in bi-, tri-, or quad-cistronic constructs. Using direct cardiac reprogramming as an example, we further determined the effect of varied 2As on the efficiency of fluorescent cell labeling and cell fate conversion. We found that the expression of fluorophores decreased as it was moved towards the end of the construct while reprogramming was most efficient with the fluorophore at the second position. Moreover, quad-cistronic TPE2A constructs resulted in more efficient reprogramming than 3P2A or PTE2A constructs. We expect that the bi-, tri-, and quad-cistronic vectors constructed here and our results on protein expression ratios from different 2A constructs could serve to guide future utilization of 2A peptides in basic research and clinical applications.
Project description:2A oligopeptide sequences ("2As") mediate a cotranslational recoding event termed "ribosome skipping." Previously we demonstrated the activity of 2As (and "2A-like sequences") within a wide range of animal RNA virus genomes and non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs) in the genomes of the unicellular organisms Trypanosoma brucei (Ingi) and T. cruzi (L1Tc). Here, we report the presence of 2A-like sequences in the genomes of a wide range of multicellular organisms and, as in the trypanosome genomes, within non-LTR retrotransposons (non-LTRs)-clustering in the Rex1, Crack, L2, L2A, and CR1 clades, in addition to Ingi. These 2A-like sequences were tested for translational recoding activity, and highly active sequences were found within the Rex1, L2, CR1, and Ingi clades. The presence of 2A-like sequences within non-LTRs may not only represent a method of controlling protein biogenesis but also shows some correlation with such apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease-type non-LTRs encoding one, rather than two, open reading frames (ORFs). Interestingly, such non-LTRs cluster with closely related elements lacking 2A-like recoding elements but retaining ORF1. Taken together, these observations suggest that acquisition of 2A-like translational recoding sequences may have played a role in the evolution of these elements.
Project description:This study reports the metagenomic detection and complete genome characterization of a novel turkey picornavirus from faecal samples of healthy (1/3) and affected (6/8) commercial turkeys with enteric and/or stunting syndrome in Hungary. The virus was detected at seven of the eight farms examined. The turkey/M176-TuASV/2011/HUN genome (KC465954) was genetically different from the currently known picornaviruses of turkey origin (megriviruses and galliviruses), and showed distant phylogenetic relationship and common genomic features (e.g. uncleaved VP0 and three predicted and unrelated 2A polypeptides) to duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) of the genus Avihepatovirus. The complete genome analysis revealed multiple distinct genome features like the presence of two in-tandem aphthovirus 2A-like sequence repeats with DxExNPG/P 'ribosome-skipping' sites (76?%, 23/30 amino acids identical), with the first aphthovirus 2A-like sequence being located at the end of the VP1 capsid protein (VP1/2A1 'ribosome-skipping' site). The phylogenetic analyses, low sequence identity (33, 32 and 36?% amino acid identity in P1, P2 and P3 regions) to DHAV, and the type II-like internal ribosome entry site suggests that this turkey picornavirus is related to, but distinct from the genus Avihepatovirus and it could be the founding member of a novel Avihepatovirus sister-clade genus. This is the third, taxonomically highly distinct picornavirus clade identified from turkeys exhibiting varied symptoms.