The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Accuracy and the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Photographic Simultaneous Line-ups.
ABSTRACT: Acute alcohol intoxication during encoding can impair subsequent identification accuracy, but results across studies have been inconsistent, with studies often finding no effect. Little is also known about how alcohol intoxication affects the identification confidence-accuracy relationship. We randomly assigned women (N = 153) to consume alcohol (dosed to achieve a 0.08% blood alcohol content) or tonic water, controlling for alcohol expectancy. Women then participated in an interactive hypothetical sexual assault scenario and, 24 hours or 7 days later, attempted to identify the assailant from a perpetrator present or a perpetrator absent simultaneous line-up and reported their decision confidence. Overall, levels of identification accuracy were similar across the alcohol and tonic water groups. However, women who had consumed tonic water as opposed to alcohol identified the assailant with higher confidence on average. Further, calibration analyses suggested that confidence is predictive of accuracy regardless of alcohol consumption. The theoretical and applied implications of our results are discussed.
Project description:We experimentally examined the effects of alcohol consumption and exposure to misleading postevent information on memory for a hypothetical interactive rape scenario. We used a 2 beverage (alcohol vs. tonic water) × 2 expectancy (told alcohol vs. told tonic) factorial design. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to conditions. They consumed alcohol (mean blood alcohol content = 0.06%) or tonic water before engaging in the scenario. Alcohol expectancy was controlled by telling participants they were consuming alcohol or tonic water alone, irrespective of the actual beverage they were consuming. Approximately a week later, participants were exposed to a misleading postevent narrative and then recalled the scenario and took a recognition test. Participants who were told that they had consumed alcohol rather than tonic reported fewer correct details, but they were no more likely to report incorrect or misleading information. The confidence-accuracy relationship for control and misled items was similar across groups, and there was some evidence that metacognitive discrimination was better for participants who were told that they had consumed alcohol compared with those told they had tonic water. Implications for interviewing rape victims are discussed.
Project description:RATIONALE:Drinking alcohol is associated with various interpersonal effects, including effects on cognitive empathy. Empathic accuracy (EA) is a form of cognitive empathy concerned with perceivers' accuracy in inferring a target's thoughts and feelings. The effects of alcohol on EA have not previously been studied. OBJECTIVES:We examined the effect of a moderate alcohol dose on EA in social drinkers. METHODS:Fifty-four men with varying levels of hazardous drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) participated in a randomized, double-blind, between-group study. The alcohol group received 0.56 g/kg alcohol in a vodka and tonic-mixed drink. The placebo group received tonic, with 4 ml of vodka sprayed on top. All participants performed an EA task that involved watching 16 videos of people narrating positive and negative emotional autobiographical events and continuously rating how targets felt while narrating. RESULTS:There were no significant main effects of beverage condition on the EA task. There was an effect of the condition by AUDIT interaction for EA on the positive videos. Post-hoc simple contrasts revealed that in participants with lower AUDIT scores, the alcohol condition had lower EA for positive videos than the placebo condition. No significant main effect for condition occurred in the participants with higher AUDIT scores. CONCLUSIONS:The effect of condition in participants with lower AUDIT scores indicates alcohol selectively reduced EA in individuals low on hazardous drinking. This suggests either alcohol-induced impairments of EA for positive events or a positivity bias in men at low risk for alcohol dependency.
Project description:Alcohol dependence is a common, complex and debilitating disorder with genetic and environmental influences. Here we show that alcohol consumption increases following mutations to the ?-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) ?1 subunit gene (Gabrb1). Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis on an alcohol-averse background (F1 BALB/cAnN x C3H/HeH), we develop a mouse model exhibiting strong heritable preference for ethanol resulting from a dominant mutation (L285R) in Gabrb1. The mutation causes spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increases GABA sensitivity of recombinant GABAARs, coupled to increased tonic currents in the nucleus accumbens, a region long-associated with alcohol reward. Mutant mice work harder to obtain ethanol, and are more sensitive to alcohol intoxication. Another spontaneous mutation (P228H) in Gabrb1 also causes high ethanol consumption accompanied by spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increased accumbal tonic current. Our results provide a new and important link between GABAAR function and increased alcohol consumption that could underlie some forms of alcohol abuse.
Project description:Ethanol alters the distribution and abundance of PKCdelta in neural cell lines. Here we investigated whether PKCdelta also regulates behavioral responses to ethanol. PKCdelta(-/-) mice showed reduced intoxication when administered ethanol and reduced ataxia when administered the nonselective GABA(A) receptor agonists pentobarbital and pregnanolone. However, their response to flunitrazepam was not altered, suggesting that PKCdelta regulates benzodiazepine-insensitive GABA(A) receptors, most of which contain delta subunits and mediate tonic inhibitory currents in neurons. Indeed, the distribution of PKCdelta overlapped with GABA(A) delta subunits in thalamus and hippocampus, and ethanol failed to enhance tonic GABA currents in PKCdelta(-/-) thalamic and hippocampal neurons. Moreover, using an ATP analog-sensitive PKCdelta mutant in mouse L(tk(-)) fibroblasts that express alpha4beta3delta GABA(A) receptors, we found that ethanol enhancement of GABA currents was PKCdelta-dependent. Thus, PKCdelta enhances ethanol intoxication partly through regulation of GABA(A) receptors that contain delta subunits and mediate tonic inhibitory currents. These findings indicate that PKCdelta contributes to a high level of behavioral response to ethanol, which is negatively associated with risk of developing an alcohol use disorder in humans.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In most Western countries, alcohol consumption continues to increase, specifically among women and older adults. Insight into these trends may aid intervention strategies. Here we present data on alcohol consumption by age and sex as well as associations between alcohol use and demographic lifestyle/traits. The data are from a large (N>16,000) population-based Dutch sample, ascertained based on the presence of twins in the family.<h4>Methods</h4>A set of 16 indicators of normative and problematic alcohol use was assessed in participants of the Netherlands Twin Register between 2009-2012 (ages 18-97; 6,052 men; 10,535 women). Alcohol consumption and demographic/lifestyle traits, including educational attainment, work-related/financial stress, urbanization, religiousness, smoking/cannabis initiation, and BMI were described by age and sex. Associations were examined by regressing aspects of alcohol use on age, sex, their interaction, and demographic/lifestyle variables.<h4>Results</h4>Age, sex, and initiation of cigarette and cannabis use were the most important predictors of alcohol use. Frequency of alcohol use was lowest between 18-25 years, with 3.2% of men and .6% of women drinking 6-7 times/week, and highest above age 65 years, with 30.6-32.7% of men and 20.2-22.0% of women drinking 6-7 times/week. Women consumed the lowest quantities of alcohol between 25-45 years, with a 5.7-5.9% prevalence of excessive drinking (>14 glasses/week), and the largest quantities between 55-65 years (15.5% excessive drinkers). Age at alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication were lowest between ages 18-25 years and highest above age 65 years. Among older participants, men initiated alcohol use and regular drinking earlier, and had lower age at first intoxication than women, but among young adults, no sex differences were observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Alcohol consumption was high in the elderly Dutch population, especially among women. Alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication occur at increasingly younger ages, and the previous gap between men and women in age at alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication has closed almost entirely. Heavy alcohol use was most strongly predicted by older age, sex (male), and initiation of smoking and cannabis use.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acute alcohol intoxication is very common in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whether there is an independent association between alcohol intoxication and mortality is debated. This study hypothesized that alcohol intoxication is independently associated with less mortality after severe TBI (sTBI).<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective observational cohort study included all patients with sTBI [head-Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) ?3, corresponding to serious head injury or worse] admitted from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2016 in an academic level I trauma center. Patients were classified as with alcohol intoxication or without intoxication based on blood alcohol concentration or description of alcohol intoxication on admission. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, including patient and injury characteristics, was used to assess independent association with alcohol intoxication.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 2865 TBI patients, 715 (25%) suffered from alcohol intoxication. They were younger (mean age 46 vs. 68?years), more often male (80 vs. 57%) and had a lower median Glasgow Coma Scale upon arrival (14 vs. 15) compared to the no-intoxication group. There was no difference in injury severity by head AIS or Rotterdam CT. Alcohol intoxication had an unadjusted association with in-hospital mortality [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.68]; however, there was no independent association after adjusting for potentially confounding patient and injury characteristics (adjusted OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.48-1.09).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this retrospective study, there was no independent association between alcohol intoxication and higher in-hospital mortality in emergency patients with sTBI.
Project description:Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly among strangers. The present data are the first to provide a systematic and detailed picture of sexual aggression among college students in Chile, including victimization and perpetration reports by both men and women and confirming the critical role of alcohol established in past research from Western countries.
Project description:Both living with children and alcohol consumption are positively associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). We assessed their combined relationship with physical IPV (P-IPV) victimization and perpetration, and explored possible moderating roles of sex and culture. Data included 15 surveys of 13,716 men and 17,832 women in 14 countries from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study) collaboration. P-IPV was measured as victim of physical aggression by an intimate partner (Vic-Only), perpetrator of physical aggression toward a partner (Perp-Only), or both victim and perpetrator (i.e., bidirectional) (Bi-Dir). Participants reported whether they lived with children below 18 years of age, whether the participant was a drinker/abstainer, and, among drinkers, usual frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age and nesting of data within countries, indicated that Vic-Only, Perp-Only, and Bi-Dir (compared with no P-IPV) were positively associated with living with children, being a drinker, and quantity/frequency of drinking among drinkers (especially higher quantity). The positive association of P-IPV with living with children and being a drinker was evident within most countries. Significant interactions with sex were found, with (a) living with children more strongly associated with Perp-Only for men and Vic-Only for women, and (b) Perp-Only and Bi-Dir more strongly associated with being a drinker for men but with quantity consumed for women. Also, alcohol consumption was more strongly related to Perp-Only and Bi-Dir than with Vic-Only. In conclusion, higher risk of P-IPV with alcohol consumption is compounded when living with children-putting children who live with drinkers, especially drinkers who consume large amounts per occasion, at special risk of exposure to P-IPV. This is an important area for future research and prevention.
Project description:To identify possible target molecules for acute alcohol intoxication therapy, we used microarray analysis to compare cerebella gene expression profiles of control and acute alcohol-intoxicated rats. We first established a model of acute alcohol intoxication in SD rats, and then used rat cDNA microarray to profile mRNA expression in the cerebella of alcohol-intoxicated rats (experimental group) and saline-treated rats (control group). Overall design: A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate experimental groups and three separate control groups. We first established a model of acute alcohol intoxication in SD rats, and then used rat cDNA microarray to profile mRNA expression in the cerebella of alcohol-intoxicated rats (experimental group) and saline-treated rats (control group). Cerebellar tissues from three rats were ground to a mixed sample,so we use 3 rats in one group.
Project description:Objective Men’s alcohol use has been linked to sexual assault perpetration. Yet, it is unknown whether within naturally-occurring sexual encounters men use more sexually aggressive tactics when they are intoxicated. The present study considered whether college men’s perceived intoxication at the time of sex increased their self-reported use of verbal persuasion, physical force, and encouraged intoxication of partner as tactics to convince a woman to have sex. Method As part of a 56-day daily report study, 298 college freshman males reported 1,832 episodes of sexual activity with female partners. Using multilevel modeling, we considered the within-person effects of subjective intoxication, sexual precedence (new versus previous partner), and perceived partner sexual interest on male use of sexually aggressive strategies within each sexual encounter. We also considered whether the impact of event-specific intoxication was moderated by individual differences in hostility toward women, delinquency, and impersonal sex. Results Greater subjective intoxication at the time of sex predicted greater use of verbal persuasion and encouraging intoxication of partner. Although intoxication did not predict physical force directly, there were indirect effects via greater verbal persuasion and encouraging partner intoxication. Event-specific intoxication did not interact with any of the individual difference variables and only hostility toward women contributed positively to use of event-specific sexually aggression. Conclusions Men’s intoxication at the time of sexual activity increases their use of sexually aggressive strategies within naturally-occurring sexual encounters. Findings help to explain the robust relationship between alcohol use and sexual assault found in college populations.