Enantioselective Intermolecular C-H Functionalization of Allylic and Benzylic sp(3) C-H Bonds Using N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles.
ABSTRACT: The enantioselective intermolecular sp(3) C-H functionalization at the allylic and benzylic positions was achieved using rhodium-catalyzed reactions with 4-phenyl-N-(methanesulfonyl)-1,2,3-triazole. The optimum dirhodium tetracarboxylate catalyst for these reactions was Rh2(S-NTTL)4. The rhodium-bound ?-imino carbene intermediates preferentially reacted with tertiary over primary C-H bonds in good yields and moderate levels of enantioselectivity (66-82% ee). This work demonstrates that N-sulfonyltriazoles can be applied to the effective C-H functionalization at sp(3) C-H bonds of substrates containing additional functionality.
Project description:The synthesis of ?-arylpyrrolidines via a catalytic enantioselective intermolecular allylic C(sp)3-H functionalization of trans-alkenes followed by immediate reduction, ozonolysis, and then in situ diversification of the resulting cyclic hemiaminal to furnish highly substituted, stereoenriched ?-arylpyrrolidines is reported. This methodology utilizes 4-aryl-1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles as carbene precursors and the dirhodium tetracarboxylate catalyst Rh2( S-NTTL)4. A variety of ?-arylpyrrolidines were prepared in good yields with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity over four linear steps, requiring only a single purification procedure.
Project description:Highly functionalized cyclopropanecarboxylates were readily prepared by rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropanation of alkenes with aryldiazoacetates and styryldiazoaceates, in which the ester functionality is either trimethylsilylethyl (TMSE) or trichlorethyl (TCE). By having labile protecting groups on the ester, chiral triarylcyclopropane carboxylate ligands were conveniently prepared. The asymmetric induction during cyclopropanation is dependent on the nature of the ester group and the chiral dirhodium tetracarboxylate catalyst. The prolinate catalyst Rh2(S-DOSP)4 was the optimum catalyst for asymmetric intermolecular cyclopropanation of TMSE diazoesters with styrene, while Rh2(R-BPCP)4 was the optimum catalyst for TCE diazoesters.
Project description:The regioselective and enantioselective intermolecular sp3 C-H functionalization of silicon-substituted alkanes was accomplished using Rh2( S-NTTL)4 with readily available 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles as carbene precursors. These reactions generate a diverse array of stereodefined substituted silaalkanes.
Project description:C-H functionalization represents a promising approach for the synthesis of complex molecules. Instead of relying on modifying the functional groups present in a molecule, the synthetic sequence is achieved by carrying out selective reactions on the C-H bonds, which traditionally would have been considered to be the unreactive components of a molecule. A major challenge is to design catalysts to control both the site- and stereoselectivity of the C-H functionalization. We have been developing dirhodium catalysts with different selectivity profiles in C-H functionalization reactions with donor/acceptor carbenes as reactive intermediates. Here we describe a new dirhodium catalyst capable of the functionalization of non-activated primary C-H bonds with high levels of site selectivity and enantioselectivity.
Project description:A novel, mixed-ligand chiral rhodium(II) catalyst, Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA), has enabled the first enantioselective total synthesis of the natural product piperarborenine B. A crystal structure of Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA) reveals a "chiral crown" conformation with a bulky dicyclohexylphenyl acetate ligand and three N-naphthalimido groups oriented on the same face of the catalyst. The natural product was prepared on large scale using rhodium-catalyzed bicyclobutanation/ copper-catalyzed homoconjugate addition chemistry in the key step. The route proceeds in ten steps with an 8% overall yield and 92% ee.
Project description:A regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective [4+3] cycloaddition between vinylcarbenes and dienes has been achieved using the dirhodium tetracarboxylate catalyst [Rh2(S-BTPCP)4]. This methodology provides facile access to 1,4-cycloheptadienes that are regioisomers of those formed from the tandem cyclopropanation/Cope rearrangement reaction of vinylcarbenes with dienes.
Project description:Chiral cyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes promote highly enantioselective enol-directed C(sp(2))-H functionalization and oxidative annulation with alkynes to give spiroindenes containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. High selectivity between two possible directing groups, as well as control of the direction of rotation in the isomerization of an O-bound rhodium enolate into the C-bound isomer, appear to be critical for high enantiomeric excesses.
Project description:The dirhodium carbene derived from bis(4-methoxyphenyl)diazomethane and [Rh(tpa)4 ]?CH2 Cl2 (tpa=triphenylacetate) was characterized by UV, IR, and NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, as well as by X-ray diffraction. The isolated complex exhibits prototypical rhodium carbene reactivity in that it cyclopropanates 4-methoxystyrene at low temperature. Experimental structural information on this important type of reactive intermediate is extremely scarce and thus serves as a reference point for mechanistic discussions of rhodium catalysis in general. Moreover, dirhodium carbenes are shown to undergo remarkably facile carbene transfer on treatment with [LAuNTf2 ] (L=phosphine). This formal transmetalation opens a valuable new entry into gold carbene complexes that cannot easily be made otherwise; three fully characterized representatives illustrate this aspect.
Project description:A rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular silylation of alkyl C-H bonds has been developed that occurs with unusual selectivity for the C-H bonds located ? to the oxygen atom of an alcohol-derived silyl ether over typically more reactive C-H bonds more proximal to the same oxygen atom. (Hydrido)silyl ethers, generated in situ by dehydrogenative coupling of tertiary alcohols with diethylsilane, undergo regioselective silylation at a primary C-H bond ? to the hydroxyl group in the presence of [(Xantphos)Rh(Cl)] as catalyst. Oxidation of the resulting 6-membered oxasilolanes generates 1,4-diols. This silylation and oxidation sequence provides an efficient method to synthesize 1,4-diols by a hydroxyl-directed, aliphatic C-H bond functionalization reaction and is distinct from the synthesis of 1,3-diols from alcohols catalyzed by iridium. Mechanistic studies show that the rhodium-catalyzed silylation of alkyl C-H bonds occurs with a resting state and relative rates for elementary steps that are significantly different from those for the rhodium-catalyzed silylation of aryl C-H bonds. The resting state of the catalyst is a (Xantphos)Rh(I)(SiR3)(norbornene) complex, and an analogue was synthesized and characterized crystallographically. The rate-limiting step of the process is oxidative addition of the ? C-H bond to Rh. Computational studies elucidated the origin of high selectivity for silylation of the ? C-H bond when Xantphos-ligated rhodium is the catalyst. A high barrier for reductive elimination from the six-membered metalacyclic, secondary alkyl intermediate formed by cleavage of the ? C-H bond and low barrier for reductive elimination from the seven-membered metalacyclic, primary alkyl intermediate formed by cleavage of the ? C-H accounts for the selective functionalization of the ? C-H bond.
Project description:An efficient synthesis of tetrahydrocarboline-type products and polycyclic spiroindolines has been achieved. The transformation proceeds via rhodium(II)-catalyzed intramolecular annulations of indolyl- and pyrrolyl-tethered N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles. The reaction could be tuned toward either the formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition or the C-H functionalization reaction depending on the electronic and structural features of the substrates, leading to the production of a variety of structurally related heterocyclic compounds.