Intramyocellular Ceramides: Subcellular Concentrations and Fractional De Novo Synthesis in Postabsorptive Humans.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5-h infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptive men and women had muscle biopsies 1.5, 6.5, and 24 h after starting the tracer infusion. Concentrations and enrichment of muscle ceramides were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that HOMA of insulin resistance, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were positively correlated with SS C16:0 and C18:1 ceramide, but not SS C14:0-Cer, C20:0-Cer, C24:0-Cer, and C24:1-Cer concentrations; IMF ceramide concentrations were not correlated with any metabolic parameters. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to 16:0 ceramide was greater in SS than IMF (SS, 18.2% vs. IMF, 8.7%; P = 0.0006). Plasma insulin concentrations correlated positively with the fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to SS 16:0 ceramide. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to intramyocellular SS 16:0 ceramide was positively correlated with SS C16:0 ceramide concentrations (? = 0.435; P = 0.002). We conclude that skeletal muscle SS ceramides, especially C16 to C18 chain lengths and the de novo synthesis of intramyocellular ceramide from plasma palmitate are associated with markers of insulin resistance.
Project description:Ceramide is a key metabolite in both anabolic and catabolic pathways of sphingolipids. The very long fatty acyl chain ceramides N-(docosanoyl)-sphing-4-enine (Cer(22:0)) and N-(tetracosanoyl)-sphing-4-enine (Cer(24:0)) are associated with multiple biological functions. Elevated levels of these sphingolipids in tissues and in the circulation have been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. To facilitate quantification of these very long chain ceramides in clinical samples from human subjects, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and high-throughput assay for determination of Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0) in human plasma. Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0) and their deuterated internal standards were extracted by protein precipitation and chromatographically separated by HPLC. The analytes and their internal standards were ionized using positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry, then detected by multiple-reaction monitoring with a tandem mass spectrometer. Total liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) runtime was 5 min. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-4 and 0.08-16 ?g/ml for Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0), respectively, in human plasma with corresponding absolute recoveries from plasma at 109 and 114 %, respectively. The lower limit of quantifications were 0.02 and 0.08 ?g/ml for Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0), respectively. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the calibration curve ranges. With the semi-automated format and short LC runtime for the assay, a throughput of ?200 samples/day can easily be achieved.
Project description:Menopause consists of a physiological process in women between 40 and 50 years of age, and it has substantial consequences for health, ranging from disturbances in lipid and glycidic metabolism to psychological stress and sleep alterations, thereby increasing women's risk of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we attempted to identify potential lipid alterations not identified by the classic methods.We analyzed the serum lipid profile in 40 women in pre- and post-menopause using a lipidomic approach and mass spectrometry. Lipid species presented increased concentrations, with a difference of more than 25% post-menopause and with the ceramides (N.C23:0.Cer, N.C23:0(OH).Cer and N.C24:0(OH).Cer) standing out with a fold change of 1.68, 1.59, and 1.58, respectively. It was also observed that 14 metabolites presented a significant difference in the average concentrations between pre- and post-menopause, especially the ceramide species. Strong and positive correlations were identified between various metabolites and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. Of note were the association ceramide (N.C10:0.Cer) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE.a.C18:0) between fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin.This study detected lipid alterations, especially in ceramides, post-menopause, as well as correlations with glycidic and lipid markers, which may in the future be useful to investigate diseases associated with menopause.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ceramides are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. We aim to investigate the potential diagnostic value of ceramides for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese patients with chest pain. DESIGN:Prospective observational survey. SETTING:Shanghai, China, 2016-2017. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 2773 patients with chest pain from four hospitals in Shanghai, China, between August 2016 and October 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Performance of metabolites model in detection of ACS cases including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina. RESULTS:Plasma levels of 12 ceramide molecules and corresponding ratios were compared between patients diagnosed with ACS and those without. Cer(d18:1/24:1(15Z))/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio, Cer(d18:1/14:0) and Cer(d18:1/22:0) were independent predictors of ACS after adjustment of traditional risk factors and high-sensitivecardiac troponin T. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant improvement in detecting ACS in the multivariable model with ceramides compared with that without (0.865 (0.840 to 0.889) vs 0.808 (0.776 to 0.841), p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Distinct plasma ceramides are independent diagnostic predictors of ACS among patients with chest pain. Ceramides together with high-sensitive troponin and traditional factors showed great potential in identifying ACS among patients with chest pain.
Project description:The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts.Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine-Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24-8.98), 1.64 (1.29-2.08), and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and ?AUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and ?AUC = 0.02).Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronary artery stenosis induces heart diseases including acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Some studies reported the ceramide species are associated with the ACS and major adverse cardia and cerebrovascular events (MACE). However, few studies investigated the association between plasma ceramide levels and the severity of stenosis, together with the onset of diseases. This aim of the present study was to investigate the association betweencertain ceramide species, coronary artery stenosis and acute coronary syndrome. METHODS:Five hundred fifty-three patients with definite or suspected CAD were recruited and received angiography. Subjects were assigned into 4 groups according to the severity of coronary artery stenosis. The measurements of 4 plasma ceramide species, namely, Cer (d18:1/16:0), Cer (d18:1/18:0), Cer (d18:1/24:1), Cer (d18:1/24:0) were carried out by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the ratio of Cer (d18:1/16:0), Cer (d18:1/18:0) and Cer (d18:1/24:1) to Cer (18:1/24:0), respectively, were calculated as index to evaluate the association between plasma ceramides levels and coronary artery stenosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to establish the prognostic model for the prediction of ACS risk. RESULTS:After the adjustment by multiple clinical risk factors including age, gender, pre-existing myocardial/cerebral infarction, hemoglobin A1c% (HbA1c%), smoking and the diagnosis during index hospitalization, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the high ratio of Cer (d18:1/24:1) to Cer (d18:1/24:0), female gender, HbA1c%, unstable angina (UAP) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis (compared with atherosclerosis) during index hospitalization were associated with more severe coronary artery stenosis. Furthermore, the prognostic model was established after adjustment of risk factors and the area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for the prognostic model was 0.732 and 95% CI was 0.642-0.822. CONCLUSION:The severity of coronary artery stenosis is associated with high ratio of Cer (d18:1/24:1) to Cer (d18:1/24:0), female gender, HbA1c% and AMI. Although the reported prognostic model showed a good discrimination, further investigation on long term MACE is needed to evaluate the role of ceramide for the prediction of MACE risk.
Project description:Elevated hepatic ceramide levels have been implicated in both insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. To understand the factors contributing to hepatic ceramide levels in mice of both sexes, we have quantitated ceramides in a reference population of mice, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel that has been previously characterized for a variety of metabolic syndrome traits. We observed significant positive correlations between Cer(d18:1/16:0) and IR/hepatic steatosis, consistent with previous findings, although the relationship broke down between sexes, as females were less insulin resistant, but had higher Cer(d18:1/16:0) levels than males. The sex difference was due in part to testosterone-mediated repression of ceramide synthase 6. One ceramide species, Cer(d18:1/20:0), was present at higher levels in males and was associated with IR only in males. Clear evidence of gene-by-sex and gene-by-diet interactions was observed, including sex-specific genome-wide association study results. Thus, our studies show clear differences in how hepatic ceramides are regulated between the sexes, which again suggests that the physiological roles of certain hepatic ceramides differ between the sexes.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Sphingolipids, such as ceramides and sphingosine, are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes; however, the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to develop a simultaneous measurement system for urinary sphingolipids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to elucidate the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We established a simultaneous measurement system for the urinary sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and six ceramide species (Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/18:1, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0), and we examined the urinary sphingolipids in 64 type 2 diabetes patients and 15 control participants. RESULTS:The established measurement system for the urinary sphingolipids showed good precision for Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0. We observed that the urinary levels of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0 were elevated in patients with stage 3 of diabetic nephropathy, and were correlated with urinary biomarkers, such as albumin and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and sediment score. CONCLUSIONS:Our method is useful for the measurement of ceramide in urine specimens, and urinary ceramides might be associated with the pathological condition of diabetic nephropathy, such as renal tubular injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sphingolipids mainly consist of ceramides (Cer), sphingomyelins (SM) and glycosphingolipids. Sphingolipids are related with coronary heart disease and metabolic disease, but there're few studies about cerebrovascular disease. The purpose was to detect sphingolipids in plasma of patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) cerebrovascular disease and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) to explore the similarities and differences of pathogenesis of the two subtypes. METHODS:20 patients with LAA cerebrovascular disease, 20 patients with age-related CSVD, 10 patients with Fabry disease and 14 controls were enrolled from October 2017 to January 2019. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to determine sphingolipids. Univariate combined with multivariate analysis was used for comparison. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine sensitivities and specificities. RESULTS:276 sphingolipids were detected, including 39 Cer, 3 ceramide phosphates, 72 glycosphingolipids and 162 SM. (1) Cer (d36:3), Cer (d34:2), Cer (d38:6), Cer (d36:4) and Cer (d16:0/18:1) were increased in LAA; SM (d34:1), Cer (d34:2), Cer (d36:4), Cer (d16:0/18:1), Cer (d38:6), Cer (d36:3) and Cer (d32:0) were increased in age-related CSVD. (2) Cer (d36:4) and SM (d34:1) were increased in age-related CSVD compared with LAA. (3) Total trihexosyl ceramides were increased in Fabry group compared with control (P<0.05); SM (d34:1) was increased in Fabry group. CONCLUSIONS:Ceramides are increased in both LAA and age-related CSVD, which may be related to similar risk factors and pathophysiological process of arteriosclerosis; SM is increased in both age-related CSVD and Fabry disease, suggesting that increased SM may be associated with CSVD. Glycosphingolipids, trihexosylceramides in particular, are increased in Fabry disease.
Project description:Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes), IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide) in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR) prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density), increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r?=?-0.34; P?=?0.051) and IMF mitochondrial density (r?=?-0.29; P?=?0.096), IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r?=?-0.30; P?=?0.086), and COXII (r?=?-0.32; P?=?0.095) and COXIV protein abundance (r?=?-0.35; P?=?0.052); while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r?=?0.28; P?=?0.119) and SS IMCL density (r?=?0.25; P?=?0.152). Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been controlled for, skeletal muscle mitochondrial and IMCL profile in obesity may only partially contribute to the development of IR.
Project description:Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24?weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129-1599?pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) significantly increased from 776?±?400?pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196?±?467?pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) decreased from 23.8?±?6.0% at week 0?to?15.2?±?5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (??=?0.788, P?<?0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion, shifting the dolphin diet to fishes rich in odd chain saturated fatty acids, such as C17:0, resulted in increased serum levels of the insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin and serum SPH consistent with an insulin-sensitizing phenotype. It is still unclear whether FGF21 plays a role in the regulation of adiponectin in dolphins, similar to that shown in laboratory animal models.