Liver transplantation using the otherwise-discarded partial liver resection graft with hepatic benign tumor: Analysis of a preliminary experience on 15 consecutive cases.
ABSTRACT: The shortage of available donor organs limits the development of liver transplantation. This case-serial study presents a novel way to expand the donor pool by using the other-wise discarded partial liver resection graft with hepatic benign tumor.From 2012 to 2016, 15 patients with hepatic lesions were admitted to our hospital. 12 patients suffered from right epigastric discomfort and 3 patients worried about uncertain diagnosis.Regular hepatic lobectomy was performed for all patients and after back-table management the resected partial liver grafts were used for patients with end-stage liver disease for liver transplantation.All patients had improved liver function within 1 week of transplantation. Patients had no serious small-for-size syndrome despite graft-to-recipient weight ratio less than 0.8%. Back-table hepatic venous reconstruction with prosthetic vascular grafts was performed without serious early complications, and late thrombosis in vessel graft did not affect liver function. Postoperative computed tomography scans demonstrated a remarkable growth in graft volume and a continuous decrease in hemangioma in recipients using the grafts with hemangioma. One patient died from pulmonary embolism on day 7 after transplant, and the rest of 14 recipients had been surviving well, especially recipient 1 for more than 4 years, although 3 recipients had tumor recurrence and had been treated with sorafenib.The postoperative pathological diagnosis reported cavernous hemangioma (n?=?11), perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (n?=?2), inflammatory pseudotumor for (n?=?1), and focal nodular hyperplasia (n?=?1).The partial liver grafts with hepatic benign tumors are safe for liver transplantation. In addition, prosthetic vascular grafts can be used for hepatic venous outflow reconstruction, especially in right lobe liver transplantation.
Project description:Auxiliary partial liver transplantation (APLT) in humans is a therapeutic modality used especially to treat liver failure in children or congenital metabolic disease. Animal models of APLT have helped to explore therapeutic options. Though many groups have suggested improvements, standardizing the surgical procedure has been challenging. Additionally, the question of whether graft livers are reconstituted by recipient-derived cells after transplantation has been controversial. The aim of this study was to improve experimental APLT in rats and to assess cell recruitment in the liver grafts.To inhibit recipient liver regeneration and to promote graft regeneration, we treated recipients with retrorsine and added arterial anastomosis. Using green fluorescence protein transgenic rats as recipients, we examined liver resident cell recruitment within graft livers by immunofluorescence costaining.In the improved APLT model, we achieved well-regenerated grafts that could maintain regeneration for at least 4 weeks. Regarding the cell recruitment, there was no evidence of recipient-derived hepatocyte, cholangiocyte, or hepatic stellate cell recruitment into the graft. Macrophages/monocytes, however, were consistently recruited into the graft and increased over time, which might be related to inflammatory responses. Very few endothelial cells showed colocalization of markers.We have successfully established an improved rat APLT model with arterial anastomosis as a standard technique. Using this model, we have characterized cell recruitment into the regenerating grafts.
Project description:Background: Liver transplantation leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in up to 40% of graft recipients. The aim of our study was to assess transcriptomic profiles of liver grafts and to contrast the hepatic gene expression between the patients after transplantation with vs. without graft steatosis. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from liver graft biopsies of 91 recipients. Clinical characteristics were compared between steatotic (n = 48) and control (n = 43) samples. Their transcriptomic profiles were assessed using Affymetrix HuGene 2.1 ST Array Strips processed in Affymetrix GeneAtlas. Data were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6 and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: The individuals with hepatic steatosis showed higher indices of obesity including weight, waist circumference or BMI but the two groups were comparable in measures of insulin sensitivity and cholesterol concentrations. We have identified 747 transcripts (326 upregulated and 421 downregulated in steatotic samples compared to controls) significantly differentially expressed between grafts with vs. those without steatosis. Among the most downregulated genes in steatotic samples were P4HA1, IGF1, or fetuin B while the most upregulated were PLIN1 and ME1. Most influential upstream regulators included HNF1A, RXRA, and FXR. The metabolic pathways dysregulated in steatotic liver grafts comprised blood coagulation, bile acid synthesis and transport, cell redox homeostasis, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, epithelial adherence junction signaling, amino acid metabolism, AMPK and glucagon signaling, transmethylation reactions, and inflammation-related pathways. The derived mechanistic network underlying major transcriptome differences between steatotic samples and controls featured PPARA and SERPINE1 as main nodes. Conclusions: While there is a certain overlap between the results of the current study and published transcriptomic profiles of non-transplanted livers with steatosis, we have identified discrete characteristics of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in liver grafts potentially utilizable for the establishment of predictive signature.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Inclusion of liver grafts from cardiac death donors (CDD) would increase the availability of donor livers but is hampered by a higher risk of primary non-function. Here, we seek to determine mechanisms that contribute to primary non-function of liver grafts from CDD with the goal to develop strategies for improved function and outcome, focusing on c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and mitochondrial depolarization, two known mediators of graft failure. METHODS:Livers explanted from wild-type, inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS(-/-)), JNK1(-/-) or JNK2(-/-) mice after 45-min aorta clamping were implanted into wild-type recipients. Mitochondrial depolarization was detected by intravital confocal microscopy in living recipients. RESULTS:After transplantation of wild-type CDD livers, graft iNOS expression and 3-nitrotyrosine adducts increased, but hepatic endothelial NOS expression was unchanged. Graft injury and dysfunction were substantially higher in CDD grafts than in non-CDD grafts. iNOS deficiency and inhibition attenuated injury and improved function and survival of CDD grafts. JNK1/2 and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 activation increased markedly in wild-type CDD grafts, which was blunted by iNOS deficiency. JNK inhibition and JNK2 deficiency, but not JNK1 deficiency, decreased injury and improved function and survival of CDD grafts. Mitochondrial depolarization and binding of phospho-JNK2 to Sab, a mitochondrial protein linked to the mitochondrial permeability transition, were higher in CDD than in non-CDD grafts. iNOS deficiency, JNK inhibition and JNK2 deficiency all decreased mitochondrial depolarization and blunted ATP depletion in CDD grafts. JNK inhibition and deficiency did not decrease 3-nitrotyrosine adducts in CDD grafts. CONCLUSION:The iNOS-JNK2-Sab pathway promotes CDD graft failure via increased mitochondrial depolarization, and is an attractive target to improve liver function and survival in CDD liver transplantation recipients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The necessity of widening the indications for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been emphasised. Clarification of the advantages and limitations of using a left liver graft for LDLT in adults is essential for donor safety. METHODS: Between June 1990 and November 2002, 185 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital, Japan. In 97 of these, the graft comprised the left liver with or without the left portion of the caudate lobe. The peri-hepatectomy profiles of the donors, significance of left liver grafts, postoperative courses of the donors and recipients, and survival of the recipients were investigated. RESULTS: All the donors recovered well and returned to a normal lifestyle. None required banked-blood transfusion or repeat surgery, and postoperative liver function tests had satisfactory results. The cold ischaemic time for the graft was 127+/-54 minutes. The graft volumes (GVs) ranged from 230 to 625 ml, and GV/standard liver volume (SV) ratios varied from 22% to 65%, at the time of transplantation. Although 85% of the liver grafts had GV/SV ratios <50%, no patient developed immediate postoperative liver failure. Patient survival rates were 89%, 84% and 84% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. DISCUSSION: Although LDLT using a left liver graft imposes potential postoperative complications (a small liver is more vulnerable to injury, and recipients of small grafts are at higher risk of complications during recovery), such grafts have yielded acceptable results in adult LDLT, with minimal burden to the donors.
Project description:After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extended criteria donors (ECD) are widely utilized due to organ shortage, but they may increase the risk of graft dysfunction and poorer outcomes. Hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) is a recent organ preservation strategy for marginal kidney and liver grafts, allowing a redirect from anaerobic metabolism to aerobic metabolism under hypothermic conditions and protecting grafts from oxidative species-related damage. These mechanisms may improve graft function and survival. OBJECTIVE:With this study, we will evaluate the benefit of end-ischemic HOPE on ECD grafts for livers and kidneys as compared to static cold storage (SCS). The aim of the study is to demonstrate the ability of HOPE to improve graft function and postoperative outcomes of ECD kidney and liver recipients. METHODS:This is an open-label, single-center randomized clinical trial with the aim of comparing HOPE with SCS in ECD kidney and liver transplantation. In the study protocol, which has been approved by the ethics committee, 220 patients (110 liver recipients and 110 kidney recipients) will be enrolled. Livers and kidneys assigned to the HOPE group undergo machine perfusion with cold Belzer solution (4-10°C) and continuous oxygenation (partial pressure of oxygen of 500-600 mm Hg). In the control group, livers and kidneys undergoing SCS are steeped in Celsior solution and stored on ice. Using the same perfusion machine for both liver and kidney grafts, organs are perfused from the start of the back-table procedure until implantation, without increasing the cold ischemia time. For each group, we will evaluate clinical outcomes, graft function tests, histologic findings, perfusate, and the number of allocated organs. Publication of the results is expected to begin in 2021. RESULTS:Dynamic preservation methods for organs from high-risk donors should improve graft dysfunction after transplantation. To date, we have recruited 108 participants. The study is ongoing, and recruitment of participants will continue until January 2020. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed preservation method should improve ECD graft function and consequently the postoperative patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03837197; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03837197 ; Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/76fSutT3R. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/13922.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A principal aim of the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study was to study hepatic blood flow and effect of portal flow modulation on graft outcomes in the setting of increasing use of smaller and left lobe grafts. METHODS:Recipients of 274 living donor liver transplant were enrolled in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, including 233 (85.0%) right lobes, 40 (14.6%) left lobes, and 1 (0.5%) left lateral section. Hepatic hemodynamics were recorded after reperfusion. A total of 57 portal flow modulations were performed on 52 subjects. RESULTS:Modulation lowered portal pressure in 68% of subjects with inconsistent effects on hepatic arterial and portal flow. A higher rate of graft dysfunction was observed in modulated vs. unmodulated subjects (31% vs. 18%; P = 0.03); however, graft survival in modulated subjects was not different from unmodulated subjects at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest the need for a study using a prespecified portal flow modulation protocol with defined indications to better define the effects of these interventions.
Project description:Graft recipient weight ratios are lower in adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation than in adult-to-adult deceased-donor liver transplantation. Rapid liver regeneration is essential for increased recipient survival rates in adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation. However, the influence of biliary reconstruction methods, including choledocho-choledochostomy and choledocho-jejunostomy, on small partial liver grafts remains unknown. Herein, we investigate the impact of these biliary reconstruction methods on small partial liver grafts. Methods:Male Lewis rats underwent isogenic arterialized 30% partial liver transplantation with small partial grafts, either via choledocho-jejunostomy or choledocho-choledochostomy. Results:The 7-day survival rates of the choledocho-choledochostomy and choledocho-jejunostomy groups were 100% and 50%, respectively (P = 0.011). Choledocho-jejunostomy provoked reflux cholangitis, as confirmed by neutrophil infiltration around the bile ducts; suppressed and delayed liver regeneration in grafts, as confirmed by significant increases in intrahepatic interleukin-1? level, significant decreases in the graft weight increase ratios, hepatocyte proliferation, and intrahepatic mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor; and induced graft dysfunction, as confirmed by the presence of massive ascites, significantly decreased bile production, and prolonged elevation of total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Conclusions:Choledocho-jejunostomy predisposed grafts to cholangitis, impaired liver regeneration, and aggravated animal survival, suggesting that choledocho-choledochostomy may be preferable over choledocho-jejunostomy in adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation.
Project description:Background. Transplantation of ethanol-induced steatotic livers causes increased graft injury. We hypothesized that upregulation of hepatic ICAM-1 after ethanol produces increased leukocyte adherence, resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and injury after liver transplantation (LT). Methods. C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) and ICAM-1 knockout (KO) mice were gavaged with ethanol (6 g/kg) or water. LT was then performed into WT recipients. Necrosis and apoptosis, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining, and sinusoidal leukocyte movement by intravital microscopy were assessed. Results. Ethanol gavage of WT mice increased hepatic triglycerides 10-fold compared to water treatment (P < 0.05). ICAM-1 also increased, but ALT was normal. At 8 h after LT of WT grafts, ALT increased 2-fold more with ethanol than water treatment (P < 0.05). Compared to ethanol-treated WT grafts, ALT from ethanol-treated KO grafts was 78% less (P < 0.05). Apoptosis also decreased by 75% (P < 0.05), and 4-HNE staining after LT was also decreased in ethanol-treated KO grafts compared to WT. Intravital microscopy demonstrated a 2-fold decrease in leukocyte adhesion in KO grafts compared to WT grafts. Conclusions. Increased ICAM-1 expression in ethanol-treated fatty livers predisposes to leukocyte adherence after LT, which leads to a disturbed microcirculation, oxidative stress and graft injury.
Project description:Infants have the highest wait-list mortality of all liver transplantation candidates. Deceased-donor split-liver transplantation, a technique that provides both an adult and pediatric graft, might be the best way to decrease this disproportionate mortality. Yet concern for an increased risk to adult split recipients has discouraged its widespread adoption. We aimed to determine the current risk of graft failure in adult recipients after split-liver transplantation.United Network for Organ Sharing data from 62,190 first-time adult recipients of deceased-donor liver transplants (1995-2010) were analyzed (889 split grafts). Bivariate risk factors (p < 0.2) were included in Cox proportional hazards models of the effect of transplant type on graft failure.Split-liver recipients had an overall hazard ratio of graft failure of 1.26 (p < 0.001) compared with whole-liver recipients. The split-liver hazard ratio was 1.45 (p < 0.001) in the pre-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era (1995-2002) and 1.10 (p = 0.28) in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era (2002-2010). Interaction analyses suggested an increased risk of split-graft failure in status 1 recipients and those given an exception for hepatocellular carcinoma. Excluding higher-risk recipients, split and whole grafts had similar outcomes (hazard ratio = 0.94; p = 0.59).The risk of graft failure is now similar between split and whole-liver recipients in the vast majority of cases, which demonstrates that the expansion of split-liver allocation might be possible without increasing the overall risk of long-term graft failure in adult recipients. Additional prospective analysis should examine if selection bias might account for the possible increase in risk for recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma or designated status 1.