Predictors of castration-resistant prostate cancer after dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a near uniformly fatal form of prostate cancer; however, information on time to development and predictors for progression to CRPC is limited. We report a detailed longitudinal study for development of CRPC in men initially treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).During 1991-2008, 2,478 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated EBRT at a single institution. The primary objective was to determine predictors of CRPC among men who failed definitive EBRT and progressed to salvage androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). CRPC was defined as castrate levels of testosterone (<50?ng/dl) with progressive biochemical or radiographic disease.For the entire cohort (n?=?2,478), the 10-year cumulative incidence rate for developing CRPC was 9.9%. For those that progressed to salvage ADT (n?=?362), the 7-year cumulative incidence rates for developing CRPC from time of salvage ADT was 33.7%. Amongst this cohort, multivariable analysis demonstrated that PSA doubling-time (continuous; hazard ratio [HR], 0.98 [0.97-0.99], P?
Project description:To evaluate the incidence and predictors of hip toxicity postradiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.4067 prostate cancer patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; n=2569; 63%) or brachytherapy with or without supplemental EBRT (n=1508; 27%). 43% (n=1738) were treated with neo-adjuvant and concurrent ADT and 57% (n=2329) with radiotherapy alone. Hip toxicity was defined as moderate or severe pain upon ambulation with or without the need for hip-revision surgery. Median follow-up was 7years (range, 3-21years).One hundred twenty-one (2.7%) patients developed moderate-to-severe hip pain after radiotherapy affecting ambulation. Of these, 73 (60%) required hip replacement secondary to persistent hip pain. Among patients with baseline degenerative joint disease (DJD) changes on scans, 10-year incidence of hip-related toxicity was 11% versus 3% for those without such changes (P<.001). The only variables on multivariate analysis associated with hip-related toxicity post-radiotherapy were baseline DJD on imaging (P<.0001) and prolonged ADT for salvage therapy (P<.0001).Prostate EBRT or brachytherapy is associated with low incidence of long-term hip-related toxicity. The only variables identified associated with hip toxicity posttherapy was the presence of baseline DJD and prolonged salvage ADT posttreatment for patients developing recurrence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ultrahypofractionation using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an increasingly utilized technique for men with prostate cancer (PC). The comparative efficacy of SBRT plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared to fractionated radiotherapy (EBRT) plus ADT in higher-risk prostate cancer is unknown. METHODS:Men >?40?years old with localized PC treated with external beam radiation and concomitant ADT for curative intent between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed from the National Cancer Database. Patients who lacked ADT or risk stratification data were excluded. 558 men treated with SBRT versus 40,797 men treated with conventional or moderately hypofractionated EBRT were included. Patients were stratified by unfavorable intermediate (UIR) and high (HR) risk using NCCN criteria. Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazards were used to compare overall survival (OS) between RT modality, adjusting for age, race, and comorbidity index. RESULTS:With a median follow up of 74?months, there was no difference in estimated 6-year OS between men treated with SBRT versus EBRT regardless of risk group. On multivariable analysis, there was no difference in risk of death for men treated with SBRT compared to EBRT (UIR: adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.68-1.74, p?=?.72; HR: adjusted HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.76-1.14, p?=?.51). On sensitivity analyses, when confining the cohort to men treated with NCCN-preferred dose fractionations, with no comorbidities, or?<?65?years old, there remained no survival difference between treatment groups for both UIR and HR. CONCLUSION:Within study limitations, we found no difference in survival between SBRT+ADT and standard of care EBRT+ADT for UIR or HR PC. These results support recent NCCN guideline updates, which include SBRT as a non-preferred option for higher risk men. Prospective validation would further strengthen the evidence basis behind these recommendations.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival between PSA bounce (PSA-B) and non-bounce patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS:During 1990-2010, 1898 prostate adenocarcinoma patients were treated with DE-EBRT to ?75 Gy with ?5 years follow-up. Patients receiving neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (n=1035) or with fewer than 4 PSA values obtained 6 months or more after post-EBRT completion (n=87) were excluded. The evaluable 776 patients were treated (median, 81.0 Gy). Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as a ?0.2-ng/mL increase above the interval PSA nadir, followed by a decrease to nadir or below. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as post-radiation therapy PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 6.9-11.3 years). RESULTS:One hundred twenty-three patients (15.9%) experienced PSA-B after DE-EBRT at a median of 24.6 months (interquartile range, 16.1-38.5 months). On multivariate analysis, younger age (P=.001), lower Gleason score (P=.0003), and higher radiation therapy dose (P=.0002) independently predicted PSA-B. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was independently associated with decreased risk for PSA relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.85; P=.008), distant metastatic disease (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.94; P=.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.96; P=.04) on multivariate Cox analysis. Because all 50 prostate cancer-specific deaths in patients without PSA-B were in the non-bounce cohort, competing-risks analysis was not applicable. A nonparametric competing-risks test demonstrated that patients with PSA-B had superior cancer-specific survival compared with patients without PSA-B (P=.004). CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma who experience posttreatment PSA-B have improved PSA recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and cancer-specific survival outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Brachytherapy is a well-established treatment of localized prostate cancer. Few studies have documented long-term results, specifically biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) in men with brachytherapy alone, with or without short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Our aim was to analyze long-term bPFS of brachytherapy treated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective analysis of 1457 patients with low and intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone (1255) or combined with EBRT (202). Six-months ADT was administrated for all EBRT combined patients and for prostate volume downsizing when >55 cc (328). Failure was by the Phoenix definition. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression estimated and compared 10-yr and 15-yr rates of bPFS. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 6.1 yr. Ten and 15-yr bPFS rates of the entire cohort were 93.2% and 89.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, PSA density (PSAD), ADT and clinical stage were significantly associated with failure. The most powerful independent factor was PSAD with a HR of 3.5 (95% CI, 1.7-7.4) for PSAD above 0.15. No significant difference was found between low and intermediate risks patients regardless of treatment regimen. However, comparison of two intermediate risk groups, Gleason score (GS) 7, PSA<20 ng/ml versus GS≤6 and PSA = 10-20 ng/ml, revealed 10- and 15-yr bPFS rates of 94.2% and 94.2% compared to 88.2% and 79.9%, (P = 0.022), respectively. ADT improved bPFS rates in low risk patients. The ten and 15-yr bPFS rates were 97.6% and 94.6% compared to 92.3% and 88.2%, (P = 0.020), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our retrospective large scale study suggests that brachytherapy provides excellent long-term bPFS rates in low and intermediate risk disease. Combination of brachytherapy with EBRT yields favorable outcomes in GS 7 intermediate risk patients and short-term ADT has a positive effect on outcomes in low risk patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to discriminate the role of adding either EBRT and/or ADT to brachytherapy protocols.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The optimal salvage treatment strategies for lymph node-positive (LNP) patients after radical surgery have not been clearly defined in prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence or persistence of elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In this study, we compared the clinical outcomes of two different salvage treatments, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone versus ADT with radiotherapy (RT). We also investigated prognostic factors that could support the use of ADT with RT in LNP prostate cancer.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed 94 LNP prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by salvage treatment between 2004 and 2018. Salvage treatments involved either ADT alone or ADT with RT according to the clinical judgment of the physician. We analyzed clinicopathological and treatment factors related to 2nd biochemical failure (2nd BCF), clinical progression (CP), and progression-free survival (PFS). The cumulative failure after salvage treatment was defined as including both 2nd BCF and CP.<h4>Results</h4>The median duration of follow-up was 55 months (interquartile range, 35-97 months). Thirty-seven (39.4%) patients were treated with ADT alone, and 57 patients (60.6%) were treated with a combination of ADT with RT. During follow-up period, the incidence of failure after salvage treatment in the ADT alone group and the combined treatment group was 89.2% and 45.6%, respectively (HR, 22.4; 95% CI 5.43-92.1; P < 0.001). The combination of ADT with RT was associated with better 2nd BCF and PFS than ADT alone (P = 0.007 and P = 0.015, respectively). In multivariate analyses, number of positive LN ≥ 2 and PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP were associated with poor 2nd BCF, CP, and PFS after salvage treatment. Salvage by combined ADT plus RT showed better 2nd BCF and PFS than ADT alone. Specifically, patients with number of positive LN ≥ 2 or PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP showed better 2nd BCF (P = 0.004) or PFS (P = 0.011) when treated with ADT plus RT rather than ADT alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with LNP prostate cancer, salvage ADT plus RT improved 2nd BCF and PFS compared to ADT alone. In particular, when the patients had more than two positive lymph nodes or PSA nadir ≥ 0.005 ng/ml after RP, ADT with RT seems to be a more beneficial salvage treatment resulting in better 2nd BCF and PFS.
Project description:The management of biochemical failure (BF) following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer is controversial, due to both the heterogeneous disease course following a BF and a lack of clinical trials in this setting.We sought to characterize the natural history and predictors of outcome for patients experiencing BF in a large cohort of men with localized prostate cancer undergoing definitive dose-escalated EBRT.This retrospective analysis included 2694 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT at a large academic center. Of these, 609 experienced BF, defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir + 2 ng/ml. The median follow-up was 83 mo for all patients and 122 mo for BF patients.All patients received EBRT at doses of 75.6-86.4 Gy.The primary objective of this study was to determine predictors of distant progression at the time of BF. Cox proportional hazards models were used in univariate and multivariate analyses of distant metastases (DM), and a competing risks method was used to analyze prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM).From the date of BF, the median times to DM and PCSM mortality were 5.4 yr and 10.5 yr, respectively. Shorter posttreatment PSA doubling time, a higher initial clinical tumor stage, a higher pretreatment Gleason score, and a shorter interval from the end of radiotherapy to BF were independent predictors for clinical progression following BF. Patients with two of these risk factors had a significantly higher incidence of DM and PCSM following BF than those with zero or one risk factor. The main limitations of this study are its retrospective nature and heterogeneous salvage interventions.Clinical and pathologic factors can help identify patients at high risk of clinical progression following BF.In this report, we look at predictors of outcome for patients with prostate cancer recurrence, as determined by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, following radiation treatment. We found that the approximate median times to distant metastasis and death from prostate cancer for patients in this situation were 5 yr and 10 yr, respectively. Furthermore, we found that patients with a rapid increase in PSA levels following treatment, a short time to PSA recurrence, invasion of extraprostatic organs, or a high Gleason score had worse outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The optimal management strategy for high-risk prostate cancer and additional adverse clinicopathologic features remains unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare clinical outcomes among patients with high-risk prostate cancer after definitive treatment.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This retrospective cohort study included patients with high-risk prostate cancer (as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN]) and at least 1 adverse clinicopathologic feature (defined as any primary Gleason pattern 5 on biopsy, clinical T3b-4 disease, ≥50% cores with biopsy results positive for prostate cancer, or NCCN ≥2 high-risk features) treated between 2000 and 2014 at 16 tertiary centers. Data were analyzed in November 2020.<h4>Exposures</h4>Radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or EBRT plus brachytherapy boost (BT) with ADT. Guideline-concordant multimodal treatment was defined as RP with appropriate use of multimodal therapy (optimal RP), EBRT with at least 2 years of ADT (optimal EBRT), or EBRT with BT with at least 1 year ADT (optimal EBRT with BT).<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was prostate cancer-specific mortality; distant metastasis was a secondary outcome. Differences were evaluated using inverse probability of treatment weight-adjusted Fine-Gray competing risk regression models.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 6004 men (median [interquartile range] age, 66.4 [60.9-71.8] years) with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, including 3175 patients (52.9%) who underwent RP, 1830 patients (30.5%) who underwent EBRT alone, and 999 patients (16.6%) who underwent EBRT with BT. Compared with RP, treatment with EBRT with BT (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 0.78, [95% CI, 0.63-0.97]; P = .03) or with EBRT alone (sHR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.53-0.92]; P = .01) was associated with significantly improved prostate cancer-specific mortality; there was no difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality between EBRT with BT and EBRT alone (sHR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.67-1.18]; P = .43). No significant differences in prostate cancer-specific mortality were found across treatment cohorts among 2940 patients who received guideline-concordant multimodality treatment (eg, optimal EBRT alone vs optimal RP: sHR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.52-1.09]; P = .14). However, treatment with EBRT alone or EBRT with BT was consistently associated with lower rates of distant metastasis compared with treatment with RP (eg, EBRT vs RP: sHR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.44-0.58]; P < .001).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>These findings suggest that among patients with high-risk prostate cancer and additional unfavorable clinicopathologic features receiving guideline-concordant multimodal therapy, prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes were equivalent among those treated with RP, EBRT, and EBRT with BT, although distant metastasis outcomes were more favorable among patients treated with EBRT and EBRT with BT. Optimal multimodality treatment is critical for improving outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
Project description:Biomarkers for predicting the risk of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in men treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are lacking. We investigated whether Zinc-alpha 2 glycoprotein (AZGP1) expression in the diagnostic biopsies of men with hormone-naïve prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing primary ADT was predictive of the development of CRPC and PCa-specific mortality. The study included 191 patients who commenced ADT from 2000 to 2011. The AZGP1 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and scored as high or low expression. The risks of CRPC and PCa-specific mortality were analyzed using stratified cumulative incidences and a cause-specific COX regression analysis for competing risk assessment. The median follow-up time was 9.8 (IQR: 6.1-12.7) years. In total, 94 and 97 patients presented with low and high AZGP1 expression, respectively. A low AZGP1 expression was found to be associated with a shorter time to CRPC when compared to patients with a high AZGP1 expression (HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; p = 0.03). However, the multivariable analysis demonstrated no added benefit by adding the AZGP1 expression to prediction models for CRPC. No differences for PCa-specific mortality between the AZGP1 groups were observed. In conclusion, a low AZGP1 expression was associated with a shorter time to CRPC for PCa patients treated with first-line ADT but did not add any predictive information besides well-established clinicopathological variables.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin- 8 (IL-8), produced by tumor cells and some myeloid cells, promotes inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In our discovery work, elevated serum IL-8 at androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) initiation portended worse overall survival (OS). Leveraging serum samples from the phase 3 CHAARTED trial of patients treated with ADT +/- docetaxel for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC), we validated these findings.<h4>Methods</h4>Two hundred and thirty-three patients had serum samples drawn within 28 days of ADT initiation. The samples were assayed using the same Mesoscale Multiplex ELISA platform employed in the discovery cohort. After adjusting for performance status, disease volume, and de novo/metachronous metastases, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models assessed associations between IL-8 as continuous and binary variables on OS and time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The median IL-8 level (9.3 pg/ml) was the a priori binary cutpoint. Fixed-effects meta-analyses of the discovery and validation sets were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Higher IL-8 levels were prognostic for shorter OS (continuous: hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.6, p = .001; binary >9.3: HR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4, p = .007) and time to CRPC (continuous: HR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.3, p < .001; binary: HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5, p < .001) and independent of docetaxel use, disease burden, and time of metastases. Meta-analysis including the discovery cohort, also showed that binary IL-8 levels >9.3 pg/ml from patients treated with ADT alone was prognostic for poorer OS (HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7, p = .007) and shorter time to CRPC (HR 1.4, 95% CI: 0.99-1.9, p = .057).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In the phase 3 CHAARTED study of men with mHSPC at ADT initiation, elevated IL-8 portended worse survival and shorter time to castration-resistant prostate cancer independent of docetaxel administration, metastatic burden, and metachronous versus de novo metastatic presentation. These findings support targeting IL-8 as a strategy to improve mHSPC outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4> To date, there are no useful markers for predicting the prognosis of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). We evaluated the effect of early changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression and overall survival (OS) in mHSPC patients. <h4>Results</h4> In 71 primary mHSPC patients treated with ADT, the median times to CRPC and OS were 15 months and 92 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a Gleason score of ≥ 8 (p = 0.004), an extent of disease value (EOD) of ≥ 2 (p = 0.004), and a 3-month PSA level > 1% of the pretreatment level (p = 0.017) were independent predictors of shorter time to CRPC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was feasible at 0.822. A 3-month PSA level > 1% of the pretreatment level was an independent predictor of OS (p = 0.004). Three factors were independent predictors of shorter time to CRPC. A 3-month PSA level > 1% of the pretreatment level correlated with a poor prognosis. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13104-021-05641-5.