Prostate-Specific Antigen 5 Years following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Ablative Procedure?
ABSTRACT: Our previous work on early PSA kinetics following prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) demonstrated that an initial rapid and then slow PSA decline may result in very low PSA nadirs. This retrospective study sought to evaluate the PSA nadir 5 years following SBRT for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa).65 low- and 80 intermediate-risk PCa patients were treated definitively with SBRT to 35-37.5 Gy in 5 fractions at Georgetown University Hospital between January 2008 and October 2011. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy were excluded from this study. Biochemical relapse was defined as a PSA rise >2 ng/ml above the nadir and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The PSA nadir was defined as the lowest PSA value prior to biochemical relapse or as the lowest value recorded during follow-up. Prostate ablation was defined as a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate relevant variables on the likelihood of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml.The median age at the start of SBRT was 72 years. These patients had a median prostate volume of 36 cc with a median 25% of total cores involved. At a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 86 and 37% of patients achieved a PSA nadir ≤0.5 and <0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The median time to PSA nadir was 36 months. Two low and seven intermediate risk patients experienced a biochemical relapse. Regardless of the PSA outcome, the median PSA nadir for all patients was 0.2 ng/ml. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 98.5 and 95%, respectively. Initial PSA (p = 0.024) and a lower testosterone at the time of the PSA nadir (p = 0.049) were found to be significant predictors of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml.SBRT for low- and intermediate-risk PCa is a convenient treatment option with low PSA nadirs and a high rate of early bRFS. Fewer than 40% of patients, however, achieved an ablative PSA nadir. Thus, the role of further dose escalation is an area of active investigation.
Project description:In Japan, the use of adjuvant radiotherapy after prostatectomy for prostate cancer has not increased compared with the use of salvage radiotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of adjuvant radiotherapy together with prognostic factors of outcome in Japan. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 87 patients were referred for adjuvant radiotherapy in 23 institutions [median age: 64 years (54-77 years), median initial prostate-specific antigen: 11.0 ng/ml (2.9-284 ng/ml), Gleason score (GS): 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 = 13.8, 35.6, 23.0, 27.6, 0%, respectively]. Rates of positive marginal status, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and extra-prostatic extension (EPE) were 74%, 26% and 64%, respectively. Median post-operative PSA nadir: 0.167 ng/ml (0-2.51 ng/ml). Median time from surgery to radiotherapy was 3 months (1-6 months). A total dose of ? 60 Gy and <65 Gy was administered to 69% of patients. The median follow-up time was 62 months. The 3- and 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rates for all patients were 66.5% and 57.1%, respectively. The GS and marginal status (P = 0.019), GS and SVI (P = 0.001), marginal status and EPE (P = 0.017), type of hormonal therapy and total dose (P = 0.026) were significantly related. The 5-year bRFS rate was significantly higher in SVI-negative patients than SVI-positive patients (P = 0.001), and significantly higher in patients with post-operative PSA nadir ? 0.2 than in patients with post-operative PSA nadir >0.2 (P = 0.02), and tended to be more favorable after radiotherapy ? 3 months from surgery than >3 months from surgery (P = 0.069). Multivariate analysis identified SVI and post-operative PSA nadir as independent prognostic factors for bRFS (P = 0.001 and 0.018, respectively).
Project description:PURPOSE:Since the success of prostate-specific membrane antigen-positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) imaging for patients with oligorecurrent prostate cancer (ORPC), it is increasingly used for radiotherapy as metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). Therefore, we developed a prognostic risk classification for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) for patients after PSMA-PET-guided MDT after radical prostatectomy. METHODS:We analyzed 292 patients with local recurrence (LR) and/or pelvic lymph node (LN) lesions and/or up to five distant LN, bone (BM), or visceral metastases (VM) detected with [68Ga]PSMA-PET imaging. Median follow-up was 16 months (range 0-57). The primary endpoint was bRFS after MDT. Cox regression analysis for risk factors was incorporated into a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) with classification and regression tree method. RESULTS:PSA at recurrence ??0.8 ng/mL, BM, and VM was significantly associated with biochemical relapse. RPA showed five groups with tenfold cross-validation of 0.294 (SE 0.032). After building risk classes I to IV (p?<?0.0001), mean bRFS was 36.3 months (95% CI 32.4-40.1) in class I (PSA <?0.8 ng/mL, no BM) and 25.8 months (95% CI 22.5-29.1) in class II (PSA ??0.8 ng/mL, no BM, no VM). LR and/or pelvic LNs caused relapse in classes I and II. Mean bRFS was 16.0 months (95% CI 12.4-19.6) in class III (PSA irrelevant, present BM) and 5.7 months (95% CI 2.7-8.7) in class IV (PSA ??0.8 ng/mL, no BM, present VM). CONCLUSION:We developed and internally validated a risk classification for bRFS after PSMA-PET-guided MDT. Patients with PSA <?0.8 ng/mL and local relapse only (LR and/or pelvic LNs) had the most promising bRFS. PSA ??0.8 ng/mL and local relapse only (LR and/or pelvic LNs) indicated intermediate risk for failure. Patients with BM were at higher risk regardless of the PSA. However, those patients still show satisfactory bRFS. In patients with VM, bRFS is heavily decreased. MDT in such cases should be discussed individually.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>The optimal dose for prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is still unknown. This study evaluated the dose-response relationships for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decay and biochemical recurrence (BCR) among 4 SBRT dose regimens.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>In 1908 men with low-risk (50.0%), favorable intermediate-risk (30.9%), and unfavorable intermediate-risk (19.1%) prostate cancer treated with prostate SBRT across 8 institutions from 2003 to 2018, we examined 4 regimens (35 Gy/5 fractions [35/5, n = 265, 13.4%], 36.25 Gy/5 fractions [36.25/5, n = 711, 37.3%], 40 Gy/5 fractions [40/5, n = 684, 35.8%], and 38 Gy/4 fractions [38/4, n = 257, 13.5%]). Between dose groups, we compared PSA decay slope, nadir PSA (nPSA), achievement of nPSA ?0.2 and ?0.5 ng/mL, and BCR-free survival (BCRFS).<h4>Results</h4>Median follow-up was 72.3 months. Median nPSA was 0.01 ng/mL for 38/4, and 0.17-0.20 ng/mL for 5-fraction regimens (p < 0.0001). The 38/4 cohort demonstrated the steepest PSA decay slope and greater odds of nPSA ?0.2 ng/mL (both p < 0.0001 vs. all other regimens). BCR occurred in 6.25%, 6.75%, 3.95%, and 8.95% of men treated with 35/5, 36.25/5, 40/5, and 38/4, respectively (p = 0.12), with the highest BCRFS after 40/5 (vs. 35/5 hazard ratio [HR] 0.49, p = 0.026; vs. 36.25/5 HR 0.42, p = 0.0005; vs. 38/4 HR 0.55, p = 0.037) including the entirety of follow-up, but not for 5-year BCRFS (?93% for all regimens, p ? 0.21).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dose-escalation was associated with greater prostate ablation and PSA decay. Dose-escalation to 40/5, but not beyond, was associated with improved BCRFS. Biochemical control remains excellent, and prospective studies will provide clarity on the benefit of dose-escalation.
Project description:Radiotherapy is an increasingly preferred treatment option for localized prostate cancer, and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) a relatively established modality of therapeutic irradiation. The present study analyzes the toxicity and biochemical efficacy of SBRT in 100 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System.One hundred patients were treated with SBRT at the Radiation Oncology department of San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy. All patients included in this IRB-approved protocol-driven prospective study had biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Risk category was low in 41, intermediate in 42, and high in 17 patients. The patients were treated with CyberKnife-SBRT (CK-SBRT), the prescription dose was 35 Gy in five fractions, corresponding to 92 Gy in 2-Gy fractions (?/? =1.5 Gy); 29 patients also received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-76 months). Acute Grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in respectively 12% and 18% of the patients; there were no Grade 3 or higher acute toxicities. Late Grade 1, 2, and 3 genitourinary toxicities occurred in 4%, 3%, and 1% of the patients, respectively; late Grade 1 gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in two patients and Grade 2 toxicity in one patient; no late gastrointestinal toxicities of grade 3 or 4 were observed. Median PSA nadir was 0.45 ng/ml at 36 months for all patients. In the SBRT-monotherapy group, the median PSA nadir at 36 months was 0.62 ng/ml; in the ADT-SBRT group, it was 0.18 ng/ml. Four patients had clinical recurrence: one local, two lymph nodes, and one to the bone. Ninety-six patients had no evidence of biochemical or clinical recurrence. A benign PSA bounce of median 1.08 ng/ml occurred in 12% of the 71 SBRT monotherapy patients at a mean 23 months (range, 18-30 months).In this study CK-SBRT has provided promising outcomes in localized prostate cancer with good PSA response, minimal toxicity and patient inconvenience.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To report on initial patient characteristics, treatment practices, toxicity, and early biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) of localized prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and enrolled in the RSSearch(®) Patient Registry. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients with clinically localized prostate cancer enrolled in RSSearch(®) from June 2006 - January 2015. Patients were classified as low-risk (PSA ? 10 ng/ml, T1c-T2a, Gleason score ? 6), intermediate-risk (PSA 10.1 - 20 ng/ml, T2b-T2c, or Gleason 7), or high-risk (PSA > 20 ng/ml, T3 or Gleason ? 8). Toxicity was reported using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. Biochemical failure was assessed using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml). The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate bDFS and association of patient and tumor characteristics with the use of SBRT. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-seven patients (189 low, 215 intermediate, and 33 high-risk) at a median of 69 years (range: 48-88) received SBRT at 17 centers. Seventy-eight percent of patients received 36.25 Gy/5 fractions, 13% received 37 Gy/5 fractions, 6% received 35 Gy/5 fractions, 3% received 38 Gy/4 fractions, and 5% received a boost dose of 19.5-29 Gy following external beam radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 20 months (range: 1-64 months). Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were minimal, with no acute or late Grade 3+ GU or GI toxicity. Late Grade 1 and 2 urinary frequency was 25% and 8%. Late Grade 1 and 2 proctitis was 3% and 2%. Median PSA decreased from 5.8 ng/ml (range: 0.3-43) to 0.88, 0.4, and 0.3 ng/ml at one, two, and three years. Two-year bDFS for all patients was 96.1%. Two-year bDFS was 99.0%, 94.5%, and 89.8% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients (p < 0.0001). Two-year bDFS was 99.2%, 93.2%, and 90.4% for Gleason ? 6, Gleason 7, and Gleason ? 8 (p < 0.0001). Two-year bDFS was 96.4%, 97.2%, and 62.5% for PSA ? 10 ng/ml, PSA 10.1 - 20 ng/ml, and PSA > 20 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). Clinical T Stage was not significantly associated with bDFS. CONCLUSIONS: Early disease outcomes of SBRT for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer from a multicenter patient registry compare favorably with reports from single institutions. Acute and late GU and GI toxicities were minimal, and PSA response to SBRT was highly encouraging. Continued accrual and follow-up will be necessary to confirm long-term results.
Project description:The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to conventional radiation therapy improves overall survival (OS) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. The benefit of ADT to added to dose-escalated radiotherapy is less clear. The aim of this study was to report disease control outcomes and to identify prognostic variables associated with favorable outcomes in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy without ADT.From September 2001 to March 2010, 127 patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated radiation otherapy without ADT. Biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), prostate cancer-specific mortality, and OS were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox regression modeling were performed.The median follow-up was 6.5 years, and the 5-year estimated bRFS, DMFS, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and OS for all patients was 89%, 96.1%, 98.4%, and 96.9% respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors that predict bRFS include risk group and PSA nadir, and factors that predict DMFS include perineural invasion, risk group, and PSA nadir.Patients with favorable intermediate-risk cancer could likely be treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy without ADT. Patients with high-risk and unfavorable intermediate-risk cancer, perineural invasion, and PSA nadir ≥1ng/dL had worse outcomes and likely need distinct therapeutic approaches.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Prostate cancer is the third most important cancer in terms of mortality in men. No standard local treatment exists for patients with an intraprostatic recurrence after radiotherapy. Stereotatic body radiotherapy (SBRT) could be a curative treatment for local recurrence. The phase I/II primary objective is the selection of the recommended dose for salvage-SBRT and to estimate the efficacy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We plan to perform a multicentre prospective phase I/II study including at least 47 patients. Eligible patients are patients with biochemical recurrence occurring at least 2 years after external radiotherapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma by the Phoenix definition (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir +2?ng/mL) and histologically proven intraprostatic recurrence only (stage T1-T2 on relapse, PSA level ?10?ng/mL, PSA doubling time >10 months, absence of pelvic or metastatic recurrence proven by choline or PSMA positron emission tomography scan, and pelvic and prostatic assessment by multiparametric MRI). The phase I primary objective is the selection of the recommended dose for salvage-SBRT (5×6, 6×6 or 5×5?Gy) based on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The dose of salvage-SBRT will be selected using a time-to-event continual reassessment method based on DLT defined as grade ?3 gastrointestinal or urinary toxicity or any other grade 4 adverse event. The phase II primary outcome is to estimate the efficacy of the salvage-SBRT in terms of biochemical relapse-free survival rate (Phoenix definition: increase in serum total PSA ?2?ng/mL above the nadir). Phase II secondary outcomes are acute and late toxicities, quality of life, clinical progression-free survival defined as the time interval between the date of registration and the date of clinical progression or death irrespective of the cause. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study has received ethical approval from the Ethics committee 'Ile-de-France III'. Academic dissemination will occur through publication and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03438552.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate whether whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) improves biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) vs. prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT) in prostate cancer patients receiving salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from patients with prostate cancer who underwent SRT for biochemical recurrence between 2005 and 2012 in two academic institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients treated with WPRT in one hospital were compared with patients treated with PBRT in the other. Propensity scoring was performed to balance the characteristics of the different treatment groups, and bRFS was compared.<h4>Results</h4>Data from a total of 191 patients were included in the analysis (WPRT, n = 108; PBRT, n = 83). The median follow-up period was 66 months. Prior to matching, patients who received WPRT had higher pathologic Gleason scores as well as a higher incidence of pre-SRT PSA levels >0.5 ng/mL and lower rates of concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy. Propensity score matching balanced these characteristics and generated a cohort comprising 56 patients from each group. In the matched cohort, the 5 year bRFS of the WPRT group was significantly higher than that of the PBRT group (65.9 vs. 42.2%, p = 0.017). Multivariate analysis revealed that WPRT was an independent prognostic factor for bRFS (hazard ratio: 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.75, p = 0.002). This benefit of WPRT on bRFS was maintained in subgroup analyses, especially in patients with preoperative PSA level ?20 ng/mL or pre-SRT PSA level ?0.4 ng/mL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggest that, following radical prostatectomy, elective WPRT during SRT may improve bRFS compared with PBRT in selected patients. Patients with preoperative PSA level ?20 ng/mL or pre-SRT PSA level ?0.4 ng/mL represent a potential subgroup who benefit most from receiving WPRT. Results of prospective randomized trials are awaited to confirm this finding.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival between PSA bounce (PSA-B) and non-bounce patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS:During 1990-2010, 1898 prostate adenocarcinoma patients were treated with DE-EBRT to ?75 Gy with ?5 years follow-up. Patients receiving neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (n=1035) or with fewer than 4 PSA values obtained 6 months or more after post-EBRT completion (n=87) were excluded. The evaluable 776 patients were treated (median, 81.0 Gy). Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as a ?0.2-ng/mL increase above the interval PSA nadir, followed by a decrease to nadir or below. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as post-radiation therapy PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 6.9-11.3 years). RESULTS:One hundred twenty-three patients (15.9%) experienced PSA-B after DE-EBRT at a median of 24.6 months (interquartile range, 16.1-38.5 months). On multivariate analysis, younger age (P=.001), lower Gleason score (P=.0003), and higher radiation therapy dose (P=.0002) independently predicted PSA-B. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was independently associated with decreased risk for PSA relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.85; P=.008), distant metastatic disease (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.94; P=.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.96; P=.04) on multivariate Cox analysis. Because all 50 prostate cancer-specific deaths in patients without PSA-B were in the non-bounce cohort, competing-risks analysis was not applicable. A nonparametric competing-risks test demonstrated that patients with PSA-B had superior cancer-specific survival compared with patients without PSA-B (P=.004). CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma who experience posttreatment PSA-B have improved PSA recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and cancer-specific survival outcomes.
Project description:The purpose of this analysis was primarily to analyze biochemical-recurrence free survival (BRFS) after positron emission tomography (PET)-guided salvage radiotherapy (sRT) in a large cohort, and to further compare BRFS after PSMA vs. choline PET/ computer tomography (CT)-based sRT. This retrospective analysis is based on 421 patients referred for PSMA or choline PET/CT after radical prostatectomy due to biochemically recurrent or persistent disease. BRFS (PSA: 0.2 ng/mL) was defined as the study endpoint. Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of different clinical parameters on BRFS. Additionally, propensity score matching was performed to adjust patient cohorts (PSMA vs. choline PET/CT-based sRT). The median follow-up time was 30 months. BRFS at three years after sRT was 58%. In the multivariate analysis, only PSA before PET imaging and PSA before sRT were significantly associated with BRFS (<i>p</i> < 0.05). After propensity score matching, 272 patients were further analyzed; there was no significant difference in three-year BRFS between patients with PSMA PET-based vs. choline PET-based sRT (55% vs. 63%, <i>p</i> = 0.197). The present analysis confirmed the overall high BRFS rates after PET-based sRT and the strong prognostic effect of PSA level prior to sRT. PSMA PET-based sRT did not have superior BRFS rates when compared with choline PET-based sRT.