A Case with Severe Endometriosis, Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, and Isolated Unilateral Pleural Effusion after IVF.
ABSTRACT: We present a very rare case of right-sided isolated pleural effusion in a patient with severe endometriosis who, in relation to in vitro fertilization (IVF), developed ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Earlier laparotomy showed grade IV endometriosis including endometriotic implants of the diaphragm. The patient had no known risk factors for OHSS and only a moderate number of oocytes aspirated. She received, however, repeated hCG injections for luteal support. The patient did not achieve pregnancy but was hospitalized due to pain in the right side of the chest and dyspnoea. A chest computed tomography (CT) showed a pleural effusion on the right side. Total of 1000 ml of pleural fluid was drained after a single thoracentesis. After three days, the symptoms and fluid production ceased. Ascites is a common finding in OHSS, but pleural effusions are rare. Further, isolated pleural effusions have not previously been described in a patient with endometriosis. We suggest that the repeated hCG injections induced effusions from the endometriotic lesions at the diaphragm and as a consequence this patient developed isolated hydrothorax.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestation and predictive risk factors of pleural empyema developing during treatment of the pyogenic liver abscess. METHODS:Medical records of patients with the liver abscess in our institution were reviewed retrospectively. Enrolled patients were classified into four groups; Group 1: patients without pleural effusion, Group 2: patients with pleural effusion and who were treated noninvasively, Group 3: patient with pleural effusion and who were treated with thoracentesis, and Group 4: patients with pleural effusion that developed into empyema. Patient characteristics, clinical manifestation, and possible risk factors in development of empyema were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 234 patients was enrolled in this study. The incidence rate of empyema was 4.27% (10 patients). The mean interval for developing pleural effusion was 5.6?±?6.35?days. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for developing pleural effusion included the location of the liver abscess near the right diaphragm (segment 7 and 8, OR?=?2.30, p?=?0.048), and larger diameter of the liver abscess (OR?=?1.02, p?=?0.042). Among patients who developed pleural effusions, presences of mixed microorganisms from culture of liver aspirates (OR?=?10.62, p?=?0.044), bilateral pleural effusion (OR?=?46.72, p?=?0.012) and combined biliary tract inflammation (OR?=?21.05, p?=?0.040) were significantly associated with the need for invasive intervention including surgery on effusion. CONCLUSION:The location of the liver abscess as well as pleural effusion, elevated inflammatory markers, and combined biliary tract inflammation may be important markers of developing pleural complication in patients with pyogenic liver abscess.
Project description:Malignant pleural effusions are common complications in patients with primary or metastatic cancer to the lungs. In this article, we describe a unique case of a patient with history of diffuse pulmonary metastases from gallbladder adenocarcinoma who acutely developed a bilious pleural effusion following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. We believe the bilious pleural effusion (cholethorax or bilothorax) developed as a complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography rather than tumor burden causing a fistula from the biliary tree to the right pleural space. We discuss possible mechanisms of formation of the bilious pleural effusion in our patient and present a literature review of previously reported cases of bilious pleural effusions.
Project description:Background Meigs’ syndrome is a rare disease characterized by a triad of presentations, including benign ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. However, a clinical diagnosis of Meigs’ syndrome remains challenging because pleural and ascitic effusions can be common findings in a variety of underlying conditions. Furthermore, these findings can often be misdiagnosed as pleural and peritoneal dissemination caused by potentially malignant tumors, leading to the administration of improper treatment. Case presentation We described a case of an 85-year-old postmenopausal female patient with atypical Meigs’ syndrome presenting with right-sided pleural effusion, notable leg edema, and trivial ascites, which was initially mistaken as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. However, pleural effusion was totally ineffective against diuretic therapy. Subsequently, thoracentesis yielded serosanguineous exudative effusion. Moreover, refractory pleural effusions and abdominal/pelvic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings strongly suggested bilateral malignant ovarian tumors with pleural dissemination. Repetitive negative cytological results allowed the patient to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Finally, a definitive diagnosis of Meigs’ syndrome was made by confirming the presence of a benign mitotically active cellular fibroma of the ovary by pathology and that pleural effusion resolved following tumor resection. Conclusions Our case highlights the clinical importance of assessing Meigs’ syndrome in the diagnostic workup of pleural effusion in postmenopausal female patients. Given the favorable prognosis of Meigs’ syndrome, clinicians should consider surgical resection, even with potentially malignant ovarian tumors with accompanying pleural effusion, ascites, or both.
Project description:Angiosarcomas are rare cancers accounting for less than 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas. We report the case of an unusual presentation of pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma in a patient with constrictive pericarditis and recurrent pleural effusion. A 62 year old smoker presented with acute chest pain. ECG showed diffuse elevation of ST segments in the precordial leads. After extensive evaluation, he was diagnosed with viral pericarditis and treated with colchicine. Two weeks later the patient presented to the emergency department with a large right pleural effusion. Evaluation of the pleural fluid obtained from a thoracentesis revealed an exudative effusion with negative microbial studies and no evidence of malignant cells. His pleural effusion re-accumulated rapidly, requiring repeated thoracenteses over several weeks. Medical thoracoscopy was performed and pleural biopsy revealed primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma. Staging PET scan revealed malignant enhancement of right pleura, pericardium, right iliac bone and right shoulder. He died suddenly within 6 weeks of diagnosis, prior to initiating palliative chemotherapy. Pleural angiosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent pleural effusions of unknown etiology. Negative cytology does not rule out the diagnosis; excisional biopsy is required. Reported risk factors include asbestos exposure, prior chest radiation, active smoking and history of complicated pleural tuberculosis. Pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas carry a very poor prognosis, with the majority of patients dying within months of diagnosis.
Project description:A 46 year old lady presented three weeks after an oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma with increasing breathlessness and a large left-sided pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) scan of her thorax, abdomen and pelvis revealed a large left-sided and small right-sided pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, ascites and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent both pericardial and pleural fluid drainage, however, unfortunately, deteriorated despite these interventions with increasing oxygen requirements requiring nasal high flow oxygen on the Intensive Care Unit. Her pleural and pericardial collections resolved with colchicine and later introduction of prednisolone over a period of 5 weeks. Polyserositis is well recognised after cardiac surgery, but such a dramatic complication after thoracotomy for non-cardiac surgery has as not previously been reported. The polyserositis may relate to the induction chemotherapy combined with surgery.
Project description:Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is a rare entity of spontaneous, recurring pneumothorax in women. We aim to discuss the etiology, clinical course, and surgical treatment of a 42-year-old woman with CP. This patient had a right-sided spontaneous pneumothoraces occurred one week after menses. She had under-gone video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) because of a persistent air leak under chest tube. VATS revealed multiple diaphragmatic fenestrations with an upper right nodule. Defects were removed and a large part of the diaphragm was resected. Pleural abrasion was then performed over the diaphragm. Diaphragmatic endometriosis was confirmed by microscopic examination. Medical treatment with GnRH agonists was prescribed, and after recovery, the patient has been symptoms free for 20 months.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pleural effusion at presentation in Hodgkin lymphoma has been associated with inferior outcome but has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether pleural effusion at presentation in children with Hodgkin lymphoma is a primary indicator of poor prognosis or secondary to associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Children's Oncology Group (COG) AHOD0031, a randomized, response-based, centrally reviewed protocol, enrolled 1,712 eligible patients <22 years of age with initial presentation of intermediate risk, biopsy-proven Hodgkin lymphoma; 1,423 had available imaging for retrospective review. We coded effusions as fluid-only or with associated pleural nodule or adjacent lung or bone involvement and correlated this with disease stage, tumor response, large mediastinal adenopathy, and mass effect on the superior vena cava (SVC) and left innominate vein. We recorded change in size and character of effusions post-chemotherapy. RESULTS:Pleural effusions were present in 217, with 204 having fluid-only and 13 having associated solid components. Patients with effusions were more likely to have large mediastinal adenopathy (P<0.0001), be slow early responders (P<0.0001) and have higher relapse rate (P<0.0001). Vascular compression was not significantly correlated with pleural effusion. Of 121 patients with adequate [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging, no FDG PET avidity was seen in any pleural effusion but was present in solid components. The side of the pleural effusion in those with moderate or large effusions was highly associated with the side of large mediastinal adenopathy (P<0.0001). Statistical analysis indicates that pleural effusion is an independent risk factor for poorer response and relapse. CONCLUSION:Pleural effusion in Hodgkin lymphoma is an important independent poor prognostic indicator for response and relapse.
Project description:A common symptom during late stage breast cancer disease is pleural effusion, which is related to poor prognosis. Malignant cells can be detected in pleural effusions indicating metastatic spread from the primary tumor site. Pleural effusions have been shown to be a useful source for studying metastasis and for isolating cells with putative cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. For the present study, pleural effusion aspirates from 17 metastatic breast cancer patients were processed to propagate CSCs in vitro. Patient-derived aspirates were cultured under sphere forming conditions and isolated primary cultures were further sorted for cancer stem cell subpopulations ALDH1+ and CD44+CD24-/low. Additionally, sphere forming efficiency of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations was determined. In order to genetically characterize the different tumor subpopulations, DNA was isolated from pleural effusions before and after cell sorting, and compared with corresponding DNA copy number profiles from primary tumors or bone metastasis using low-coverage whole genome sequencing (SCNA-seq). In general, unsorted cells had a higher potential to form spheres when compared to CSC subpopulations. In most cases, cell sorting did not yield sufficient cells for copy number analysis. A total of five from nine analyzed unsorted pleura samples (55%) showed aberrant copy number profiles similar to the respective primary tumor. However, most sorted subpopulations showed a balanced profile indicating an insufficient amount of tumor cells and low sensitivity of the sequencing method. Finally, we were able to establish a long term cell culture from one pleural effusion sample, which was characterized in detail. In conclusion, we confirm that pleural effusions are a suitable source for enrichment of putative CSC. However, sequencing based molecular characterization is impeded due to insufficient sensitivity along with a high number of normal contaminating cells, which are masking genetic alterations of rare cancer (stem) cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:EGFR genotyping in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who develop pleural effusions is mostly performed using cytology or cell block slides with low sensitivity. Liquid biopsy using the supernatant of pleural effusions may be more effective because they contain many components released by cancer cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to carry oncogenic double-stranded DNA that is considered a notable biomarker. Here, we investigate the efficiency of liquid biopsy using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and extracellular vesicle-derived DNA (EV-derived DNA) from the supernatant of pleural effusions for EGFR genotyping in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. METHODS:Fifty pleural effusion samples from patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma were evaluated. The supernatant, after removing the cell pellet by centrifugation, was used for liquid biopsy, and EVs were isolated from the pleural effusion by ultracentrifugation. EV-derived DNA and cfDNA were extracted separately, and EGFR genotyping was performed by the PNA clamping method. RESULTS:Among 32 patients who were EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) naïve with a known tissue EGFR genotype, liquid biopsy using EV-derived DNA from the pleural effusion supernatant showed 100% matching results with tissue EGFR genotyping in 19 EGFR mutant cases and detected three additional EGFR mutations in patients with wild-type (WT) tissue. Liquid biopsy using cfDNA from pleural effusion supernatants missed two cases of tissue-based EGFR mutations and found two additional EGFR mutation cases. In 18 patients who acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, EGFR genotyping using EV-derived DNA from the pleural effusion supernatant detected the T790?M mutation in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients, and this mutation was detected in 11 (61.1%) patients using cfDNA. By contrast, only three patients were found to present the T790?M mutation when using cell block or cytology slides. CONCLUSIONS:Liquid biopsy using the supernatant of pleural effusions showed significantly improved results for EGFR genotyping compared to those using conventional cell block or cytology samples. Liquid biopsy using EV-derived DNA is promising for EGFR genotyping, including T790?M detection in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who develop pleural effusions.