Validity of the German Version of the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test.
ABSTRACT: The Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test (CS-PFP 10) quantitatively assesses physical functional performance in older adults who have a broad range of physical functional ability. This study assessed the validity and reliability of the CS-PFP 10 German version.Forward-translations and backtranslations as well as cultural adaptions of the test were conducted. Participants were German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling adults aged 64 and older. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients between CS-PFP 10 and gait velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, hand grip strength, SF-36 physical function domain, and Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha.Backtranslation and cultural adaptions were accepted by the CS-PFP 10 developer. CS-PFP 10 total score and subscores (upper body strength, upper body flexibility, lower body strength, balance and coordination, and endurance) correlated significantly with all measures of physical function tested. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.95-0.98).The CS-PFP 10 German version is valid and reliable for measuring physical functional performance in German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling older adults. Quantifying physical function is essential for clinical practice and research and provides meaningful insight into physical functional performance of older adults. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01539200.
Project description:The proportion of survivors of acute respiratory failure is growing; yet, many do not regain full function and require prolonged admission in an acute or post-acute care facility. Little is known about their trajectory of functional recovery. We sought to determine whether prolonged admission influenced the trajectory of physical function recovery and whether patient age modified the recuperation rate.We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of intensive physical therapy for patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation for ?4 days. The primary outcome was Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance, short form (CS-PFP-10), score. Predictor variables included prolonged admission in an acute or post-acute care facility at 1 month, time, and patient age. To determine whether the association between admission and functional outcome varied over time, a multivariable mixed effects linear regression model was fit using an interaction between prolonged admission and time with a primary outcome of total CS-PFP-10 score.Of the 89 patients included, 56% (50 of 89) required prolonged admission. At 1 month, patients who remained admitted had CS-PFP-10 scores that were 20.1 (CI 10.4-29.8) points lower (p?<?0.0001) than patients who were discharged to home. However, there was no difference in the rate at which physical function improved from 3 to 6 months for patients who required prolonged admission compared with those who returned home (p?=?0.24 for interaction between prolonged admission and time). Adjusted for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and sex, both groups had CS-PFP-10 scores that were 8.2 (CI 4.5-12.0) points higher at 6 months than at 3 months (p?<?0.0001). For each additional year in patient age, CS-PFP-10 recovered 0.36 points slower (95% CI 0.12-0.61; p?=?0.004).Patients who require prolonged admission after acute respiratory failure have significantly lower physical functional performance than patients who return home. However, the rates of physical functional recovery between the two groups do not differ. The majority of survivors do not recover sufficiently to achieve functional independence by 6 months. Older age negatively influences the trajectory of functional recovery.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01058421 . Registered on 26 January 2010.
Project description:Early physical therapy (PT) interventions may benefit patients with acute respiratory failure by preventing or attenuating neuromuscular weakness. However, the optimal dosage of these interventions is currently unknown.To determine whether an intensive PT program significantly improves long-term physical functional performance compared with a standard-of-care PT program.Patients who required mechanical ventilation for at least 4 days were eligible. Enrolled patients were randomized to receive PT for up to 4 weeks delivered in an intensive or standard-of-care manner. Physical functional performance was assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months in survivors who were not currently in an acute or long-term care facility. The primary outcome was the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test short form (CS-PFP-10) score at 1 month.A total of 120 patients were enrolled from five hospitals. Patients in the intensive PT group received 12.4?±?6.5 sessions for a total of 408?±?261 minutes compared with only 6.1?±?3.8 sessions for 86?±?63 minutes in the standard-of-care group (P?<?0.001 for both analyses). Physical function assessments were available for 86% of patients at 1 month, for 76% at 3 months, and for 60% at 6 months. In both groups, physical function was reduced yet significantly improved over time between 1, 3, and 6 months. When we compared the two interventions, we found no differences in the total CS-PFP-10 scores at all three time points (P?=?0.73, 0.29, and 0.43, respectively) or in the total CS-PFP-10 score trajectory (P?=?0.71).An intensive PT program did not improve long-term physical functional performance compared with a standard-of-care program. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01058421).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Overall functional ability declines over time in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Established benchmarks are needed to allow clinicians and researchers to facilitate meaningful interpretation of data.<h4>Objective</h4>The purposes of this study were: (1) to report typical values for standard measures of functional ability commonly used in intervention studies and clinical practice with individuals in the early and middle stages of PD and (2) to describe the profile of functional limitations using the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages of disease and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional data were obtained from 5 different studies.<h4>Methods</h4>Three hundred thirty-nine patients were evaluated for disease severity (UPDRS motor score); functional capacity (Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test [CS-PFP]); balance and gait (Functional Reach Test [FRT], Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG], 360-degree turn, Six-Minute Walk Test [6MWT], and Two-Minute Walk Test); and basic functional activities (supine-to-stand task, stand-to-supine task, and functional axial rotation [FAR]).<h4>Results</h4>The mean UPDRS motor score for the sample was 39.2 (SD=12.93). At each stage of PD (from least to most involved), scores on functional measures indicated a significant and progressively reduced functional status. Limitations began early in the disease for the CS-PFP and FAR. Losses in performance were consistent across all stages of disease for the CS-PFP, FRT, 6MWT, and FAR. Several measures demonstrated meaningful losses of function only in later stages of disease. Findings extend current appreciation of functional limitations that begin early in PD and can guide the choice of functional outcome measures at different stages of disease severity.<h4>Limitations</h4>Data were obtained only from participants in H&Y stages 1 through 3 and only for some of the performance measures typically used.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings demonstrate that functional loss occurs at different points in the disease process, depending on the task under consideration. The resulting profile of functional limitations provides benchmarks that clinicians and researchers can use to interpret and monitor status of patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Body composition alterations occur during aging. The purpose of the present analysis was to explore the functional consequences of the overlap of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, and the potential role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in their development in the oldest old. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Eighty-seven nonagenarians from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study were included. MEASURES:The definition of sarcopenia was based on appendicular lean mass (ALM). Osteoporosis was diagnosed based on bone mineral density (BMD) T score. Four phenotypes were compared: (1) healthy body composition, that is, nonosteoporotic nonsarcopenic (CO, control group), (2) osteoporotic (O, low BMD T score), (3) sarcopenic (S, low ALM), and (4) osteosarcopenic (OS, low BMD T score and low ALM). Sex- and age-specific IGF1-Standard Deviation Scores (SDS) were calculated. The Continuous Scale-Physical Functional Performance (CS-PFP) test was performed. RESULTS:In OS men, IGF1-SDS values (-0.61 ±0.37 vs -0.04 ± 0.52, P = .02) were lower than those in CO males (control group), whereas IGF1-SDS were similar in the 4 body composition phenotypes in women. In men only, ALM was positively associated with IGF1-SDS values (P = .01) independent of age and C-reactive protein concentration. Regarding bone health, we found no association between IGF1-SDS values and BMD. IGF1-SDS was not associated with functional performance (CS-PFP) in men and women. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS:IGF1 sensitivity in skeletal muscle and bone may differ by sex in the oldest old. IGF1 status did not appear to affect physical functionality. Determinants and clinical and functional characteristics of osteosarcopenia need to be further investigated in order to define conclusive diagnostic criteria.
Project description:Exercise confers short-term benefits for individuals with Parkinson disease (PD).The purpose of the study was to compare short- and long-term responses among 2 supervised exercise programs and a home-based control exercise program.The 16-month randomized controlled exercise intervention investigated 3 exercise approaches: flexibility/balance/function exercise (FBF), supervised aerobic exercise (AE), and home-based exercise (control).This study was conducted in outpatient clinics.The participants were 121 individuals with PD (Hoehn & Yahr stages 1-3).The FBF program (individualized spinal and extremity flexibility exercises followed by group balance/functional training) was supervised by a physical therapist. The AE program (using a treadmill, bike, or elliptical trainer) was supervised by an exercise trainer. Supervision was provided 3 days per week for 4 months, and then monthly (16 months total). The control group participants exercised at home using the National Parkinson Foundation Fitness Counts program, with 1 supervised, clinic-based group session per month.Outcomes, obtained by blinded assessors, were determined at 4, 10, and 16 months. The primary outcome measures were overall physical function (Continuous Scale-Physical Functional Performance [CS-PFP]), balance (Functional Reach Test [FRT]), and walking economy (oxygen uptake [mL/kg/min]). Secondary outcome measures were symptom severity (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] activities of daily living [ADL] and motor subscales) and quality of life (39-item Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale [PDQ-39]).Of the 121 participants, 86.8%, 82.6%, and 79.3% completed 4, 10, and 16 months, respectively, of the intervention. At 4 months, improvement in CS-PFP scores was greater in the FBF group than in the control group (mean difference=4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2 to 7.3) and the AE group (mean difference=3.1, 95% CI=0.0 to 6.2). Balance was not different among groups at any time point. Walking economy improved in the AE group compared with the FBF group at 4 months (mean difference=-1.2, 95% CI=-1.9 to -0.5), 10 months (mean difference=-1.2, 95% CI=-1.9 to -0.5), and 16 months (mean difference=-1.7, 95% CI=-2.5 to -1.0). The only secondary outcome that showed significant differences was UPDRS ADL subscale scores: the FBF group performed better than the control group at 4 months (mean difference=-1.47, 95% CI=-2.79 to -0.15) and 16 months (mean difference=-1.95, 95% CI=-3.84 to -0.08).Absence of a non-exercise control group was a limitation of the study.Findings demonstrated overall functional benefits at 4 months in the FBF group and improved walking economy (up to 16 months) in the AE group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the discordance in frailty classification between the frailty index (FI) and the physical frailty phenotype (PFP) and identify factors discriminating those with discordant frailty classification from each other and from those for whom the assessments agree. METHODS:A prospective observational study of older adults aged 65 and older selected from Medicare eligibility lists in four U.S. communities (n = 5,362). The PFP was measured by the Cardiovascular Health Study PFP. Participants meeting three or more of the five criteria were deemed frail. The FI was calculated as the proportion of deficits in an a priori selected set of 48 measures, and participants were classified as frail if FI is greater than 0.35. RESULTS:The prevalence of frailty was 7.0% by the PFP and 8.3% by the FI. Of the 730 deemed frail by either instrument, only 12% were in agreement, whereas 39% were classified as frail by the PFP, but not the FI, and 48% were classified as frail by the FI, but not the PFP. Participants aged 65-72 years or with greater disease burden were most likely to be characterized as being FI-frail, but not PFP-frail. The associations of frailty with age and mortality were stronger when frailty was measured by the PFP rather than the FI. CONCLUSIONS:Despite comparable frailty prevalence between the PFP and the FI, there was substantial discordance in individual-level classification, with highest agreement existing only in the most vulnerable subset. These findings suggest that there are clinically important contexts in which the PFP and the FI cannot be used interchangeably.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Functional limitations are a major cause for needing care and institutionalization among older adults. Exposure to air pollution has been suggested to be associated with increased functional limitations in older people. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to assess the association between air pollution and physical functioning in Dutch older adults. METHODS:We analyzed data on performance-based (walking speed, ability to rise from a chair, putting on and taking off a cardigan, balance test) and self-reported physical functioning for 1,762 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, who participated in measurement cycles performed in 2005/2006, 2008/2009, and 2011/2012. Annual average outdoor air pollution concentrations [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with diameters ?2.5?m (PM2.5), ?10?m (PM10), and 2.5-10?m (PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the home address at the start of the first measurement cycle were estimated using land-use regression models. Analyses were performed using mixed models with random participant intercepts adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS:Exposure to most air pollutants was associated with reduced performance-based physical functioning; for example, an interquartile range increase in NO2 exposure was associated with a 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.42) lower performance test score in fully adjusted models, equivalent to the difference in performance score between participants who differed by 9 mo in age. Exposure to air pollution was generally not statistically significantly associated with self-reported functional limitations, and not associated with a faster decline in performance-based physical functioning over the study period. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that exposure to air pollution may adversely affect physical performance of older adults in the Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2239.
Project description:Deficits in contrast sensitivity (CS) have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent of these deficits in prodromal AD stages, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even earlier, has not been investigated. In this study, CS was assessed using frequency doubling technology in older adults with AD (n = 10), amnestic MCI (n = 28), cognitive complaints without performance deficits (CC; n = 20), and healthy controls (HC; n = 29). The association between CS and cognition was also evaluated. Finally, the accuracy of CS measures for classifying MCI versus HC was evaluated. CS deficits were found in AD and MCI, while CC showed intermediate performance between MCI and HC. Upper right visual field CS showed the most significant difference among groups. CS was also associated with cognitive performance. Finally, CS measures accurately classified MCI versus HC. The CS deficits in AD and MCI, and intermediate performance in CC, indicate that these measures are sensitive to early AD-associated changes. Therefore, frequency doubling technology-based measures of CS may have promise as a novel AD biomarker.
Project description:Frailty is an age-related clinical syndrome of decreased resilience to stressors and is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. Although there is preponderance of literature on frailty in developed countries, limited investigations have been conducted in less developed regions including China-a country that has the world's largest aging population. We examined frailty prevalence in China by sociodemographics and geographic region, and investigated correlates of frailty.Participants were 5,301 adults aged ?60 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Frailty was identified by the validated physical frailty phenotype (PFP) scale. We estimated frailty prevalence in the overall sample and by sociodemographics. We identified age-adjusted frailty prevalence by geographical region. Bivariate associations of frailty with health and function measures were evaluated by chi-squared test and analysis of variance.We found 7.0% of adults aged 60 years or older were frail. Frailty is more prevalent at advanced ages, among women, and persons with low education. Age-adjusted frailty prevalence ranged from 3.3% in the Southeast and the Northeast to 9.1% in the Northwest, and was more than 1.5 times higher in rural versus urban areas. Frail versus nonfrail persons had higher prevalence of comorbidities, falls, disability, and functional limitation.We demonstrated the utility of the PFP scale in identifying frail Chinese elders, and found substantial sociodemographic and regional disparities in frailty prevalence. The PFP scale may be incorporated into clinical practice in China to identify the most vulnerable elders to reduce morbidity, prevent disability, and enable more efficient use of health care resources.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To examine the effectiveness of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) resistance training (RT) guidelines to improve physical function and functional classification in older adults with reduced physical abilities. METHODS:Twenty-five at-risk older adults were randomized to a control (CON = 13) or 8-week resistance training intervention arm (RT = 12). Progressive RT included 8 exercises for 1 set of 10 repetitions at a perceived exertion of 5-6 performed twice a week. Individuals were assessed for physical function and functional classification change (low, moderate or high) by the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and muscle strength measures. RESULTS:Postintervention, significant differences were found between groups for SPPB-Chair Stand [F(1,22) = 9.14, P < .01, ? = .29] and SPPB-Total Score [F(1,22) = 7.40, P < .05, ? = .25]. Functional classification was improved as a result of the intervention with 83% of participants in the RT group improving from low to moderate functioning or moderate to high functioning. Strength significantly improved on all exercises in the RT compared with the CON group. CONCLUSIONS:A RT program congruent with the current ASCM and AHA guidelines is effective to improve overall physical function, functional classification, and muscle strength for older adults with reduced physical abilities.