The oncocytic subtype is genetically distinct from other pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes.
ABSTRACT: In 2010, the World Health Organization reclassified the entity originally described as intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm as the 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Although several key molecular alterations of other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes have been discovered, including common mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF3, those of oncocytic subtype have not been well characterized. We analyzed 11 pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Nine pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms uniformly exhibited typical entity-defining morphology of arborizing papillae lined by layers of cells with oncocytic cytoplasm, prominent, nucleoli, and intraepithelial lumina. The remaining two were atypical. One lacked the arborizing papilla and had flat oncocytic epithelium only; the other one had focal oncocytic epithelium in a background of predominantly intestinal subtype intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Different components of this case were analyzed separately. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of all cases were microdissected and subjected to high-depth-targeted next-generation sequencing for a panel of 300 key cancer-associated genes in a platform that enabled the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving all targeted genes. Fresh frozen specimens of two cases were also subjected to whole-genome sequencing. For the nine typical pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, the number of mutations per case, identified by next-generation sequencing, ranged from 1 to 10 (median=4). None of these cases had KRAS or GNAS mutations and only one had both RNF43 and PIK3R1 mutations. ARHGAP26, ASXL1, EPHA8, and ERBB4 genes were somatically altered in more than one of these typical 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms but not in the other two atypical ones. In the neoplasm with flat oncocytic epithelium, the only mutated gene was KRAS. All components of the intestinal subtype intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms with focal oncocytic epithelium manifested TP53, GNAS, and RNF43 mutations. In conclusion, this study elucidates that 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is not only morphologically distinct but also genetically distinct from other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes. Considering that now its biologic behavior is also being found to be different than other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes, 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm warrants being recognized separately.
Project description:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic subtypes where morphology portends disease prognosis. The study aim was to demonstrate EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes. Four subjects, each with a specific intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtype were enrolled. An EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy miniprobe was utilized for image acquisition. The mean cyst size from the 4 subjects (2 females; mean age = 65.3±12 years) was 36.8±12 mm. All lesions demonstrated mural nodules and focal dilation of the main pancreatic duct. EUS-nCLE demonstrated characteristic finger-like papillae with inner vascular core for all subtypes. The image patterns of the papillae for the gastric, intestinal, and pancreatobiliary subtypes were similar. However, the papillae in the oncocytic subtype were thick and demonstrated a fine scale-like or honeycomb pattern with intraepithelial lumina correlating with histopathology. There was significant overlap in the needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings for the different intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes; however, the oncocytic subtype demonstrated distinct patterns. These findings need to be replicated in larger multicenter studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are rare papillary pancreatic neoplasms arising from major pancreatic ducts, characterized by duct dilation and mucin secretion. They comprise approximately 1% of all exocrine neoplasms and are classified according to their anatomical sites into main duct-type, branch duct-type, and mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Histological examination plays a crucial role in distinguishing and classifying intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic subtypes. CASE PRESENTATION:We present the case of a 70-year-old Syrian woman who was admitted to our hospital due to an intermittent epigastric pain accompanied by diarrhea and weight loss with a recent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Following clinical, laboratory, and radiological examination, distal pancreatectomy involving the body and the tail of the pancreas was performed. Interestingly, histological examination of the resected specimens revealed the diagnosis of a mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with a unique combination of gastric and pancreatobiliary subtypes. CONCLUSION:To the best of our knowledge, the combination of multiple histological subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms has been recorded in a few studies with reference to the challenging histological detection. Herein, we report a rare case with a significant histological combination, highlighting the difficulties in differential diagnosis due to the absence of ancillary techniques, with a brief review on diagnostic methods, histological characteristics and surgical recommendations.
Project description:An intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a common pancreatic precursor lesion, and it often harbors mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43. To clarify the molecular profiles of IPMNs, we conducted mutation analysis of KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43 in 61 IPMN formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. The mutation rates of codons 12, 13, and 61 in KRAS and codon 201 in GNAS were detected by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing was performed on RNF43, and the results were further verified by Sanger sequencing. We identified KRAS and GNAS mutations in 35 (57%) and 40 (66%) IPMN cases, respectively. GNAS mutations were significantly correlated with the morphologic subtype (P < 0.001) and were more prevalent in the intestinal subtype (93%) than in the gastric (55%) and pancreatobiliary subtypes (44%) but were absent in the oncocytic subtype. RNF43 mutations were found in 5 cases (8%), all of which occurred in high-grade dysplasia and invasive lesions (2/5 and 3/5). All 5 cases harboring RNF43 mutations also exhibited GNAS mutations. RNF43 mutations were associated with a worse prognosis in invasive IPMN patients (P = 0.002), while KRAS and GNAS mutations did not affect the prognosis of patients.
Project description:Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm (IOPN) is a rare intraductal tumor of the pancreatobiliary system. Currently, little is known about its distinct characteristics, unlike intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (IPNB). The present study compared 22 IOPNs (18 pancreatic and 4 biliary) with those of 61 IPMNs/8 IPNBs. IOPNs were classified into pure and combined types, depending on the coexistence of IPMN/IPNB. Multiple gene expression analysis (nCounter system) was performed, and hierarchical clustering analysis separated IOPNs(n?=?4) and IPMNs(n?=?3)/ IPNBs(n?=?3), and pathway score analysis supported the result. Volcano plot identified follistatin (FST) as the most upregulated mRNA in IOPN in comparison to the gastric subtype (log2 fold change of 5.34) and the intestinal subtype (that of 5.81) of IPMN/IPNB. The expression of FST in IOPN was also high in quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. We also found lower apoptotic activity in IOPN, particularly in pure type, compared to high-grade or invasive IPMN/IPNB using immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3. But, combined type IOPN was more similar to IPMN/IPNB than pure IOPN. In conclusion, we proved that IOPN, particularly pure IOPN, is distinct from IPMN/IPNB in FST mRNA overexpression and exhibits lower apoptotic activity.
Project description:Activating point mutations of GNAS at codon 201 have been detected in approximately two thirds of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile ducts (IPNBs) morphologically resemble pancreatic IPMNs. This study sought to assess the mutational status of GNAS at codon 201 in IPNBs.Thirty-four patients were included. DNA from microdissected IPNBs was subjected to a polymerase chain reaction and ligation method for the detection of GNAS mutations at codon 201 and of KRAS mutations at codon 12. Mutational status was compared with clinical and pathologic data.The IPNBs had a median diameter of 3.5 cm and were located intrahepatically (n= 6), extrahepatically (n= 13), both intra- and extrahepatically (n= 4) or in the gallbladder (intracystic papillary neoplasms, n= 11). Most exhibited pancreatobiliary differentiation (n= 20), high-grade dysplasia (n= 26) and an associated adenocarcinoma (n= 20). Analysis of GNAS codon 201 identified only one mutant sample in a multifocal intestinal subtype intrahepatic IPNB with high-grade dysplasia. Six lesions harboured a KRAS codon 12 mutation.GNAS codon 201 mutations are uncommon in IPNBs, by contrast with pancreatic IPMNs. More comprehensive molecular profiling is needed to uncover the pathways involved in IPNB development.
Project description:Invasive cancers arising from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) are recognised as a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Less is known about the epithelial subtypes of the precursor IPMN from which these lesions arise. The authors investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and the impact on survival of both the invasive component and its background IPMN.The study cohort comprised 61 patients with invasive IPMN (study group) and 570 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, control group) resected at a single institution. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stage-matched Cox proportional hazard model.The histology of invasive components of the IPMN cohort was tubular in 38 (62%), colloid in 16 (26%), and oncocytic in seven (12%). Compared with PDAC, invasive IPMNs were associated with a lower incidence of adverse pathological features and improved mortality by multivariate analysis (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.86). In subtype analysis, this favourable outcome remained only for colloid and oncocytic carcinomas, while tubular adenocarcinoma was associated with worse overall survival, not significantly different from that of PDAC (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.36). Colloid and oncocytic carcinomas arose only from intestinal- and oncocytic-type IPMNs, respectively, and were mostly of the main-duct type, whereas tubular adenocarcinomas primarily originated in the gastric background, which was often associated with branch-duct IPMN. Overall survival of patients with invasive adenocarcinomas arising from gastric-type IPMN was significantly worse than that of patients with non-gastric-type IPMN (p=0.016).Tubular, colloid and oncocytic invasive IPMNs have varying prognosis, and arise from different epithelial subtypes. Colloid and oncocytic types have markedly improved biology, whereas the tubular type has a course that resembles PDAC. Analysis of these subtypes indicates that the background epithelium plays an equally, if not more, important role in defining the biology and prognosis of invasive IPMNs.
Project description:Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) are rare, potentially curable, mucin-producing neoplasms of the pancreas. We have previously reported PIK3CA (phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit, p110?) mutations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, another mucin-producing neoplasm of the pancreas. In this study, we analyzed the presence of PIK3CA and AKT1/PKB (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) hot-spot mutations in MCN specimens.Using the genomic DNA sequencing of tumor tissues isolated by laser capture microdissection, we evaluated 15 well-characterized MCNs for the E542K, E545K (exon 9), and H1047R (exon 20) hot-spot mutations in the PIK3CA gene and the E17K mutation in the AKT1 gene.A hot-spot mutation (E545K) of the PIK3CA gene was detected in 1 of the 15 MCNs and further confirmed by a mutant-enriched method. Interestingly, this mutation was found to be present only in the high-grade but not in low-grade dysplastic epithelium obtained from this neoplasm and coexisted with a KRAS mutation. No mutations were identified in the AKT1 gene.Our data, when combined with previous reports on intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, indicate that oncogenic activation of the PI3K pathway involving PIK3CA gene mutations can contribute to the progression of mucin-producing neoplasms but not pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. PIK3CA status could be useful for understanding their progression to malignancy.
Project description:The molecular basis for the development of appendiceal mucinous tumours, which can be a cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei, remains largely unknown.Thirty-five appendiceal mucinous neoplasms were analysed for GNAS and KRAS mutations. A functional analysis of mutant GNAS was performed using a colorectal cancer cell line.A mutational analysis identified activating GNAS mutations in 16 of 32 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) but in none of three mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs). KRAS mutations were found in 30 LAMNs and in all MACs. We additionally analysed a total of 186 extra-appendiceal mucinous tumours and found that GNAS mutations were highly prevalent in intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas (88%) but were rare or absent in mucinous tumours of the colorectum, ovary, lung and breast (0-9%). The prevalence of KRAS mutations was quite variable among the tumours. The introduction of the mutant GNAS into a colorectal cancer cell line markedly induced MUC2 and MUC5AC expression, but did not promote cell growth either in vitro or in vivo.Activating GNAS mutations are a frequent and characteristic genetic abnormality of LAMN. Mutant GNAS might play a direct role in the prominent mucin production that is a hallmark of LAMN.
Project description:For a long time, intraductal tumors of the pancreas were neglected because they were misdiagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, ordinary ductal adenocarcinoma, or chronic pancreatitis. Only in recent years have they been recognized as clinical and pathological entities. Most common are the intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms. Although they show an adenoma-carcinoma sequence, they have proved to have a more favorable prognosis than ductal adenocarcinoma, when resected in a preinvasive state. Recently, it has become clear that they constitute a heterogeneous group with at least four subtypes. Their stratification reveals that the various intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm subtypes have different biological properties with different prognostic implications.
Project description:Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a heterogeneous group with varying risks of malignancy. To explore the clinical utility of liquid biopsy in cyst type classification, we analyzed the GNAS/KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from 57 patients with histologically diagnosed PCNs, including 34 with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and compared the mutant allele prevalence and variant patterns with the paired resected specimens using next-generation sequencing. The positive prevalence of GNAS mutations in cfDNA of patients with IPMN (n?=?11, 32%) was significantly higher than that in those with other PCNs (0%, P?=?0.002). Conversely, KRAS mutations were detected in cfDNA of only 2 (6%) IPMN patients. The paired-sample comparison revealed highly concordance between the GNAS mutation status of cfDNA and resected IPMN specimens. Similar distributions of GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA were observed across the different histological grades, whereas IPMNs with intestinal subtype showed a significantly higher prevalence of GNAS mutations than other subtypes (P?=?0.030). GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA was significantly associated with the acellular mucin pool of histological findings in primary IPMN lesions (P?=?0.017). Detection of GNAS mutation in cfDNA can serve as a novel biomarker for cyst type classification and differentiation of intestinal subtype IPMN from the other PCNs.