Predictive models for estimating visceral fat: The contribution from anthropometric parameters.
ABSTRACT: Excessive adipose visceral tissue (AVT) represents an independent risk factor for cardiometabolic alterations. The search continues for a highly valid marker for estimating visceral adiposity that is a simple and low cost tool able to screen individuals who are highly at risk of being viscerally obese. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model for estimating AVT volume using anthropometric parameters.Excessive adipose visceral tissue (AVT) represents an independent risk factor for cardiometabolic alterations. The search continues for a highly valid marker for estimating visceral adiposity that is a simple and low cost tool able to screen individuals who are highly at risk of being viscerally obese. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model for estimating AVT volume using anthropometric parameters.A cross-sectional study involving overweight individuals whose AVT was evaluated (using computed tomography-CT), along with the following anthropometric parameters: body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), sagittal diameter (SD), conicity index (CI), neck circumference (NC), neck-to-thigh ratio (NTR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), and body adiposity index (BAI).109 individuals with an average age of 50.3±12.2 were evaluated. The predictive equation developed to estimate AVT in men was AVT = -1647.75 +2.43(AC) +594.74(WHpR) +883.40(CI) (R2 adjusted: 64.1%). For women, the model chosen was: AVT = -634.73 +1.49(Age) +8.34(SD) + 291.51(CI) + 6.92(NC) (R2 adjusted: 40.4%). The predictive ability of the equations developed in relation to AVT volume determined by CT was 66.9% and 46.2% for males and females, respectively (p<0.001).A quick and precise AVT estimate, especially for men, can be obtained using only AC, WHpR, and CI for men, and age, SD, CI, and NC for women. These equations can be used as a clinical and epidemiological tool for overweight individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Obesity, especially abdominal obesity, has been considered a risk factor for diabetic complications. Many abdominal obesity indices have been established, including neck circumference (NC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI). However, studies investigating the associations between these indices and diabetic complications are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of the abdominal obesity indices with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS:A total of 4658 diabetic participants were enrolled from seven communities in Shanghai, China, in 2018. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent blood pressure, glucose, lipid profile, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio measurements; fundus photographs; and anthropometric parameters, including height, weight, waist circumference (WC), NC and hip circumference (HC). RESULTS:In men, a one standard deviation (SD) increase in CVAI level was significantly associated with a greater prevalence of CVD (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.13, 1.62) and DKD (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.12, 1.70) (both P?<?0.05). In women, a one SD increase in CVAI level was significantly associated with a greater prevalence of CVD (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.04, 1.69) and DKD (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.81, 3.47) (both P?<?0.05). A one SD increase in NC was significantly associated with a greater prevalence of CCA plaque in both men (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10, 1.44) and women (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07, 1.35). These associations were all adjusted for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS:CVAI was most strongly associated with the prevalence of CVD and DKD among the abdominal obesity indices, and NC was unique associated with the prevalence of CCA plaque in Chinese adults with diabetes. Trial registration ChiCTR1800017573, www.chictr.org.cn . Registered 04 August 2018.
Project description:Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for VAT in women. More refined phenotypes for body composition and fat distribution can detect new loci not previously uncovered in large-scale GWAS of anthropometric traits.
Project description:The Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is a recently developed indicator of visceral adiposity. We investigated the predictive value of the CVAI for the development of dysglycemia (pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and compared its predictive power with that of the Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and various anthropometric indices. This community-based study included 2,383 participants. We assessed the predictive power of adiposity indices by performing univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis and calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve according to their quartiles. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals in higher CVAI quartiles at baseline were more likely to develop dysglycemia than those in lower CVAI quartiles. The area under the ROC curve for CVAI was significantly higher than that of other adiposity indices. In addition, among the various adiposity indices tested, the CVAI had the greatest Youden index for identifying dysglycemia in both genders. Our data demonstrate that the CVAI is a better predictor of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes than the VAI, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio in Chinese adults.
Project description:The objective was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the predictive capacity of indicators of visceral adiposity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The bibliographic research was carried out using the electronic database PubMed, LILACS and SciELO, references of selected articles. Although we found few studies, they have already used several indicators of visceral adiposity as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, Lipid accumulation product, Body Shape Index, Body Roundness Index and most them were good predictors of NAFLD. Thus, the anthropometric indicators may contribute for the diagnosis of NAFLD in a simple, low-cost and non-invasive way, allowing early therapeutic measures to prevent the evolution to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of body fat distribution in uric acid metabolism is still ambiguity. We aimed to investigate the independent contribution of visceral adipose measured by visceral adiposity index and lipid accumulation product and liver fat assessed by fatty liver index to the risk of hyperuricemia. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1284 participants aged ≥ 40 years old recruited from communities in Zhonglou district, Changzhou. Each participant completed a standard questionnaire, and provided blood samples for biochemical measurements. Visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product were calculated by simple anthropometric and functional parameters. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid ≥ 420 μmol/l for males and ≥ 360 μmol/l for females. RESULTS:The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 15.9% and gradually increased across tertiles of adiposity-based indices. The visceral adipose-based measurements (visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, lipid accumulation product) had better power to discriminate hyperuricemia than body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and neck circumference, and visceral adiposity index exhibited the highest power, with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.662 (0.636-0.688). Multivariate logistic regression found 1.49-fold, 2.21-fold and 2.12-fold increased risk of hyperuricemia with 1-unit increment of visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, and lipid accumulation product, respectively. Compared to tertile 1, the odds ratios of hyperuricemia for the second tertile and the third tertile of visceral adiposity index were 1.57 (1.00-2.50) and 3.11 (1.96-4.94), those of fatty liver index were 1.64 (1.05-2.68) and 3.58 (1.94-6.01), and those of lipid accumulation product were 1.93 (1.19-3.15) and 3.53 (2.05-6.09), respectively. However, no significant associations of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference with hyperuricemia were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Visceral adipose accumulation increased the risk of hyperuricemia, independently of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference, among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. RESULTS:In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. CONCLUSION:Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race.CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity.Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (p<0.001), waist to hip ratio (p<0.001), and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05) differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), hip circumference (p = 0.006), and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001) with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity.The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to quantify the associations of regional fat mass and fat-free mass with systolic blood pressure. METHODS:This analysis combined individual participant data from two large-scale imaging studies: UK Biobank and Oxford BioBank. In both studies, participants were interviewed and measured, and they underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging. Linear regression was used to relate systolic blood pressure to anthropometric measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived measures of body composition (visceral android fat, subcutaneous android fat, subcutaneous gynoid fat, and fat-free mass). RESULTS:Among 10,260 participants (mean age 49; 96% white), systolic blood pressure was positively associated with visceral android fat (3.2 mmHg/SD in men; 2.8 mmHg/SD in women) and fat-free mass (1.92 mmHg/SD in men; 1.64 mmHg/SD in women), but there was no evidence of an association with subcutaneous android or gynoid fat. Associations of systolic blood pressure with BMI were slightly steeper than those with waist circumference or waist to hip ratio; these associations remained unchanged following adjustment for fat-free mass, but adjustment for visceral android fat eliminated associations with waist circumference and waist to hip ratio and more than halved associations with BMI. CONCLUSIONS:This analysis indicates that visceral fat is the primary etiological component of excess adiposity underlying the development of adiposity-related hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:World Health Organization (WHO) consultation experts recommend countries to have guidance to identify public health action points suitable for their country. The objective of the study was to evaluate different obesity indices to predict high blood pressure and its optimal cutoff values among the adult population. METHOD:A total of 3368 individuals age from 25 to 64?years were included in this study. Data was collected based on the WHO Stepwise approach. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WstC), waist to hip ratio (WHpR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were measured and calculated. High blood pressure was considered for those with systolic blood pressure above 135?mmHg, diastolic blood pressure above 85?mmHg or taking antihypertensive medications. To generate cutoff values, the receiver operator characteristic curve was generated with the maximum Youden index. RESULT:Women had a significantly higher hip circumference (P?= 0.003), BMI (P?= 0.036) and WHtR (P?< 0.001) than men. Men had significantly higher WHpR (P?= 0.027) than women. There were significantly higher BMI, WstC, WHpR, and WHtR among those with high blood pressure. The cutoff values for BMI, WstC, WHpR and WHtR were 22.86?kg/m2, 84.05?cm, 0.91 and 0.50 for men and 24.02?kg/m2, 79.50?cm, 0.91 and 0.51 for women, respectively. CONCLUSION:BMI, WstC, WHpR, and WHtR are a useful predictor of high blood pressure among adults' rural residents of southern Ethiopia. As the sensitivity for the cutoff values of most of indices were low, further surveys in different settings may need to be done before a conclusion can be drawn on whether or not to review the anthropometric cut offs for high blood pressure in Ethiopia.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To examine associations of different anthropometric measurements of central adiposity to visceral adipose tissue (measured via multi-axial magnetic resonance imaging; MRI) and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Additionally, to determine population-specific seated/supine waist and abdominal circumference cutoffs, which may identify men at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Twenty-two men with chronic SCI underwent MRI scans, anthropometric measurements along with assessments of various cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Pearson/part (accounting for age as a covariate) correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the associations between study variables. Abdominal and waist circumference cutoffs were extrapolated using the slope of linear regression equations. RESULTS:Seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences were (P < 0.01) associated with MRI visceral fat cross-sectional area (VATCSA), VAT volume and CSA:TotalCSA. Low density lipoprotein, non-high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were positively associated with seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences after controlling for age; r = 0.50-0.61, r = 0.46-0.58, r = 0.52-0.58, P < 0.05, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was associated with seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences after accounting for age; r = 0.49-0.51 and r = 0.48-0.56, P < 0.05 respectively. The population-specific cutoffs were 86.5cm and 88.3cm for supine waist and abdominal circumferences, respectively, as well as 89cm and 101cm for seated waist and abdominal circumferences, respectively. After dichotomizing VATCSA (< or ? 100cm2), peak oxygen uptake, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin were different (P < 0.05) between groups. After dichotomizing (< or ? 86.5cm) supine waist circumference, VATCSA, triglycerides and insulin sensitivity were different (P < 0.05) between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Seated/supine circumferences are associated with both central adiposity and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in persons with SCI. Population-specific cutoffs are proposed herein to identify central adiposity and potential cardiometabolic disease risk after SCI.