Macrophage Inducible C-Type Lectin As a Multifunctional Player in Immunity.
ABSTRACT: The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an innate immune receptor on myeloid cells sensing diverse entities including pathogens and damaged cells. Mincle was first described as a receptor for the mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, or cord factor, and the mammalian necrotic cell-derived alarmin histone deacetylase complex unit Sin3-associated protein 130. Upon engagement by its ligands, Mincle induces secretion of innate cytokines and other immune mediators modulating inflammation and immunity. Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, the understanding of Mincle's immune function has made significant advances in recent years. In addition to mediating immune responses to infectious agents, Mincle has been linked to promote tumor progression, autoimmunity, and sterile inflammation; however, further studies are required to completely unravel the complex role of Mincle in these distinct host responses. In this review, we discuss recent findings on Mincle's biology with an emphasis on its diverse functions in immunity.
Project description:Both aging and HIV infection are associated with an enhanced pro-inflammatory environment that contributes to impaired immune responses and is mediated in part by innate immune pattern-recognition receptors. MINCLE is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate or "cord factor," the most abundant glycolipid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated MINCLE function in monocytes in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected young (21-35 years) and older adults (?60 years) via stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with trehalose-6,6-dibehenate, a synthetic analog of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate and measurement of cytokine production (interleukin [IL]-10, IL-12, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-?) by multicolor flow cytometry. Our studies show an age- and HIV-associated increase in cytokine multifunctionality of monocytes both at the population and single cell level that was dominated by IL-12, IL-10, and IL-6. These findings provide insight into the host response to M. tuberculosis and possible sources for the pro-inflammatory environment seen in aging and HIV infection.
Project description:The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. In this study, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein FcRgamma was essential for macrophage activation and Th17 adjuvanticity. The FcRgamma-associated C-type lectin receptor Mincle was expressed in macrophages and upregulated by TDM and TDB. Recombinant Mincle-Fc fusion protein specifically bound to the glycolipids. Genetic ablation of Mincle abolished TDM/TDB-induced macrophage activation and induction of T cell immune responses to a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. Macrophages lacking Mincle or FcRgamma were impaired in the inflammatory response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin. These results establish that Mincle is a key receptor for the mycobacterial cord factor and controls the Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity of TDM and TDB.
Project description:Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), a cord factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is an important regulator of immune responses during Mtb infections. Macrophages recognize TDM through the Mincle receptor and initiate TDM-induced inflammatory responses, leading to lung granuloma formation. Although various immune cells are recruited to lung granulomas, the roles of other immune cells, especially during the initial process of TDM-induced inflammation, are not clear. In this study, Mincle signaling on neutrophils played an important role in TDM-induced lung inflammation by promoting adhesion and innate immune responses. Neutrophils were recruited during the early stage of lung inflammation following TDM-induced granuloma formation. Mincle expression on neutrophils was required for infiltration of TDM-challenged sites in a granuloma model induced by TDM-coated-beads. TDM-induced Mincle signaling on neutrophils increased cell adherence by enhancing F-actin polymerization and CD11b/CD18 surface expression. The TDM-induced effects were dependent on Src, Syk, and MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK). Moreover, coactivation of the Mincle and TLR2 pathways by TDM and Pam3CSK4 treatment synergistically induced CD11b/CD18 surface expression, reactive oxygen species, and TNF? production by neutrophils. These synergistically-enhanced immune responses correlated with the degree of Mincle expression on neutrophil surfaces. The physiological relevance of the Mincle-mediated anti-TDM immune response was confirmed by defective immune responses in Mincle?/? mice upon aerosol infections with Mtb. Mincle-mutant mice had higher inflammation levels and mycobacterial loads than WT mice. Neutrophil depletion with anti-Ly6G antibody caused a reduction in IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression upon TDM treatment, and reduced levels of immune cell recruitment during the initial stage of infection. These findings suggest a new role of Mincle signaling on neutrophils during anti-mycobacterial responses.
Project description:The T-cell adjuvanticity of mycobacterial cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is well established. The identification of the C-type lectin Mincle on innate immune cells as the receptor for TDM and its synthetic analogue trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) has raised interest in development of synthetic Mincle ligands as novel adjuvants. Trehalose mono- (TMXs) and diesters (TDXs) with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted by X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), and myristate (M)] were tested. Upon stimulation of murine macrophages, G-CSF secretion and NO production were strongly augmented by all TDXs tested, in a wide concentration range. In contrast, the TMXs triggered macrophage activation only at high concentrations. Macrophage activation by all TDXs required Mincle, but was independent of MyD88. The superior capacity of TDXs for activating macrophages was paralleled by direct binding of TDXs, but not of TMXs, to a Mincle-Fc fusion protein. Insertion of a short polyethylene glycol between the sugar and acyl chain in TDS reduced Mincle-binding and macrophage activation. Immunization of mice with cationic liposomes containing the analogues demonstrated the superior adjuvant activity of trehalose diesters. Overall, immune activation in vitro and in vivo by trehalose esters of simple fatty acids requires two acyl chains of length and involves Mincle.
Project description:Immune sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on recognition by macrophages. Mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), is the most abundant cell wall glycolipid and binds to the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) MINCLE. To explore the kinase signaling linking the TDM-MINCLE interaction to gene expression, we employed quantitative phosphoproteome analysis. TDM caused upregulation of 6.7% and suppressed 3.8% of the 14,000 phospho-sites identified on 3727 proteins. MINCLE-dependent phosphorylation was observed for canonical players of CLR signaling (e.g. PLC?, PKC?), and was enriched for PKC? and GSK3 kinase motifs. MINCLE-dependent activation of the PI3K-AKT-GSK3 pathway contributed to inflammatory gene expression and required the PI3K regulatory subunit p85?. Unexpectedly, a substantial fraction of TDM-induced phosphorylation was MINCLE-independent, a finding paralleled by transcriptome data. Bioinformatics analysis of both data sets concurred in the requirement for MINCLE for innate immune response pathways and processes. In contrast, MINCLE-independent phosphorylation and transcriptome responses were linked to cell cycle regulation. Collectively, our global analyses show substantial reprogramming of macrophages by TDM and reveal a dichotomy of MINCLE-dependent and -independent signaling linked to distinct biological responses.
Project description:Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) interacts with the ?-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI?) and activates Syk by recognizing its specific ligand, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, a glycolipid produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been suggested that mast cells participate in the immune defense against pathogenic microbes including M. tuberculosis, although the functions are still uncertain. In this study, we examined the Mincle-mediated signaling pathway and cellular responses using RBL-2H3 cells. Mincle formed a protein complex with not only Fc?RI? but also Fc?RI? in a stable cell line expressing myc-tagged Mincle. In addition, engagement of Mincle increased the levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK phosphorylation. A pull-down assay demonstrated that cross-linking of Mincle induced binding of Fc?RI?? subunits to the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. Pharmacological and genetic studies indicated that activation of Syk was critical for Mincle-mediated activation of phospholipase C?2, leading to the activation of ERK and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Moreover, engagement of Mincle efficiently induced up-regulation of characteristic mast cell genes in addition to degranulation. Taken together, our present results suggest that mast cells contribute to Mincle-mediated immunity through Syk activation triggered by association with the Fc?RI?? complex.
Project description:Successful vaccination against intracellular pathogens requires the generation of cellular immune responses. Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB), the synthetic analog of the mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), is a potent adjuvant inducing strong Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We previously identified the C-type lectin Mincle as receptor for these glycolipids that triggers the FcR?-Syk-Card9 pathway for APC activation and adjuvanticity. Interestingly, in vivo data revealed that the adjuvant effect was not solely Mincle-dependent but also required MyD88. Therefore, we dissected which MyD88-dependent pathways are essential for successful immunization with a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. We show here that antigen-specific Th1/Th17 immune responses required IL-1 receptor-mediated signals independent of IL-18 and IL-33-signaling. ASC-deficient mice had impaired IL-17 but intact IFN? responses, indicating partial independence of TDB adjuvanticity from inflammasome activation. Our data suggest that the glycolipid adjuvant TDB triggers Mincle-dependent IL-1 production to induce MyD88-dependent Th1/Th17 responses in vivo.
Project description:Immune sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on recognition by macrophages. Mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6’-dimycolate (TDM), is the most abundant cell wall glycolipid and binds to the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) MINCLE. To explore the kinase signaling linking the TDM-MINCLE interaction to gene expression, we employed quantitative phosphoproteome analysis. TDM caused upregulation of 6.7% and suppressed 3.8% of the 14,000 phospho-sites identified on 3727 proteins. MINCLE-dependent phosphorylation was observed for canonical players of CLR signaling (e.g. PLCg, PKCd), and was enriched for PKCd and GSK3 kinase motifs. MINCLE-dependent activation of the PI3K-AKT-GSK3 pathway contributed to inflammatory gene expression and required the PI3K regulatory subunit p85a. Unexpectedly, a substantial fraction of TDM-induced phosphorylation was MINCLE-independent, a finding paralleled by transcriptome data. Bioinformatic analysis of both datasets concurred in the requirement for MINCLE for innate immune response pathways and processes. In contrast, MINCLE-independent phosphorylation and transcriptome responses were linked to cell cycle regulation. Collectively, our global analyses show substantial reprogramming of macrophages by TDM and reveal a dichotomy of MINCLE-dependent and -independent signaling linked to distinct biological responses. Overall design: mRNA profiles from TDM stimulated and unstimulated wildtype and Mincle-/- BMDM were generated by RNASeq (8 samples, duplicates from independent experiments, for each sample RNA was pooled from biological replicates, controls: unstimulated BMDM and solvent controls)
Project description:Mincle [macrophage inducible Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) lectin; CLEC4E] and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin; CLEC4D) are receptors for the cord factor TDM (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate), a unique glycolipid of mycobacterial cell-surface components, and activate immune cells to confer adjuvant activity. Although it is known that receptor-TDM interactions require both sugar and lipid moieties of TDM, the mechanisms of glycolipid recognition by Mincle and MCL remain unclear. We here report the crystal structures of Mincle, MCL, and the Mincle-citric acid complex. The structures revealed that these receptors are capable of interacting with sugar in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, as observed in other C-type lectins. However, Mincle and MCL uniquely possess shallow hydrophobic regions found adjacent to their putative sugar binding sites, which reasonably locate for recognition of fatty acid moieties of glycolipids. Functional studies using mutant receptors as well as glycolipid ligands support this deduced binding mode. These results give insight into the molecular mechanism of glycolipid recognition through C-type lectin receptors, which may provide clues to rational design for effective adjuvants.
Project description:Gut microbial components serve as ligand for various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) present on immune cells and thereby regulates host immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized innate cells involved in immune response to <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (<i>Mtb</i>) infection. The gut-lung axis is a potential therapeutic target in tuberculosis; however, understanding of the innate immune mechanism underlying the interaction of gut microbiota and lung still remains obscure. We investigated if antibiotics (Abx) induced gut dysbiosis is able to affect the activation of innate receptor, macrophage inducible C-type lectin (mincle) in lungs during <i>Mtb</i> infection. We found that dysbiosis reduced the lung mincle expression with a concomitant increase in <i>Mtb</i> survival. Further, Abx diminished the effector and memory T cell population, while elevating frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs. Here, we show that dysbiotic mice exhibited low mincle expression on lung DCs. These DCs with impaired phenotype and functions had reduced ability to activate naïve CD4 T cells, and thus unable to restrict <i>Mtb</i> survival. <i>In vivo</i> administration of trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB: mincle ligand) efficiently rescued this immune defect by enhancing lung DCs function and subsequent T cell response. Further, gut microbial profiling revealed augmentation of <i>Lactobacillus</i> upon mincle stimulation in microbiota depleted animals. Accordingly, supplementation with <i>Lactobacillus</i> restored mincle expression on lung DCs along with anti-<i>Mtb</i> response. Our data demonstrate that gut microbiota is crucial to maintain DC-dependent lung immune response against <i>Mtb</i>, mediated by mincle. Abx interrupt this process to induce impaired T cell-response and increased susceptibility to <i>Mtb</i>.