Visual and Anatomical Outcomes of Spironolactone Therapy in Patients with Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this prospective interventional case series, patients with chronic CSC were treated with spironolactone (25 mg daily) for at least 6 weeks. If the subretinal fluid (SRF) had not completely resolved by this time, treatment was continued, and the dosage was increased to 25 mg twice daily. Primary outcome measure was the change in maximum SRF height at the final follow-up visit, as detected by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT).Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with chronic CSC were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 6.4 ± 4.3 months. Baseline BCVA was 0.54 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (log MAR), which improved to 0.42 ± 0.43 log MAR at the final visit (P = 0.04). Mean CMT decreased from 282.69 ± 103.23 μm at baseline to 236.75 ± 90.10 μm at final visit (P = 0.11), and the mean of maximum SRF height decreased from 155.63 ± 95.27 μm at baseline to 77.19 ± 95.68 μm at the final visit (P = 0.04). SRF resolved completely in seven eyes (43.75%).In eyes with persistent SRF due to CSC, spironolactone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in maximum SRF height, as well as an improvement in BCVA.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist (MRa) therapy in three clinical presentations of nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) with chronic epitheliopathy.Retrospective case series of consecutive patients with nonresolving CSCR treated with oral eplerenone or spironolactone. Treatment criteria were: persistent CSCR with subretinal fluid (SRF) lasting longer than 4 months; recurrent CSCR with SRF lasting longer than 2 months; persistent CSCR (SRF ? 4 months) with fundus autofluorescence gravitational tracks. Outcomes at 1, 3, and 6 months were: foveal SRF height, central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and occurrence of side effects.Among 54 eyes from 42 patients (mean age: 53 years), mean foveal SRF, CMT, and SFCT decreased significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment initiation. Mean BCVA improved significantly at 6 months. In the subgroup analysis, mean foveal SRF, CMT, and SFCT decreased significantly at 3 and 6 months in the persistent and recurrent groups. In persistent cases with tracks, a significant diminution of mean CMT and SFCT was achieved at 6 months. Treatment-related side effects were observed in 6 patients, prompting treatment discontinuation in one case.Response to treatment was observed in the three subgroups. In persistent CSCR with tracks the response was delayed compared with persistent and recurrent cases, suggesting that longer treatment durations would be beneficial in patients with gravitational tracks of RPE alteration.The clinical response to oral MRa is consistent with the involvement of the mineralocorticoid pathway in CSCR pathogenesis.
Project description:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and factors involved in the recurrence and persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this retrospective observational case series, 79 eyes (73 patients) with chronic CSC were treated with half-dose PDT and followed up for at least 3 years. They were divided into successful (64 eyes) and unsuccessful (15 eyes) groups based on SRF absorption and disease recurrence after one PDT session. Age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness, neuroretinal thickness, height of SRF, subfoveal choroidal thickness, window defect area detected by fluorescein angiography, and PDT spot area were compared between the groups. Factors associated with PDT success and BCVA at 3 years were investigated.LogMAR BCVA improved from 0.21±0.24 to 0.08±0.16 (P<0.001) at 3 years after PDT. Compared with the unsuccessful group, the successful group had a significantly younger mean age (50.5±9.7 vs. 56.5±9.1 years, P = 0.032) and better baseline BCVA (0.18±0.23 vs. 0.32±0.25, P = 0.034). Other parameters were not significantly different. Multivariate analyses showed that unsuccessful PDT was significantly associated with lower baseline BCVA (P = 0.026) and older age (P = 0.029) and that BCVA at 3 years after PDT was positively associated with baseline BCVA (P<0.001).Half-dose PDT has a long-term efficacy in chronic CSC. Relatively early PDT may improve anatomic and functional outcomes of chronic CSC.
Project description:To evaluate the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) with either subthreshold diode laser MicroPulse (SDM) or intravitreal bevacizumab (BCZ).This comparative, controlled, prospective study conducted over a period of 10 months examined 52 eyes of 52 patients with (a) treatment with SDM at the active leakage site guided by fluorescein angiography (FA) (n=16 eyes), (b) intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg BCZ (n=10 eyes), or (c) observation (n=26 eyes). Outcome measures included changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leakage at FA, central macular thickness (CMT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and 10° macular perimetry.At the end of the study, there was 12.5% persistent leakage in the SDM, compared with 60% in the BCZ and 92% in the control group. Mean CMT decreased by 94 μm in the SDM, 38 μm in the BCZ, and did not change in the control group. Mean BCVA improved more than 6 early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study letters in the SDM, decreased by one letter in the BCZ, and by two letters in the control group. In the SDM group, mean perimetric deficit improved by 1.5 decibels and corrected lost variance by 2.6. In the BCZ, it improved by 0.6, and in the control group by 0.5. Retreatment was required in 7/16 eyes of the SDM group (43.75%), and in 5/10 eyes of the BCZ group (50%).SDM photocoagulation was superior to intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg BCZ in the treatment of CSC, which resulted in enhanced visual acuity and macular perimetry.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the 1-year efficacy and safety of low-frequency intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs).The study comprised an interventional prospective study of patients with macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion, followed for 12 months. Treatment-naïve patients with reduced best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) of at least 250 μm received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. After 1 month, BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the macula were recorded. In patients with <30% improvement in BCVA and CMT, two more injections were applied at 1.5-month intervals. In all other patients, further injections were applied as needed. In cases with ischemic areas of retina, laser photocoagulation of the retina was performed.In total, 33 patients with CRVO and 55 with BRVO were treated. After 1 year, 65 eyes (73.86%) had clinically significant improvement of BCVA (>0.3 log of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) with average number of injections of 1.98. Improvement of mean BCVA in CRVO was significant (P=0.001) from baseline (1.2±0.95 logMAR units) to 1 year (0.75±0.6 logMAR units). Significant improvement of mean BCVA (P<0.001) was also found in BRVO, from 0.71±0.75 logMAR units at baseline to 0.28±0.5 logMAR units at 1 year. Baseline CMT was 852.21±298.20 μm for CRVO and 597.95±185.63 μm for BRVO. In both groups, there was significant decrease (P<0.001) in CMT after 1 year of treatment. Panretinal laser photocoagulation was done in 75.8% of all eyes with CRVO and sectoral photocoagulation in 49.1% of eyes with BRVO.In macular edema due to RVO, intravitreal bevacizumab provides improvement in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema in a high percentage of treated eyes after 1 year, even with low number of injections.
Project description:Background:Increased mineralocorticoid activity is one of the plausible causes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and mineralocorticoid inhibitors such as eplerenone have been investigated as its potential therapy. This study investigates the short-term safety and efficacy of oral eplerenone in patients with chronic CSCR. Patients and methods:Prospective study of 13 eyes of 13 patients with the diagnosis of chronic CSCR. All patients received eplerenone 50 mg/day for 4 weeks. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) was obtained. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and OCT parameters including sub retinal fluid (SRF), choroidal thickness (CT) and central macular thickness (CMT), were measured manually. Results:The mean SRF height decreased slightly at 1-month follow-up as compared to baseline, but the change was not statistically significant (94.18?±?17.53 vs. 113.15?±?18.69; p?=?0.08). Subfoveal CT and CMT was significantly reduced as compared to baseline (6.6% [p?=?0.002] and 7.05% [p?=?0.04], respectively). The BCVA did not change significantly (20/28 vs. 20/30 [p?=?0.16]). Conclusion:This study suggests that oral eplerenone may be used as a safe and potentially effective treatment in chronic CSCR, however there are minimal short-term effects on subretinal fluid or visual acuity therefore therapeutic trials longer than one month are necessary to test its benefits.Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identification number: NCT01822561. Registered 3/25/13, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01822561.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To assess the safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) using a Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride laser with feedback systems in patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).<h4>Methods</h4>This randomized clinical trial enrolled patients having at least 3-month symptom of CSC. From month 3 visit, all subjects in both groups were eligible for SRT retreatment if they showed persistent or recurrent subretinal fluid (SRF). The primary outcome was complete resolution of SRF by optical coherence tomography at 3 months after treatment. The secondary outcomes were changes in SRF, central macular thickness (CMT) and best-corrected visual acuity at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month examinations.<h4>Results</h4>Sixty-eight CSC patients were included (SRT, 31; control, 37). After 1 and 3 months, complete resolution of SRF was achieved in 25.8% and 54.8% of SRT group and 17.6% and 35.1% of controls. The differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.424 and p = 0.142, respectively). However, mixed model for repeated measures analyses showed that the reduction of SRF and CMT were observed earlier in SRT group than in the sham group (least squares mean difference, -59.7 µm; 95% confidence interval, -98.2 to -21.2; p = 0.0029; least squares mean difference -67.0 µm; 95% confidence interval, -104.8 to -29.2; p = 0.0007, respectively). Significant reduction of SRF (?50% reduction from baseline) was more frequently observed in SRT group (80.6%) than the sham group (44.1%) at month 1 (p = 0.007). Early reduction of SRF and CMT was more abundant in SRT group with symptom duration less than 6 months. Treatment related serious adverse events were not observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SRT using a Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride laser with feedback system was safe in this trial and effective for early resolution of SRF in the CSC patients. Early intervention with SRT can be a safe alternative for patients with acute symptomatic CSC.
Project description:To assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC), in whom subretinal fluid (SRF) was solely present outside the foveal area.In this retrospective study, 16 eyes of 15 cCSC patients who received half-dose PDT because of notable subjective visual complaints due to the presence of extrafoveal SRF, were included. An ophthalmic examination was performed before treatment, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity measurement, applanation tonometry, slit-lamp examination, and indirect ophthalmoscopy, followed by multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced-depth imaging OCT of the choroid, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.In 7 treated patients (47%), PDT led to a decrease in visual complaints at the first evaluation visit. At this visit, extrafoveal SRF on OCT had resolved in 14 eyes (88%), whereas a complete resolution of extrafoveal SRF had occurred in all eyes at final follow-up visit. At baseline, posterior cystoid retinal degeneration was also present in 5 eyes (31%) and this remained present at all evaluation visits in these patients. Choroidal thickness decreased statistically significantly in the treated eyes, both foveally and at the location of the maximum height of extrafoveal SRF. No complications of PDT were observed.Half-dose PDT treatment of cCSC patients with visual complaints due to extrafoveal SRF accumulation is a safe procedure leading to complete SRF resolution, a decrease in choroidal thickness, and a reduction in visual symptoms.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess parameters on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and their correlation with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with non-resolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS:For 25 non-resolving CSC patients treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the thickness of retinal layers was assessed on the foveal spectral-domain (SD) OCT scan. Evaluated OCT parameters included the central retinal thickness (CRT), defined as the internal limiting membrane (ILM) to ellipsoid zone (EZ) distance, and the second band thickness (SBT), defined as the EZ to hyperreflective subretinal accumulation distance. Integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM) and the EZ bands was also determined. These parameters, along with BCVA and CRT measured automatically by SD-OCT device software were obtained before PDT, after PDT, and at final visit. After Bonferroni correction, a p-value <0.007 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Twenty-five patients could be included at last visit before PDT and first visit after PDT. At final visit, 24 patients could be included, since 1 patients was lost to follow-up. Mean CRT was 112 ?m at last visit before PDT, 118 ?m at first visit after PDT (p = 0.030), and 127 ?m at final visit (p<0.001compared to baseline). Mean SBT was 74 ?m, 26 ?m (p<0.001 compared to baseline), and 21 ?m (p<0.001 compared to baseline), respectively. Mean BCVA in Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters was 79 at baseline, 85 at first visit after PDT (p = 0.005 compared to baseline), and 87 at final visit (p = 0.001 compared to baseline). BCVA had an estimated correlation of ? = 0.103 (p = 0.114) with CRT, ? = -0.051 (p = 0.014) with SBT, ? = 0.615 (p = 0.600) with the integrity of the ELM, and ? = 4.917 with the integrity of the EZ (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In non-resolving CSC patients treated with half-dose PDT, the CRT increased at final visit in comparison to the last visit before PDT. The continuity of the EZ on SD-OCT was positively correlated with BCVA. We propose that the distance between ILM and EZ should be used as a reliable CRT measurement in non-resolving CSC patients treated with half-dose PDT.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, for nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy.This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either spironolactone 50 mg or placebo once a day for 30 days, followed by a washout period of 1 week and then crossed over to either placebo or spironolactone for another 30 days. The primary outcome measure was the changes from baseline in SRF thickness at the apex of the serous retinal detachment. Secondary outcomes included subfoveal choroidal thickness and the ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity.The mean duration of central serous chorioretinopathy before enrollment in study eyes was 10 ± 16.9 months. Crossover data analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in SRF in spironolactone treated eyes as compared with the same eyes under placebo (P = 0.04). Secondary analysis on the first period (Day 0-Day 30) showed a significant reduction in subfoveal choroidal thickness in treated eyes as compared with placebo (P = 0.02). No significant changes were observed in the best-corrected visual acuity. There were no complications related to treatment observed.In eyes with persistent SRF due to central serous chorioretinopathy, spironolactone significantly reduced both the SRF and the subfoveal choroidal thickness as compared with placebo.
Project description:To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with subretinal neovascularization secondary to type 2 juxtafoveal telangiectasia.Ten eyes of 10 patients were included in this retrospective study. All cases were treated with IVB (1.25 mg bevacizumab). Visual acuity and slit-lamp anterior and posterior segment examinations were performed at each visit. Central macular thickness (CMT) and intraretinal/subretinal fluid were evaluated via spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Loss of a line in visual acuity chart and presence of fluid on OCT were defined as criteria for repeated treatment.The mean age of patients was 66.0±7.0 years (56-75). The mean follow-up time was 54.7±16.0 month (24-72). The mean BCVA was 0.62±0.35 (0.00-1.00) logMAR at baseline and 0.54±0.35 (0.00-1.00) logMAR at final exam (p=0.03). The mean CMT was 251±25.4 µm at baseline and 239±39.3 µm at final exam (p=0.01). Patients received an average of 1.7±1.0 IVB injections during follow-up. At baseline, all cases had intraretinal/subretinal fluid. There was no fluid at final examination of all cases.IVB treatment may be effective in the treatment of subretinal neovascularization secondary to type 2 juxtafoveal telangiectasia.