Effect of dexmedetomidine combined with sufentanil on preventing emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to observe whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) combined with sufentanil decreased emergence agitation (EA) in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery. Children undergoing elective cleft palate repair surgery were randomly allocated into the DEX + sufentanil group (group DS; n=50) and the normal saline + fentanyl group (group SF; n=50). Patients in group DS were treated with 0.5 µg/kg DEX prior to induction of anesthesia, whereas patients in group SF received an equal volume of normal saline. Sufentanil (0.2 µg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia, and 30 min before the end of surgery for patients in group DS. Fentanyl (2 µg/kg) was administered at the same time point for patients in group SF. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), duration of surgery and anesthesia, and the dosage of remifentanil were assessed. EA score, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score and the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score were documented every 15 min in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) and the recovery profile data were analyzed. Compared with group DS (P<0.05) and the baseline (P<0.05), HR and MAP were significantly increased in group SF immediately following tracheal intubation and extubation. Mean values of maximum EA, PAED and CHIPPS scores were significantly reduced in group DS compared with group SF at 0 (P<0.01), 15 (P<0.05), and 30 min (P<0.05) after arrival at PACU. The incidence of EA in group SF was significantly increased compared with group DS (P<0.05). The dosage of remifentanil during the surgery and the number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) in group DS were significantly decreased compared with group SF (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggested that DEX combined with sufentanil was able to effectively decrease the incidence of EA in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery.
Project description:The addition of opioids to local anesthetics contributes to the quality of spinal anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.In our prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, our aim was to compare the effect of low-dose sufentanil plus levobupivacaine or a fentanyl plus levobupivacaine mixture on anesthesia quality, block characteristics, newborn and mother well-being, surgeon satisfaction, and duration of postoperative analgesia.Ninety-three patients were randomized into 3 groups (n = 31). Patients in Group C received 0.5% levobupivacaine (2.2 ± 0.2 mL), Group S received 2.5 µg sufentanil plus 0.5% levobupivacaine (2.2 ± 0.2 mL), and Group F received 10 µg fentanyl plus 0.5% levobupivacaine (2.2 ± 0.2 mL) intrathecally completed to a volume of 3 mL with the addition of saline in all groups. Patients' demographics, sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamics, Apgar scores, umbilical blood gas values, maternal side effects, surgeon satisfaction score, time to first analgesia requirement, and additional analgesic use within 24 hours were recorded.In Group S and Group F, target levels of sensory and motor block were achieved more rapidly (P < 0.001). The hemodynamic values were lower (P < 0.05), and the duration of sensory blockade and the time of first analgesic requirement were longer (P < 0.001) in Group S. Additional analgesic requirement during first 24-hour period was lowest in Group S, and highest in Group C (P < 0.001). Apgar scores and umbilical blood gas samples were similar between groups. Postoperative pruritus was more frequent in Group S (P < 0.001) and surgeon satisfaction score was significantly lower in Group C (P = 0.003).We suggest that the addition of sufentanil and fentanyl to intrathecal levobupivacaine during caesarean section surgery is more effective than the administration of levobupivacaine alone. The addition of sufentanil to levobupivacaine allowed rapid onset time for sensory and motor block levels. It also extended the duration of postoperative analgesia and led to a decrease in total analgesic requirement. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01858090.
Project description:Background: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains high. The effects of sufentanil for PONV is not firmly confirmed. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sufentanil- and fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) on the incidence of PONV after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Methods: Eighty-six patients were randomly allocated to receive either the sufentanil (n =43) or fentanyl (n =43). IV-PCA was prepared using either sufentanil 3 µg/kg or fentanyl 20 µg/kg, ramosetron 0.3 mg, and ketorolac 120 mg. The primary outcome of was the incidence of PONV during 24 h after post anesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge. The secondary outcomes were the modified Rhodes index and patient satisfaction scores at 24 h after PACU discharge, need for rescue antiemetics, pain score, need for additional analgesics, and cumulative consumption of IV-PCA Results: The incidence of PONV was comparable between the sufentanil and fentanyl groups (64.3% vs. 65%, p = 0.946; respectively). The number of patients who required antiemetics (p = 0.946) and the modified Rhodes index at 24 h after post-anesthesia care unit discharge (p = 0.668) were also comparable in both groups. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, including the analgesic profiles and adverse events between the groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, sufentanil- and fentanyl-based IV-PCA showed similar incidence of PONV with comparable analgesic effects after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Based on these results, we suggest that sufentanil and fentanyl may provide comparable effects for IV-PCA after laparoscopic nephrectomy.
Project description:Several studies have reported the use of dexmedetomidine (DEX) plus opioids for flexible bronchoscopy in both adults and children. To determine whether DEX plus sufentanil (SF) is safe for children, 142 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy were assigned to one of three groups, each of which received the same SF loading dose and similar DEX and SF maintenance doses, but different loading doses of DEX: DS1 (DEX 0.5 μg·kg-1), DS2 (DEX 1.0 μg·kg-1), and DS3 (DEX 1.5 μg·kg-1). The Ramsay sedation scale was maintained at 3 in all groups. Results showed that anesthesia onset time was shorter, and the perioperative hemodynamic profile was more stable, in the DS3 group. The number of intraoperative movements was also lowest in the DS3 group. The time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly longer, but the total corresponding accumulated doses were lower in the DS3 group. Although the time to recovery prior to discharge from the post anesthesia care unit was longer, the overall incidence of tachycardia was lower in the DS3 group, and it received the highest bronchoscopist satisfaction score among the three groups. We therefore conclude that high-dose DEX plus SF can be safely and efficaciously used in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) on adrenocortical function in patients with etomidate anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly divided 80 patients who underwent elective surgery into 4 groups: group etomidate (ETO), group etomidate + electroacupuncture (ETO+EA), group etomidate + sham acupuncture (ETO+SEA), and group propofol (PRO). The patients in group ETO, ETO+EA, and ETO+SEA were induced with etomidate and sufentanil and maintained with intravenous infusion of etomidate and remifentanil. Group PRO was induced with propofol and sufentanil and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. Group ETO+EA received electro-acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli and Sanyinjiao throughout the operation, while group ETO+SEA received electro-acupuncture stimulation at non-acupoints. We recorded the values of MAP, HR, BIS, CVP, cortisol, ACTH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and arterial blood gas during the perioperative period. RESULTS: Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at all times except T0 in group ETO+EA compared with group ETO. The ACTH concentrations were lower in group ETO+EA than that in group ETO at point T3. CONCLUSIONS: Electroacupuncture at ST 36 and SP 6 can mitigate the adrenal cortical inhibition induced by etomidate and can reduce the secretion of catecholamines during surgery.
Project description:A double-blind randomised study to evaluate the opioid sparing effect and safety of nefopam when administered via intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl.Patients planned for elective open laparotomy, were randomly assigned to receive into fentanyl 25 µg/ml (SF group) or nefopam 2.4 mg/ml plus fentanyl 25 µg/ml (NF group). Patients were assessed before surgery and for 24 h postoperatively.Total PCA fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in the NF group (n = 35) than the SF group (n = 36). Pain scores were significantly lower and patients' satisfaction with treatment significantly better in the NF group than the SF group. Dry mouth and dizziness were significantly more frequent in the NF group than the SF group. There were no other statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of adverse events.Intravenous PCA using nefopam + fentanyl following laparotomy has an opioid sparing effect and is associated with a low incidence of some of the typical opioid related adverse events.Clinicaltrials.gov Registration No: NCT02596269.
Project description:Emergence agitation (EA) is frequently observed in children undergoing general anaesthesia. This study tested whether the addition of an intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine to fentanyl treatment reduced the incidence of emergence delirium following desflurane anesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery.A total of 96 children (1-5 years old) undergoing strabismus surgery were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with desflurane. After induction, fentanyl (1 ?g/kg) was administered to all children. During surgery, patients were infused with 0.2 ?g/(kg·h)?¹ dexmedetomidine (Group FD, n=47) or normal saline (Group F, n=47). Postoperative objective pain score (OPS), Paediatric Agitation and Emergence Delirium (PAED) score, and EA score were documented every 10 minutes in the post-anaesthesia care unit.There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic characteristics and haemodynamic changes. The mean values of maximum EA, maximum PAED, and maximum OPS score were significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F at 0, 10, and 20 minutes after arrival at the post-anaesthesia care unit (p<0.001). The frequency of fentanyl rescue was lower in Group FD than in Group F (p<0.001). The incidence of severe EA was significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F (12.8% vs. 74.5%, p<0.001).Intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine in addition to fentanyl reduces EA following desflurane anaesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgeries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shivering is a common side effect in women having cesarean delivery (CD) under spinal anesthesia, which can be bothersome to the patient, and it can also interfere with perioperative monitoring. In several studies, the intrathecal (IT) addition of a lipophilic opioid to local anesthetics has been shown to decrease the incidence of shivering. OBJECTIVE:We performed this network meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of intrathecal lipophilic opioids in preventing the incidence of shivering in patients undergoing CD. METHODS:This review was planned according to the PRISMA for Network Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-NMA) guidelines. An English literature search of multiple electronic databases was conducted. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported on the incidence of shivering, with study groups receiving either IT fentanyl, sufentanil, or meperidine in women undergoing CD under spinal anesthesia. Quality of the studies was assessed using the modified Oxford scoring system. Using random-effects modeling, dichotomous data were extracted and summarized using odds ratio (OR) with a 95% credible interval (CrI). Statistical analysis was conducted using R studio version 1.0.153 - Inc. RESULTS:Twenty-one studies consisting of 1433 patients (Control group: 590 patients in twenty-one studies; Fentanyl group:199 patients in seven studies; Sufentanil group: 156 patients in five studies; Meperidine group: 488 patients in ten studies) met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review investigating the effect of intrathecal lipophilic opioids in preventing the incidence of shivering in women undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Methodological validity scores ranged from 3 to 7. The Bayesian mixed network estimate showed the incidence of shivering was significantly lower with IT fentanyl (pooled odds ratio (OR): 0.13; 95% credible interval (CrI): 0.04 to 0.35; P?=?0.0004) and IT meperidine (OR: 0.12; 95% CrI: 0.05 to 0.29; P?<?0.00001), but not with IT sufentanil (OR: 0.37; 95% CrI: 0.11 to 1.22; P?=?0.23). The IT fentanyl group had a significantly lower incidence of intraoperative discomfort [Risk Ratio (RR): 0.19; 95% CI: 0.10-0.35; P?<?0.00001], the IT sufentanil group had a significantly higher incidence of pruritus (RR: 6.18; 95% CI: 1.18-32.46; P?=?0.03) The IT meperidine group had a significantly lower incidence of intraoperative discomfort (2.7% vs. 13.6%; RR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55; P =?0.001), but there was a significant increase in nausea and vomiting (IT meperidine group vs. Control group: 42.7% vs. 19.4%; RR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.14-5.75; P =?0.02). Meta-regression analysis based on the opioid dose and quality of the study did not impact the final inference of our result. CONCLUSION:IT fentanyl significantly decreased the incidence of shivering in women undergoing CD under spinal anesthesia without increasing maternal adverse events, confirming that routine use in this patient population is a good choice. IT sufentanil did not decrease the incidence of shivering. IT meperidine decreased the incidence and severity of shivering, but its use was also associated with significant nausea and vomiting.
Project description:The conversion of epidural labor analgesia (ELA) to epidural surgical anesthesia (ESA) for intrapartum cesarean section (CS) often fails, resulting in intraoperative pain. Spinal anesthesia (SA) can provide a denser sensory block than ESA. The purpose of this prospective, non-blinded, parallel-arm, randomized trial was to compare the rate of pain-free surgery between ESA and SA following ELA for intrapartum CS.Both groups received continuous epidural infusions for labor pain at a rate of 10 ml/h. In the ESA group (n = 163), ESA was performed with 17 ml of 2% lidocaine mixed with 100 µg fentanyl, 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, and 2 mEq bicarbonate. In the SA group (n = 160), SA was induced with 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 15 µg fentanyl. We investigated the failure rate of achieving pain-free surgery and the incidence of complications between the two groups.The failure rate of achieving pain-free surgery was higher in the ESA group than the SA group (15.3% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the rate of conversion to general anesthesia; however, the rate of analgesic requirement was higher in the ESA group than in the SA group (12.9% vs. 1.3%, P < 0.001). The incidence of high block, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and shivering and Apgar scores were comparable between the two groups.SA after ELA can lower the failure rate of pain-free surgery during intrapartum CS compared to ESA after ELA.
Project description:Objectives. To compare the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal clonidine and fentanyl added to bupivacaine after cesarean section. Methods. Ninety patients scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of the three following groups to receive bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 75?µg clonidine (group C), bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 0.5?mL fentanyl (group F), and bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 0.5?mL distilled water (group P), intrathecally. The time to first analgesic request, analgesic requirement in the first 24 hours after surgery, sensory and motor blockade onset time, duration of sensory and motor blockade, the incidence of hypotension, ephedrine requirements, bradycardia, and hypoxemia were recorded. Results. The duration of anesthesia in clonidine group (275.10 ± 96.09) was longer compared to the placebo (211.73 ± 74.80) and fentanyl (192.33 ± 30.36) groups. This difference between group C versus F (P = 0.006) and P groups (P < 0.001) was significant. Similarly, the mean time to first analgesic request was also longer in group C (519.44 ± 86.25) than in groups F (277.88 ± 94.25) and P (235.43 ± 22.35?min). This difference between group C versus F (P < 0.001) and P groups (P < 0.001) was significant. Conclusion. Intrathecal clonidine 75?µg with bupivacaine prolonged the time to first analgesic request compared to fentanyl; however, the total analgesic consumption within the first 24?h postoperative was similar in fentanyl and clonidine groups following cesarean section. This trial is registered with ACTRN12611000909921 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425658.
Project description:Our aim was to assess the efficacy of thoracic epidural anesthesia (EA) followed by postoperative epidural infusion (EI) and patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with ropivacaine/fentanyl in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB).In a prospective study, 93 patients were scheduled for OPCAB under propofol/fentanyl anesthesia and randomized to three postoperative analgesia regimens aiming at a visual analog scale (VAS) score < 30 mm at rest. The control group (n = 31) received intravenous fentanyl 10 ?g/ml postoperatively 3-8 mL/h. After placement of an epidural catheter at the level of Th2-Th4 before OPCAB, a thoracic EI group (n = 31) received EA intraoperatively with ropivacaine 0.75% 1 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 ?g/kg followed by continuous EI of ropivacaine 0.2% 3-8 mL/h and fentanyl 2 ?g/mL postoperatively. The PCEA group (n = 31), in addition to EA and EI, received PCEA (ropivacaine/fentanyl bolus 1 mL, lock-out interval 12 min) postoperatively. Hemodynamics and blood gases were measured throughout 24 h after OPCAB.During OPCAB, EA decreased arterial pressure transiently, counteracted changes in global ejection fraction and accumulation of extravascular lung water, and reduced the consumption of propofol by 15%, fentanyl by 50% and nitroglycerin by a 7-fold, but increased the requirements in colloids and vasopressors by 2- and 3-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). After OPCAB, PCEA increased PaO2/FiO2 at 18 h and decreased the duration of mechanical ventilation by 32% compared with the control group (P < 0.05).In OPCAB, EA with ropivacaine/fentanyl decreases arterial pressure transiently, optimizes myocardial performance and influences the perioperative fluid and vasoactive therapy. Postoperative EI combined with PCEA improves lung function and reduces time to extubation.NCT01384175.