Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Cote d'Ivoire.
ABSTRACT: Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist.Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures. Immature mosquitoes were reared in the laboratory and adult specimens identified at species level.We collected 6,159, 14,347, and 22,974 Aedes mosquitoes belonging to 17, 8, and 3 different species in rural, suburban, and urban environments, respectively. Ae. aegypti was the predominant species throughout, with a particularly high abundance in urban areas (99.374%). Eleven Aedes larval species not previously sampled in similar settings of Côte d'Ivoire were identified: Ae. albopictus, Ae. angustus, Ae. apicoargenteus, Ae. argenteopunctatus, Ae. haworthi, Ae. lilii, Ae. longipalpis, Ae. opok, Ae. palpalis, Ae. stokesi, and Ae. unilineatus. Aedes breeding site positivity was associated with study area, container type, shade, detritus, water turbidity, geographic location, season, and the presence of predators. We found proportionally more positive breeding sites in urban (2,136/3,374, 63.3%), compared to suburban (1,428/3,069, 46.5%) and rural areas (738/2,423, 30.5%). In the urban setting, the predominant breeding sites were industrial containers (e.g., tires and discarded containers). In suburban areas, containers made of traditional materials (e.g., clay pots) were most frequently encountered. In rural areas, natural containers (e.g., tree holes and bamboos) were common and represented 22.1% (163/738) of all Aedes-positive containers, hosting 18.7% of the Aedes fauna. The predatory mosquito species Culex tigripes was commonly sampled, while Toxorhynchites and Eretmapodites were mostly collected in rural areas.In Côte d'Ivoire, urbanization is associated with high abundance of Aedes larvae and a predominance of artificial containers as breeding sites, mostly colonized by Ae. aegypti in urban areas. Natural containers are still common in rural areas harboring several Aedes species and, therefore, limiting the impact of systematic removal of discarded containers on the control of arbovirus diseases.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus.<h4>Methods</h4>Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas.<h4>Results</h4>The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings.
Project description:Dengue, a vector-borne disease spread by Aedes mosquitoes, is a global threat. In the absence of an efficacious dengue vaccine, vector control is the key intervention tool in Singapore. A good understanding of vector habitats is essential to formulate operational strategies. We examined the distribution, long-term trend and seasonality of Aedes data collected during regulatory inspections in residences and public areas from 2008 to 2017. We also studied the seasonality of climate factors to understand their influence on the detection of Aedes-positive containers. The most frequently reported Aedes-positive containers were domestic containers, drains, discarded receptacles, ornamental containers, flower pot plates/trays, plants, gully traps, canvas/plastic sheet, bins, ground puddle, inspection chambers and roof tops/gutters. We found more Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus-positive containers per inspection in residences and public areas, respectively. The seasonality of Ae. aegypti-positive containers in residences and public areas coincided with that of mean temperature. However, the seasonality of Ae. albopictus-positive containers lagged by one month compared to that of mean temperature. Our study demonstrates the seasonal fluctuations of Aedes-positive containers in an urban environment. Understanding the distribution and seasonality of Aedes breeding helps to facilitate resource planning and community awareness to moderate dengue transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes-borne arboviruses have emerged as an important public health problem worldwide and, in Mozambique, the number of cases and its geographical spread have been growing. However, information on the occurrence, distribution and ecology of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes remain poorly known in the country. METHODS:Between March and April 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 32 districts in Mozambique to determine the distribution and breeding sites of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larvae and pupae were collected from a total of 2,807 water-holding containers using pipette, dipper, funnel and sweeping procedures, depending on the container type and location. Both outdoor and indoor water-holding containers were inspected. The immature forms were reared to adults and the identifications of the mosquito species was carried out with a stereomicroscope using a taxonomic key. RESULTS:Aedes aegypti was found in every district sampled, while Ae. albopictus was only found in Moatize district, situated in Tete Province in the central part of the country. Six hundred and twenty-eight of 2,807 (22.4%) containers were positive for Ae. aegypti but only one (0.03%) was positive for Ae. albopictus. The Container Index (CI) of Aedes was highest in densely populated suburban areas of the central region (260/604; 43.0%), followed by suburban areas in northern areas (228/617; 36.9%) whilst the lowest proportion was found in urbanized southern areas (140/1586; 8.8%). The highest CI of Aedes was found in used tires (448/1268; 35.3%), cement tanks (20/62; 32.3%) and drums (21/95; 22.1%). CONCLUSION:Data from our study showed that Ae. aegypti is present nation-wide, since it occurred in every sampled district, whilst Ae. albopictus had a limited distribution. Therefore, the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya is likely to have been underestimated in Mozambique. This study highlights the need for the establishment of a national entomological surveillance program for Aedes spp. in Mozambique in order to gain a better understanding about vector bionomics and to support the development of informed effective vector control strategies.
Project description:Dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are major public health threats in the tropical and subtropical world. In México, construction of large tracts of "fraccionamientos" high density housing to accommodate population growth and urbanization has provided fertile ground for Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses. We investigated the utility of pyrethroid-treated window curtains to reduce both the abundance of Ae. aegypti and to prevent dengue virus (DENV) transmission in fraccionamiento housing. Windows and doors of fraccionamiento homes in urban/suburban areas, where Ae. aegypti pyrethroid resistance associated with the Ile1016 knock down resistance (kdr) mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene was high, and in rural areas, where kdr resistance was low, were fitted with either insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) or non-treated curtains (NTCs). The homes were monitored for mosquito abundance and DENV infection. ITCs reduced the indoor abundance of Ae. aegypti and the number of DENV-infected mosquitoes in homes in rural but not in urban/suburban study sites. The presence of non-treated screens also was associated with reduced numbers of mosquitoes in homes. "Super-infested" homes, yielding more than 50 mosquitoes, including DENV-infected mosquitoes, provide a significant public health risk to occupants, visitors, and people in neighboring homes.
Project description:Identifying priority areas for vector control is of considerable public health relevance. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) spread by Aedes mosquitoes are (re)emerging in many parts of the tropics, partially explained by changes in agricultural land-use. We explored the effects of land-use changes on the abundance, distribution, and host-seeking behavior of Aedes mosquitoes along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in oil palm-dominated landscapes in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.Between January and December 2014, eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Aedes mosquitoes were sampled in four types of macrohabitats (rainforest, polyculture, oil palm monoculture, and rural housing areas), using standard procedures (bamboo-ovitraps, metallic-ovitraps, larval surveys, and human-baited double-net traps). Immature stages were reared and adult mosquitoes identified at species level.A total of 28,276 Aedes specimens belonging to 11 species were collected. No Aedes-positive microhabitat and only four specimens of Ae. aegypti were found in oil palm monoculture. The highest abundance of Aedes mosquitoes (60.9%) was found in polyculture, while the highest species richness (11 species) was observed in rainforest. Ae. aegypti was the predominant Aedes species, and exhibited high anthropophilic behavior inflicting 93.0% of total biting to humans. The biting rate of Aedes mosquitoes was 34.6 and 7.2-fold higher in polyculture and rural housing areas, respectively, compared to rainforest. Three species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. dendrophilus, and Ae. vittatus) bit humans in polyculture and rural housing areas, with respective biting rates of 21.48 and 4.48 females/person/day. Unexpectedly, all three species were also feeding during darkness. Aedes females showed bimodal daily feeding cycles with peaks at around 08:00 a.m. and 05:00 p.m. Host-seeking activities were interrupted between 11:00 a.m. and 02:00 p.m. in rural housing areas, while no such interruption was observed in polyculture. Some rainforest-dwelling Aedes species displayed little preference to feed on humans.In southeastern Côte d'Ivoire, the agricultural land-use/land-cover changes due to the conversion of rainforest into oil palm monocultures influence the abundance, distribution, and host-seeking behaviors of anthropophagic and non-anthropophagic Aedes vectors. As a result, there is higher risk of humans to arbovirus transmission in polyculture and rural housing areas. There is a need for integrated vector management, including landscape epidemiology and ecotope-based vector control.
Project description:The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, transmits several arboviruses of public health importance, including chikungunya and dengue. Since its introduction to the United States in 1985, the species has invaded more than 40 states, including temperate areas not previously at risk of Aedes-transmitted arboviruses. Mathematical models incorporate climatic variables in predictions of site-specific Ae. albopictus abundances to identify human populations at risk of disease. However, these models rely on coarse resolutions of environmental data that may not accurately represent the climatic profile experienced by mosquitoes in the field, particularly in climatically heterogeneous urban areas. In this study, we pair field surveys of larval and adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with site-specific microclimate data across a range of land use types to investigate the relationships between microclimate, density of larval habitat, and adult mosquito abundance and determine whether these relationships change across an urban gradient. We find no evidence for a difference in larval habitat density or adult abundance between rural, suburban, and urban land classes. Adult abundance increases with increasing larval habitat density, which itself is dependent on microclimate. Adult abundance is strongly explained by microclimate variables, demonstrating that theoretically derived, laboratory-parameterized relationships in ectotherm physiology apply to the field. Our results support the continued use of temperature-dependent models to predict Ae. albopictus abundance in urban areas.
Project description:Background: Management of arboviruses relies heavily on vector control. Implementation and sustenance of effective control measures requires regular surveillance of mosquito occurrences, species abundance and distribution. The current study evaluated larval habitat diversity and productivity, mosquito species diversity and distribution in selected sites along the coast of Kenya. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of mosquito breeding habitats, species diversity and distribution was conducted in urban, peri-urban and forested ecological zones in Mombasa and Kilifi counties. Results: A total of 13,009 immature mosquitoes were collected from 17 diverse aquatic habitats along the coast of Kenya. Larval productivity differed significantly (F (16, 243) = 3.21, P < 0.0001) among the aquatic habitats, with tyre habitats recording the highest larval population. Culex pipiens (50.17%) and Aedes aegypti (38.73%) were the dominant mosquito species in urban areas, while Ae. vittatus (89%) was the dominant species in forested areas. In total, 4,735 adult mosquitoes belonging to 19 species were collected in Haller Park, Bamburi, Gede and Arabuko Sokoke forest. Urban areas supported higher densities of Ae. aegypti compared to peri-urban and forest areas, which, on the other hand, supported greater mosquito species diversity. Conclusions: High Ae. aegypti production in urban and peri-urban areas present a greater risk of arbovirus outbreaks. Targeting productive habitats of Aedes aegypti, such as discarded tyres, containers and poorly maintained drainage systems in urban areas and preventing human-vector contact in peri-urban and forested areas could have a significant impact on the prevalence of arboviruses along the coast of Kenya, forestalling the periodic outbreaks experienced in the region.
Project description:Background:Refillable water containers are commonly used in rural areas of Lao PDR, and they act as Aedes mosquito breeding sites. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitos are transmission vectors for the dengue virus, which causes dengue fever. Methods:Two isolated rural villages in the central part of Lao PDR were selected as study sites. In the intervention village, domestic water containers were continuously treated with a long-lasting matrix release formulation, containing pyriproxyfen, named SumiLarv®2MR. In the control village, entomological activity was monitored, but no intervention was performed. Baseline data were collected in both villages during the late rainy season (October 2017) then distributed SumiLarv®2MR disks in intervention village. This data was compared with data collected during the intervention periods in the dry season (February 2018), rainy season (July 2018 and 2019), and late rainy season (September 2018) in the region. Results:Compared with the baseline data (20.24%), the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. aegypti larvae was significantly decreased in the treated village, especially in the rainy seasons in July 2018 (4.11%; P < 0.001) and July 2019 (2.46%; P < 0.001), while the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. albopictus larvae did not decrease significantly in prevalence. No reduction in the frequency of Aedes species was seen in the control village. The Ae. albopictus liked to breed in small habitats (the median water volume of its habitats was 5?L and 10?L in the control and treated village, respectively, while the equivalent values for Ae. aegypti were 30?L and 50?L, respectively). Conclusion:The treatment of refillable water storage containers in a rural village with SumiLarv®2MR disks led to significant reductions in the Ae. aegypti population. However, the Ae. albopictus population did not decrease in either the control or treated village. This discrepancy was due to differences in habitat-seeking behaviors and preferred breeding sites such as types of water, water container, and water volume, then led to the differences in results of mosquito prevalence after SumiLarv®2MR disk treatments. The SumiLarv®2MR disk treatment was proven to be effective against the primary dengue-virus vector mosquitoes, Ae. aegypti.
Project description:Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production.
Project description:Urbanization could potentially modify Aedes albopictus' ecology by changing the dynamics of the species, and affecting their breeding sites due to environmental changes, and thus contribute to dengue outbreaks. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the biting rhythm, fecundity and longevity of adult female Ae. albopictus in relation to urbanization strata; urban, suburban and rural areas in Penang Island, Malaysia. The experiments were done in comparison to a laboratory strain. Twenty-four hours biting activity of all the mosquito strains showed a clear bimodal biting activity, with morning and evening twilight peaks. The interaction effect between biting time and mosquito strains was not significant. Meanwhile, differences in fecundity among mosquito strains were statistically significant (F(3,442) = 10.559, P < 0.05) with urban areas having higher mean number of eggs (mean = 107.69, standard error = 3.98) than suburban (mean = 94.48, standard error = 5.18), and rural areas (mean = 72.52, standard error = 3.87). Longevity of adult females were significantly higher (F(3,441) = 31.259, P < 0.05) for mosquito strains from urban areas compared to the other strains. These findings would provide crucial information for the planning of control programs in Malaysia, particularly Penang.