Longitudinal assessment of high versus low levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide among children with asthma and atopy.
ABSTRACT: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has emerged as an important biomarker in asthma. Increasing evidence points to atopy as a confounding factor in the interpretation of elevated FeNO. We conducted a longitudinal study to understand the clinical significance of FeNO as an inflammatory biomarker.We identified 19 children aged 13-15 years at baseline with a significant elevation in FeNO ? 80 parts per billion (ppb) and randomly selected a group of children of similar age with a moderate elevation (40-79 ppb) and normal-to-low FeNO (<40 ppb). Between November 2010 and July 2011, three additional study visits were conducted.Ninety-three children participated in the study. There were 16, 24, and 53 participants in the high, mid, and low FeNO groups. During 1.5 years of follow-up, mean FeNO levels were 82.6 ppb (standard deviation [SD] = 65.9) for atopic asthmatics, 50.6 ppb (SD = 42.6) for nonasthmatic atopics, 17.0 ppb (SD = 10.8) for nonatopic asthmatics, and 17.8 ppb (SD = 13.9) for nonatopic nonasthmatics (p < 0.001). FeNO levels remained stable: 63 % of the high FeNO group had a FeNO ? 80 across all 4 measurements and 87 % of the normal-to-low FeNO group had a FeNO of <40 across all 4 measurements. The high FeNO group also was found to have an elevation in IL-5 (p = 0.04), IL-6 (p = 0.003), IL-10 (p = 0.002), and total serum IgE (p < 0.001), after adjustment by age, sex, height, body mass index, and atopy and asthma status.An elevation of FeNO appears to indicate an atopic phenotype regardless of an asthma diagnosis, clinical symptoms, or corticosteroid use. An elevation of FeNO also is associated with a systemic elevation in inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Interleukin (IL)-17 plays a critical role in numerous immune and inflammatory responses and was recently suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of nonatopic (non-eosinophil/neutrophil-dominant) asthma. We aimed to compare expression of IL-17 in bronchial airways between atopic and nonatopic asthmatics, with/without inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use and to identify its major cellular source.<h4>Methods</h4>Bronchial biopsies from 114 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma were investigated: 33 nonatopic, 63 non-corticosteroid users, 90 nonsmokers. IL-17 expression was correlated with atopy and inflammatory cell counts (EPX, NP57, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68), taking ICS use and smoking into account. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the independent factors as well as the most relevant inflammatory cells contributing to IL-17 expression. Double immunostainings were performed to confirm the major cellular source of IL-17.<h4>Results</h4>In non-ICS users, nonatopic asthmatics had more IL-17+ cells in the airway wall than atopic asthmatics. In both atopic and nonatopic asthmatics, ICS use was associated with lower numbers of IL-17+ cells, independent of smoking. The number of IL-17+ cells was associated with the number of neutrophils (B: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.17-0.35) and eosinophils (B: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.29). The majority of IL-17+ cells were neutrophils, as confirmed by double immunostaining.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We show for the first time that atopy and ICS use are associated with lower numbers of IL-17+ cells in asthmatic airways. Importantly, IL-17+ cells were mostly neutrophils which conflicts with the paradigm that lymphocytes (Th17) are the main source of IL-17.
Project description:Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and has been used for monitoring asthma. Here, we assess the characteristics of FeNO from preschool to school age, in parallel with asthma activity. A total of 167 asthmatic children and 66 healthy, age-matched controls were included in the 2-year prospective PreDicta study evaluating wheeze/asthma persistence in preschool-aged children. Information on asthma/rhinitis activity, infections and atopy was recorded at baseline. Follow-up visits were performed at 6-month intervals, as well as upon exacerbation/cold and 4-6 weeks later in the asthmatic group. We obtained 539 FeNO measurements from asthmatics and 42 from controls. At baseline, FeNO values did not differ between the two groups (median: 3.0 ppb vs. 2.0 ppb, respectively). FeNO values at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (4.0, CI: 0.0-8.6; 6.0, CI: 2.8-12.0; 8.0, CI: 4.0-14.0; 8.5, CI: 4.4-14.5 ppb, respectively) increased with age (correlation p ? 0.001) and atopy (p = 0.03). FeNO was non-significantly increased from baseline to the symptomatic visit, while it decreased after convalescence (p = 0.007). Markers of disease activity, such as wheezing episodes and days with asthma were associated with increased FeNO values during the study (p < 0.05 for all). Age, atopy and disease activity were found to be important FeNO determinants in preschool children. Longitudinal and individualized FeNO assessment may be valuable in monitoring asthmatic children with recurrent wheezing or mild asthma.
Project description:Background:Asthma with atopy is often characterized by type 2 inflammation but less progress has been made in defining non-type 2 asthma. We have previously identified a subgroup of young non-atopic asthmatics with perceived food hypersensitivity and poor asthma control. Objective:Our aim was to further characterize this subgroup of non-type 2 asthmatics, including the use of a broad panel of inflammation-related proteins. Methods:Sex- and age-matched subjects (10-35 years old) were divided into three groups with regard to history of asthma and atopy: non-atopic asthmatics with perceived cow's milk hypersensitivity but with IgE antibodies <?0.35 kUA/L (NAA; n?=?24), non-atopic controls with IgE <?0.35 kUA/L (NAC; n?=?24), and atopic asthmatics with IgE ??0.35 kUA/L (AA; n?=?29). Serum or plasma were analysed using the multi-allergen tests Phadiatop and fx5 (ImmunoCAP), a multiplex immunoassay comprising 92 inflammation-related proteins (Proseek Inflammation), and an ELISA for human neutrophil lipocalin (S-HNL). Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), airway responsiveness to methacholine (PD20), and asthma-related quality of life (mAQLQ) were also measured. Results:NAA had lower FeNO (p?<?0.001) and B-Eos count (p?<?0.001), but scored worse on mAQLQ (p?=?0.045) compared with AA. NAA displayed higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) compared with both NAC (p?=?0.011) and AA (p?=?0.001), and lower PD20 compared with NAC (p?<?0.001). In NAA, S-HNL correlated negatively with PD20 (rho?=?-?0.048, p?<?0.05) and CRP correlated negatively with mAQLQ (rho?=?-?0.439, p?<?0.05). Conclusion:In a subgroup of non-atopic young asthmatics with perceived cow's milk hypersensitivity we observed poor asthma-related quality of life, airway hyperresponsiveness, and clinically relevant non-type 2 inflammation. MMP-1 was elevated in this group, which deserves further studies.
Project description:(1) Background: The relationship between obesity and asthma is still uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of overweight/obesity on the pulmonary function of patients with new-onset pediatric asthma and explore the possible causative factors related to concomitant obesity and asthma. (2) Methods: Patients aged 5 to 17 years old with newly diagnosed mild to moderate asthma were recruited from June 2018 to May 2019, from a respiratory clinic in Shanghai, China. Participants were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese asthma. A family history of atopy and patients' personal allergic diseases were recorded. Pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), eosinophils, serum-specific immunoglobulins E (sIgE), serum total IgE (tIgE), and serum inflammatory biomarkers (adiponectin, leptin, Type 1 helper T, and Type 2 helper T cytokines) were tested in all participants. (3) Results: A total of 407 asthma patients (197 normal weight, 92 overweight, and 118 obese) were enrolled. There was a reduction in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% in the overweight/obese groups. No difference was found between the study groups in the main allergy characteristics. Leptin levels were higher while adiponectin was lower in asthmatics with obesity. Higher levels of IL-16 were found in overweight/obese asthmatic individuals than in normal-weight individuals. (4) Conclusions: Obesity may have an effect on impaired pulmonary function. While atopic inflammation plays an important role in the onset of asthma, nonatopic inflammation (including leptin and adiponectin) increases the severity of asthma in overweight/obese patients. The significance of different levels of IL-16 between groups needs to be further studied.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Epidemiologic studies have found low/absence of atopy in obese asthmatic children, but the association or lack thereof of atopy with disease morbidity, including pulmonary function, in obese asthma is not well understood. We sought to define the association of atopy with pulmonary function in overweight/obese minority children with asthma.<h4>Methods</h4>In a retrospective chart review of 200 predominantly minority children evaluated at an academic Pediatric Asthma Center over 5 years, we compared the prevalence of atopy, defined as ≥ 1 positive skin prick test or serum-specific immunoglobulin E quantification to environmental allergens, and its association with pulmonary function in overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 85th percentile) (n = 99) to healthy-weight children (BMI, 5th-85th percentile for age) (n = 101).<h4>Results</h4>In a cohort comprised of 47.5% Hispanics and 39.5% African Americans, 81% of overweight/obese and 74% of healthy-weight children were atopic. While atopic healthy-weight children had lower percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV<sub>1</sub> ) (93 ± 13.6 vs 107% ± 33.2%, P = .03) and lower percent-predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (93% ± 12.2% vs 104% ± 16.1%, P = .01) as compared to nonatopic children, atopy was not associated with FEV<sub>1</sub> (P = .7) or FVC (P = .17) in overweight/obese children. Adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, atopy was found to be an independent predictor of FEV<sub>1</sub> and FVC in healthy-weight (β = -2.4, P = .07 and β = -1.7, P = .04, respectively) but not in overweight/obese children (β = .6, P = .5 and β = .8, P = .3).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Atopy is associated with lower lung function in healthy-weight asthmatics but not in overweight/obese asthmatics, supporting the role of nonallergic mechanisms in disease burden in pediatric obesity-related asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about the concordance of atopy with asthma COPD overlap. Among individuals with COPD, a better understanding of the phenotypes characterized by asthma overlap and atopy is needed to better target therapies.<h4>Research question</h4>What is the overlap between atopy and asthma status among individuals with COPD, and how are categories defined by the presence of atopy and asthma status associated with clinical and radiologic phenotypes and outcomes in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) and Subpopulation and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)?<h4>Study design and methods</h4>Four hundred three individuals with COPD from SPIROMICS and 696 individuals from COPDGene with data about specific IgEs to 10 common allergens and mixes (simultaneous assessment of combination of allergens in similar category) were included. Comparison groups were defined by atopic and asthma status (neither, atopy alone, atopic asthma, nonatopic asthma, with atopy defined as any positive specific IgE (≥0.35 KU/L) to any of the 10 allergens or mixes and asthma defined as self-report of doctor-diagnosed current asthma). Multivariable regression analyses (linear, logistic, and zero inflated negative binomial where appropriate) adjusted for age, sex, race, lung function, smoking status, pack-years smoked, and use of inhaled corticosteroids were used to determine characteristics of groups and relationship with outcomes (exacerbations, clinical outcomes, CT metrics) separately in COPDGene and SPIROMICS, and then adjusted results were combined using meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of atopy was 35% and 36% in COPD subjects from SPIROMICS and COPDGene, respectively, and less than 50% overlap was seen between atopic status with asthma in both cohorts. In meta-analysis, individuals with nonatopic asthma had the most impaired symptom scores (effect size for St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 4.2; 95% CI, 0.4-7.9; effect size for COPD Assessment Test score, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.089-5.4), highest risk for exacerbations (incidence rate ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.88) compared with the group without atopy or asthma. Those with atopy and atopic asthma were not at increased risk for adverse outcomes.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Asthma and atopy had incomplete overlap among former and current smokers with COPD in COPDGene and SPIROMICS. Nonatopic asthma was associated with adverse outcomes and exacerbation risk in COPD, whereas groups having atopy alone and atopic asthma had less risk.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Arginine metabolism via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 2 (ARG2) is higher in asthmatics than in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that a sub-phenotype of asthma might be defined by the magnitude of arginine metabolism categorized on the basis of high and low fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO).<h4>Methods</h4>To test this hypothesis, asthmatics (n = 52) were compared to healthy controls (n = 51) for levels of FENO, serum arginase activity, and airway epithelial expression of iNOS and ARG2 proteins, in relation to clinical parameters of asthma inflammation and airway reactivity. In parallel, bronchial epithelial cells were evaluated for metabolic effects of iNOS and ARG2 expression in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>Asthmatics with high FENO (? 35 ppb; 44% of asthmatics) had higher expression of iNOS (P = 0.04) and ARG2 (P = 0.05) in the airway, indicating FENO is a marker of the high arginine metabolic endotype. High FENO asthmatics had the lowest FEV1% (P < 0.001), FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0002) and PC20 (P < 0.001) as compared to low FENO asthmatics or healthy controls. Low FENO asthmatics had near normal iNOS and ARG2 expression (both P > 0.05), and significantly higher PC20 (P < 0.001) as compared to high FENO asthmatics. In vitro studies to evaluate metabolic effects showed that iNOS overexpression and iNOS+ARG2 co-expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line led to greater reliance on glycolysis with higher rate of pyruvate going to lactate.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The high FENO phenotype represents a large portion of the asthma population, and is typified by greater arginine metabolism and more severe and reactive asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUNDThe airways of obese asthmatics have been shown to be NO deficient, and this contributes to airway dysfunction and reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids. In cultured airway epithelial cells, L-citrulline, a precursor of L-arginine recycling and NO formation, has been shown to prevent asymmetric dimethyl arginine-mediated (ADMA-mediated) NO synthase (NOS2) uncoupling, restoring NO and reducing oxidative stress.METHODSIn a proof-of-concept, open-label pilot study in which participants were analyzed before and after treatment, we hypothesized that 15 g/d L-citrulline for 2 weeks would (a) increase the fractional excretion of NO (FeNO), (b) improve asthma control, and (c) improve lung function. To this end, we recruited obese (BMI >30) asthmatics on controller therapy, with a baseline FeNO of ?30 ppb from the University of Colorado Medical Center and Duke University Health System.RESULTSA total of 41 subjects with an average FeNO of 17 ppb (95% CI, 15-19) and poorly controlled asthma (average asthma control questionnaire [ACQ] 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.8]) completed the study. Compared with baseline, L-citrulline increased whereas ADMA and arginase concentration did not (values represent the mean ? and 95% CI): plasma L-citrulline (190 ?M, 84-297), plasma L-arginine (67 ?M, 38-95), and plasma L-arginine/ADMA (ratio 117, 67-167). FeNO increased by 4.2 ppb (1.7-6.7 ppb); ACQ decreased by -0.46 (-0.67 to 0.27 points); the forced vital capacity and forced exhalation volume in 1 second, respectively, changed by 86 ml (10-161 ml) and 52 ml (-11 to 132 ml). In a secondary analysis, the greatest FEV1 increments occurred in those subjects with late-onset asthma (>12 years) (63 ml [95% CI, 1-137]), in females (80 ml [95% CI, 5-154]), with a greater change seen in late-onset females (100 ml, [95% CI, 2-177]). The changes in lung function or asthma control were not significantly associated with the changes before and after treatment in L-arginine/ADMA or FeNO.CONCLUSIONShort-term L-citrulline treatment improved asthma control and FeNO levels in obese asthmatics with low or normal FeNO. Larger FEV1 increments were observed in those with late-onset asthma and in females.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01715844.FUNDINGNIH NHLBI R01 HL146542-01.
Project description:Determinants of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) need to be understood better to maximize the value of FeNO measurement in clinical practice and research. Our aim was to identify significant predictors of FeNO in an initial cross-sectional survey of southern California schoolchildren, part of a larger longitudinal study of asthma incidence.During one school year, we measured FeNO at 100 ml/sec flow, using a validated offline technique, in 2568 children of age 7-10 yr. We estimated online (50 ml/sec flow) FeNO using a prediction equation from a separate smaller study with adjustment for offline measurement artifacts, and analyzed its relationship to clinical and demographic characteristics.FeNO was lognormally distributed with geometric means ranging from 11 ppb in children without atopy or asthma to 16 ppb in children with allergic asthma. Although effects of atopy and asthma were highly significant, ranges of FeNO for children with and without those conditions overlapped substantially. FeNO was significantly higher in subjects aged > 9, compared to younger subjects. Asian-American boys showed significantly higher FeNO than children of all other sex/ethnic groups; Hispanics and African-Americans of both sexes averaged slightly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Increasing height-for-age had no significant effect, but increasing weight-for-height was associated with decreasing FeNO.FeNO measured offline is a useful biomarker for airway inflammation in large population-based studies. Further investigation of age, ethnicity, body-size, and genetic influences is needed, since they may contribute to substantial variation in FeNO.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma?<h4>Methods</h4>Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question.