Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. STUDY DESIGN:Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). PREDICTORS:Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. OUTCOMES:Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. RESULTS:The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. LIMITATIONS:No data for potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS:African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and lower serum potassium levels were associated with mortality in both racial groups.
Project description:Low serum potassium appears to be independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes, and low dietary potassium is more common in African Americans than in whites.We hypothesized that low serum potassium contributes to the excess risk of diabetes in African Americans.We analyzed data collected from 1987 to 1996 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. At baseline, we identified 2716 African American and 9493 white participants without diabetes. We used multivariate Cox models to estimate the relative hazards (RHs) of incident diabetes related to baseline serum potassium during 9 y of follow-up.Mean serum potassium concentrations were lower in African Americans than in whites at baseline (4.2 compared with 4.5 mEq/L; P < 0.01), and African Americans had a greater incidence of diabetes than did whites (26 compared with 13 cases/1000 person-years). The adjusted RHs (95% CI) of incident diabetes for those with serum potassium concentrations of <4.0, 4.0-4.4, and 4.5-4.9 mEq/L, compared with those with serum potassium concentrations of 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (referent), were 2.28 (1.21, 4.28), 1.97 (1.06, 3.65), and 1.85 (0.99, 3.47) for African Americans and 1.53 (1.14, 2.05), 1.49 (1.19, 1.87), and 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) for whites, respectively. Racial differences in serum potassium appeared to explain 18% of the excess risk of diabetes in African Americans, which is comparable with the percentage of risk explained by racial differences in body mass index (22%).Low serum potassium concentrations in African Americans may contribute to their excess risk of type 2 diabetes relative to whites. Whether interventions to increase serum potassium concentrations in African Americans might reduce their excess risk deserves further study. The ARIC Study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131.
Project description:Hyperkalemia is observed in chronic kidney disease patients and may be a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias and death. Race/ethnicity may be important modifiers of the potassium-mortality relationship in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients given that potassium intake and excretion vary among minorities.We examined racial/ethnic differences in baseline serum potassium levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazard models and restricted cubic splines in a cohort of 102,241 incident MHD patients. Serum potassium was categorized into 6 groups: ?3.6, >3.6 to ?4.0, >4.0 to ?4.5 (reference), >4.5 to ?5.0, >5.0 to ?5.5, and >5.5 mEq/L. Models were adjusted for case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation cachexia syndrome (MICS) covariates.The cohort was composed of 50% whites, 34% African-Americans, and 16% Hispanics. Hispanics tended to have the highest baseline serum potassium levels (mean ± SD: 4.58 ± 0.55 mEq/L). Patients in our cohort were followed for a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range 0.6-2.5). In our cohort, associations between higher potassium (>5.5 mEq/L) and higher mortality risk were observed in African-American and whites, but not Hispanic patients in models adjusted for case-mix and MICS covariates. While in Hispanics only, lower serum potassium (<3.6 mEq/L) levels were associated with higher mortality risk. Similar trends were observed for cardiovascular mortality.Higher potassium levels were associated with higher mortality risk in white and African-American MHD patients, whereas lower potassium levels were associated with higher death risk in Hispanics. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms for the differential association between potassium and mortality across race/ethnicity.
Project description:Some evidence suggests that an inadequate vitamin D level may increase the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Whether a low vitamin D level plays a role in venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is largely unexplored.We tested prospectively, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, whether the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is inversely associated with VTE incidence, and whether it partly explains the African American excess of VTE in the ARIC Study.We measured 25(OH)D by using mass spectroscopy in stored samples of 12 752 ARIC Study participants, and followed them over a median of 19.7 years (1990-1992 to 2011) for the incidence of VTE (n = 537).The seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D level was not associated with VTE incidence. In a model adjusted for age, race, sex, hormone replacement therapy, and body mass index, the hazard ratios of VTE across 25(OH)D quintiles 5 (high) to 1 (low) were: 1 (ref.), 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.08), 0.88 (95% CI 0.68-1.13), 1.04 (95% CI 0.78-1.38), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.64-1.27). The lowest 25(OH)D quintile contained 59% African Americans, whereas the highest quintile contained 7% African Americans. However, lower 25(OH)D levels explained little of the 63% greater VTE risk of African Americans over whites in this cohort.A low 25(OH)D level was not a risk factor for VTE in this prospective study. However, the totality of the literature (three studies) suggests that a low 25(OH)D level might modestly increase VTE risk in whites, but this needs further confirmation.
Project description:This review explores the limitations of self-reported race, ethnicity, and genetic ancestry in biomedical research. Various terminologies are used to classify human differences in genomic research including race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Although race and ethnicity are related, race refers to a person's physical appearance, such as skin color and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to communality in cultural heritage, language, social practice, traditions, and geopolitical factors. Genetic ancestry inferred using ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is based on genetic/genomic data. Phenotype-based race/ethnicity information and data computed using AIMs often disagree. For example, self-reporting African Americans can have drastically different levels of African or European ancestry. Genetic analysis of individual ancestry shows that some self-identified African Americans have up to 99% of European ancestry, whereas some self-identified European Americans have substantial admixture from African ancestry. Similarly, African ancestry in the Latino population varies between 3% in Mexican Americans to 16% in Puerto Ricans. The implication of this is that, in African American or Latino populations, self-reported ancestry may not be as accurate as direct assessment of individual genomic information in predicting treatment outcomes. To better understand human genetic variation in the context of health disparities, we suggest using "ancestry" (or biogeographical ancestry) to describe actual genetic variation, "race" to describe health disparity in societies characterized by racial categories, and "ethnicity" to describe traditions, lifestyle, diet, and values. We also suggest using ancestry informative markers for precise characterization of individuals' biological ancestry. Understanding the sources of human genetic variation and the causes of health disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are elevated in kidney disease and associated with mortality in white European hemodialysis populations. Nitric oxide production and degradation are partially genetically determined and differ by racial background. No studies have measured asymmetric dimethylarginine in African Americans on dialysis and assessed whether differences exist in its association with mortality by race.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>Asymmetric dimethylarginine was measured in 259 patients on maintenance hemodialysis assembled from 2004 to 2012 in Boston area outpatient centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between asymmetric dimethylarginine and all-cause mortality, and an interaction with race was tested.<h4>Results</h4>Mean (SD) age was 63 (17) years, 46% were women, and 22% were African American. Mean asymmetric dimethylarginine in non-African Americans was 0.79 µmol/L (0.16) versus 0.70 µmol/L (0.11) in African Americans (P<0.001); 130 patients died over a median follow-up of 2.3 years. African Americans had lower mortality risk than non-African Americans (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.50) that was robust to adjustment for age, comorbidity, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.69). An interaction was noted between race and asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03), such that asymmetric dimethylarginine was associated with higher mortality in non-African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.57 per 1 SD higher asymmetric dimethylarginine) but not in African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 1.18). Additional adjustment for fibroblast growth factor 23 partially attenuated the association for non-African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.50).<h4>Conclusions</h4>African Americans have lower asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and lower hazard for mortality compared with non-African Americans. Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine did not explain lower hazard for mortality in non-African American patients. High asymmetric dimethylarginine was a risk factor for mortality exclusively in non-African Americans. Mechanisms explaining these relationships need to be evaluated.
Project description:Disorders of mineral metabolism are more common in African Americans with CKD than in European Americans with CKD. Previous studies have focused on the differences in mineral metabolism by self-reported race, making it difficult to delineate the importance of environmental compared with biologic factors.In a cross-sectional analysis of 3013 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study with complete data, we compared markers of mineral metabolism (phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and urine calcium and phosphorus excretion) in European Americans versus African Americans and separately, across quartiles of genetic African ancestry in African Americans (n=1490).Compared with European Americans, African Americans had higher blood concentrations of phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, fibroblast growth factor 23, and parathyroid hormone, lower 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus, and lower urinary fractional excretion of calcium and phosphorus at baseline (P<0.001 for all). Among African Americans, a higher percentage of African ancestry was associated with lower 24-hour urinary excretion of phosphorus (Ptrend<0.01) in unadjusted analyses. In linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, kidney function, serum phosphorus, and dietary phosphorus intake, higher percentage of African ancestry was significantly associated with lower 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion (each 10% higher African ancestry was associated with 39.6 mg lower 24-hour urinary phosphorus, P<0.001) and fractional excretion of phosphorus (each 10% higher African ancestry was associated with an absolute 1.1% lower fractional excretion of phosphorus, P=0.01).A higher percentage of African ancestry was independently associated with lower 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion and lower fractional excretion of phosphorus among African Americans with CKD. These findings suggest that genetic variability might contribute to racial differences in urinary phosphorus excretion in CKD.
Project description:African-Americans generally have lower circulating levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] than Whites, attributed to skin pigmentation and dietary habits. Little is known about the genetic determinants of 25(OH)D levels nor whether the degree of African ancestry associates with circulating 25(OH)D.With the use of a panel of 276 ancestry informative genetic markers, we estimated African and European admixture for a sample of 758 African-American and non-Hispanic White Southern Community Cohort Study participants. For African-Americans, cut points of <85%, 85% to 95%, and >or=95% defined low, medium, and high African ancestry, respectively. We estimated the association between African ancestry and 25(OH)D and also explored whether vitamin D exposure (sunlight, diet) had varying effects on 25(OH)D levels dependent on ancestry level.The mean serum 25(OH)D levels among Whites and among African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry were 27.2, 19.5, 18.3, and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was estimated to decrease by 1.0 to 1.1 ng/mL per 10% increase in African ancestry. The effect of high vitamin D exposure from sunlight and diet was 46% lower among African-Americans with high African ancestry than among those with low/medium ancestry.We found novel evidence that the level of African ancestry may play a role in clinical vitamin D status.This is the first study to describe how 25(OH)D levels vary in relation to genetic estimation of African ancestry. Further study is warranted to replicate these findings and uncover the potential pathways involved.
Project description:Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 [FMO3] encodes dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3, which breaks down nitrogen-containing compounds, and has been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Studies have reported conflicting results of the association of a common nonsynonymous variant, E158K (rs2266782), with hypertension. We examined the associations of E158K, along with rare and low frequency exonic variants (minor allele frequency [MAF]<5%) in FMO3 with hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). We included 7,350 European Americans and 2,814 African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with exome sequencing of FMO3. The association of FMO3 variants with SBP and DBP was tested using single variant and gene-based tests followed by the replication or interrogation of significant variants in ancestry-specific cohorts based on Bonferroni corrected thresholds. E158K had significant association with higher SBP in African Americans in ARIC (p=0.03), and two low frequency variants had significant association with higher SBP in African Americans (rs200985584, MAF 0.1%, p=0.0003) and European Americans (rs75904274, MAF 1.7%, p=0.006). These associations were not significant with additional samples: E158K in a meta-analysis of SBP of African ancestry (N=30,841, p=0.43) that included ARIC participants and the two low frequency variants in an independent ancestry-specific exome sequencing study of blood pressure (rs200985584, p=0.94; rs75904274, p=0.81). Our study does not support the association of E158K and low frequency variants in FMO3 with blood pressure and demonstrates the importance of replication in genetic studies.
Project description:Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans.Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events) were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P = 8.1 × 10(-8)), but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events) from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD) from the CHARGE Consortium.Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans.
Project description:PURPOSE:The Vanderbilt DNA Databank (BioVU) is a biorepository that currently contains >80,000 DNA samples linked to electronic medical records. Although BioVU is a valuable source of samples and phenotypes for genetic association studies, it is unclear whether the administratively assigned race/ethnicity in BioVU can accurately describe and be used as a proxy for genetic ancestry. METHODS:We genotyped 360 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Illumina DNA Test Panel containing ancestry informative markers in 1910 BioVU samples with observer-reported ancestry and 384 samples from the Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group with self-reported ancestry. Genetic ancestry was inferred for all individuals using Structure 2.2. RESULTS:More than 98% of observer-reported European Americans were genetically inferred to have at least 60% European ancestry. Ninety-three percent of observer-reported African Americans were genetically inferred to be predominantly of African ancestry. We determined that the concordance of observer-reported race/ethnicity and inferred genetic ancestry was not significantly different from that of self-reported race/ethnicity in either population (P = 0.09 and 0.94 in European Americans and African Americans, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Observer-reported race/ethnicity for European Americans and African Americans approximates genetic ancestry as well as self-reported race/ethnicity, making biorepositories linked to electronic medical records such as BioVU a viable source of DNA samples for future large-scale genetic association studies.