Methionine Residues in Exoproteins and Their Recycling by Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase AB Serve as an Antioxidant Strategy in Bacillus cereus.
ABSTRACT: During aerobic respiratory growth, Bacillus cereus is exposed to continuously reactive oxidant, produced by partially reduced forms of molecular oxygen, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). The sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine (Met), is particularly susceptible to ROS. The major oxidation products, methionine sulfoxides, can be readily repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductases, which reduce methionine sulfoxides [Met(O)] back to methionine. Here, we show that methionine sulfoxide reductase AB (MsrAB) regulates the Met(O) content of both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of B. cereus in a growth phase-dependent manner. Disruption of msrAB leads to metabolism changes resulting in enhanced export of Met(O) proteins at the late exponential growth phase and enhanced degradation of exoproteins. This suggests that B. cereus can modulate its capacity and specificity for protein export/secretion through the growth phase-dependent expression of msrAB. Our results also show that cytoplasmic MsrAB recycles Met residues in enterotoxins, which are major virulence factors in B. cereus.
Project description:Aerobic respiratory growth generates endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS oxidize protein-bound methionine residues into methionine sulfoxide. Methionine sulfoxide reductases catalyze the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine in proteins. Here, we use high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS methodology to establish detailed maps of oxidized proteins from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 ?pBClin15 and its mutant for which the methionine sulfoxide reductase AB gene (msrAB) has been inactivated (Madeira et al., 2017) . Lists of oxidized peptides and proteins identified at early exponential, late exponential and stationary growth phases are supplied in this article as data files. Raw data are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifiers, PXD006169 and PDX006205 (http://www.ebi.ac/uk). Given the importance of methionine oxidation in several key cellular processes and its impact in the field of medical and food microbiology, this paper should be useful for further insightful redox studies in B. cereus and its numerous relatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Deleterious phenomena of protein oxidation affect every aerobic organism and methionine residues are their elective targets. The reduction of methionine sulfoxides back to methionines is catalyzed by methionine-sulfoxide reductases (Msrs), enzymes which are particularly active in microorganisms because of their unique nature of individual cells directly exposed to environmental oxidation. RESULTS: From the transcriptionally active somatic genome of a common free-living marine protist ciliate, Euplotes raikovi, we cloned multiple gene isoforms encoding Msr of type A (MsrA) committed to repair methionine-S-sulfoxides. One of these isoforms, in addition to including a MsrA-specific nucleotide sequence, included also a sequence specific for a Msr of type B (MsrB) committed to repair methionine-R-sulfoxides. Analyzed for its structural relationships with MsrA and MsrB coding sequences of other organisms, the coding region of this gene (named msrAB) showed much more significant relationships with Msr gene coding sequences of Rhodobacterales and Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), than of other eukaryotic organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the fact that the msrAB gene is delimited by Euplotes-specific regulatory 5' and 3' regions and telomeric C4A4/G4T4 repeats, it was concluded that E. raikovi inherited the coding region of this gene through a phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer from species of Alphaproteobacteria with which it coexists in nature and on which it likely feeds.
Project description:BACKGROUND: All aerobically grown living cells are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). A major damage by ROS to proteins is caused by covalent modifications of methionine residues giving methionine sulfoxide (Met-SO). Methionine sulfoxide reductases are enzymes able to regenerate methionine and restore protein function after oxidative damage. RESULTS: We characterized the methionine sulfoxide reductase genes msrA and msrB in Bacillus subtilis, forming an operon transcribed from a single sigma A-dependent promoter. The msrAB operon was specifically induced by oxidative stress caused by paraquat (PQ) but not by H2O2. Spx, a global oxidative stress regulator in B. subtilis, is primarily responsible for this PQ-specific induction of msrAB expression. In support of this finding, an spx deletion mutant is extremely sensitive to PQ, and increased expression of msrA was identified in a clpX mutant in which Spx accumulated. However, the Spx effect was also visible under conditions where the protein did not accumulate (PQ treatment), suggesting a specific molecular effect at the level of the Spx protein. Indeed, the CXXC motif of Spx was found essential for its function in the PQ-specific induction of msrAB expression. PQ caused a modification of Spx requiring at least one of the cysteines of the CXXC motif of Spx. The PQ modified form of Spx showed a dynamic change in vivo. CONCLUSION: The Spx mediated PQ-specific regulation pathway of the msrAB operon in B. subtilis is reported. Our results suggest that PQ induced the expression of msrAB partially through an oxidation on Spx via modification of its CXXC motif.
Project description:Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H(2)O(2), and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ?msrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ?msrC single mutant and a ?msrB?msrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H(2)O(2,) as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Project description:Methionine (Met) residues are present in most proteins. However, this sulfur-containing amino acid is highly susceptible to oxidation. In cells, the resulting Met sulfoxides are reduced back to Met by stereospecific reductases MsrA and MsrB. Reversible Met oxidation occurs even in the absence of stress, is elevated during aging and disease, but is notoriously difficult to monitor. In this work, we computationally identified natural Met-rich proteins (MRPs) and characterized three such proteins containing 21-33% Met residues. Oxidation of multiple Met residues in MRPs with H(2)O(2) and reduction of Met sulfoxides with MsrA/MsrB dramatically influenced the mobility of these proteins on polyacrylamide gels and could be monitored by simple SDS-PAGE. We further prepared antibodies enriched for reduced and Met sulfoxide forms of these proteins and used them to monitor Met oxidation and reduction by immunoblot assays. We describe applications of these reagents for the analysis of MsrA and MsrB functions, as well as the development of the assay for high-throughput analysis of their activities. We also show that all Met sulfoxide residues in an MRP can be reduced by MsrA and MsrB. Furthermore, we prepared a selenomethionine form of an MRP and found that selenomethionine selenoxide residues can be efficiently reduced nonenzymatically by glutathione and other thiol compounds. Selenomethionine selenoxide residues were not recognized by antibodies specific for the Met sulfoxide form of an MRP. These findings, reagents, assays, and approaches should facilitate research and applications in the area of Met sulfoxide reduction, oxidative stress, and aging.
Project description:Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys(101) as catalytic and Cys(125) as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys(91), clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Methionine is an essential amino acid in mammals at the junction of methylation, protein synthesis, and sulfur pathways. However, this amino acid is highly susceptible to oxidation, resulting in a mixture of methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine-R-sulfoxide. Whether methionine is quantitatively regenerated from these compounds is unknown. Here we report that SK-Hep1 hepatocytes grew on methionine-S-sulfoxide and consumed this compound by import and methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase (MsrA)-dependent reduction, but methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases were not involved in this process, and methionine-R-sulfoxide could not be used by the cells. However, SK-Hep1 cells expressing a yeast free methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase proliferated in the presence of either sulfoxide, reduced them, and showed increased resistance to oxidative stress. Only methionine-R-sulfoxide was detected in the plasma of wild type mice, but both sulfoxides were in the plasma of MsrA knock-out mice. These results show that mammals can support methionine metabolism by reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide, that this process is dependent on MsrA, that mammals are inherently deficient in the reduction of methionine-R-sulfoxide, and that expression of yeast free methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase can fully compensate for this deficiency.
Project description:The ability of Streptococcus gordonii to cope with oxidative stress is important for survival and persistence in dental plaque. In this study, we used mutational, phenotypic, and biochemical approaches to characterize the role of a methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrAB) and proteins encoded by genes in the msrAB operon and an adjacent operon in oxidative stress tolerance in S. gordonii. The results showed that MsrAB and four other proteins encoded in the operons are needed for protection from H2O2 and methionine sulfoxide. These five proteins formed a reducing pathway that was needed for oxidative stress tolerance, biofilm formation, and oral colonization in mice. In the pathway, MsrAB was the enzyme that repaired oxidatively damaged proteins, and the two thioredoxin-like lipoproteins (SdbB and Sgo_1177) and two CcdA proteins were proteins that maintained the catalytic cycle of MsrAB. Consistent with the role in oxidative stress tolerance, the production of MsrAB, SdbB, and Sgo_11777 was induced in aerobic growth and planktonic cells.
Project description:Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) is a repair enzyme that reduces oxidized methionine to methionine. The Msr enzyme is divided into MsrA and MsrB, which reduce the S and R configurations of the substrate, respectively. In some pathogenic bacteria MsrA and MsrB exist in a fusion-protein form, MsrAB. In this study, the recombinant MsrA part of MsrAB from Haemophilus influenzae (HIMsrA) was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 1.6?Å resolution. The crystal of HIMsrA was found to belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.29, c = 186.28?Å, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 1.82?Å(3)?Da(-1) and two molecules per asymmetric unit. A preliminary solution was determined by molecular replacement. Refinement of the structure is currently in progress.
Project description:Methionine residues in proteins are susceptible to oxidation by reactive oxygen species, but can be repaired via reduction of the resulting methionine sulfoxides by methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) and methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (MsrB). However, the identity of all methionine sulfoxide reductases involved, their cellular locations and relative contributions to the overall pathway are poorly understood. Here, we describe a methionine-R-sulfoxide reduction system in mammals, in which two MsrB homologues were previously described. We found that human and mouse genomes possess three MsrB genes and characterized their protein products, designated MsrB1, MsrB2, and MsrB3. MsrB1 (Selenoprotein R) was present in the cytosol and nucleus and exhibited the highest methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase activity because of the presence of selenocysteine (Sec) in its active site. Other mammalian MsrBs contained cysteine in place of Sec and were less catalytically efficient. MsrB2 (CBS-1) resided in mitochondria. It had high affinity for methionine-R-sulfoxide, but was inhibited by higher concentrations of the substrate. The human MsrB3 gene gave rise to two protein forms, MsrB3A and MsrB3B. These were generated by alternative splicing that introduced contrasting N-terminal and C-terminal signals, such that MsrB3A was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and MsrB3B to mitochondria. We found that only mitochondrial forms of mammalian MsrBs (MsrB2 and MsrB3B) could compensate for MsrA and MsrB deficiency in yeast. All mammalian MsrBs belonged to a group of zinc-containing proteins. The multiplicity of MsrBs contrasted with the presence of a single mammalian MsrA gene as well as with the occurrence of single MsrA and MsrB genes in yeast, fruit flies, and nematodes. The data suggested that different cellular compartments in mammals maintain a system for repair of oxidized methionine residues and that this function is tuned in enzyme- and stereo-specific manner.