The More, the Better?! Multiple vs. Single Jobholders' Job Satisfaction as a Matter of Lacked Information.
ABSTRACT: In recent decades, the working world has changed dramatically and rising demands on flexibility make the coordination of personal and professional life more difficult. Therefore, it is important that the incumbents are in possession of all necessary information concerning their job. This might be a key issue to remain satisfied. Simultaneously, atypical forms of employment have substantially increased in the labor market; one such form is holding more than one job. While the motives might differ from needing an additional income to broadening job opportunities, practicing several jobs requires coordination and thus, being informed. Building on research regarding organizational constraints and role ambiguity, we hypothesize that the paucity of information is negatively related to (dimensions of) job satisfaction. This effect should be stronger for multiple as compared to single jobbers; specifically when considering the job satisfaction with the social climate, given that being informed by others is an important factor in the coordination of several jobs. Data taken from the BiBB/BAuA-Employment-Survey provide a sample of 17,782 German employees (54% women), including 1,084 multiple jobbers (59% women). Job satisfaction was measured as employees global satisfaction and their satisfaction with facets dimensions: the social climate, structural working conditions, personal growth opportunities, and material incentives they receive for their work. Paucity of information was measured by the frequency of lacked information. Our study indicated that paucity of information was negatively related to both, global and all facets dimensions of job satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses further revealed interaction effects of paucity of information and form of employment. Specifically, the negative correlation of paucity of information with global as well as satisfaction with the social climate was stronger for employees' holding more than one job. These results were independent of age, gender, organizational tenure, working hours, socioeconomic occupational status, as well as important working conditions (workload and autonomy). Incumbents with less paucity of necessary job-related information are more satisfied, especially when they hold multiple jobs. Supervisors and colleagues are advised to provide all necessary information and to ensure that employees retain it.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to measure the level of job satisfaction of certified physicians in rural primary health care facilities (PHCFs) in Shandong Province in order to ascertain the key factors affecting their satisfaction and to provide effective information for policy decisions. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted among certified physicians in PHCFs in rural Shandong from June to August 2016. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 495 participants (valid response rate: 91.6%). Data were analyzed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple linear regression. RESULTS:The participants consisted of 310 (62.6%) males and 185 (37.4%) females. The overall mean score for job satisfaction among respondents was 3.41 (standard deviation (SD) 0.68), which indicated that certified physicians were partially satisfied with their jobs. Results also indicated that factors for the highest level of satisfaction among certified physicians were the internal environment and job description. Moreover, physicians were more satisfied with competency behaviours and organizational management than with working conditions and job rewards. In contrast, physicians were dissatisfied with the external environment to an extent. Overall job satisfaction decreased with more years of service. Older physicians were less satisfied with their jobs than younger ones. Physicians with a higher level of education or senior professional title were less satisfied with their jobs than those with a lower level of education or junior professional tilte. Organizational management and the external environment were the most important factors influencing job satisfaction. CONCLUSION:Certified physicians working in PHCFs in rural Shandong had a slightly higher level of overall job satisfaciton than usual. After recent healthcare reforms, the job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Shandong has changed little in comparison to that of physicians in other provinces in China. More attention should be paid to the impacts of these variables (age, educational background, technical title, monthly salary, form of employment, and years of service) on job satisfaction. Numerous recommendations may be considered to enhance organizational management and the external environment. The Government should enhace the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies to ensure that physicians continue to enjoy working in PHCFs. In short, the Government should pay more attention to protecting the legitimate rights and interests of primary care physicians when devising medical reforms.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Precarious employment is associated with poor health. Among employees in precarious employment, those with multiple jobs may face additional health risks, e.g. due to combining work schedules and job roles. Our research question is: do differences in health exist between multiple and single job holders in precarious employment?<h4>Methods</h4>Participants in the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2012 aged 25-64 years who were not employed through the Act on Social Work Provision and who had a precarious job were included. To select employees in precarious employment (n = 3,609), latent class analysis was performed, based on variables based on indicators described by Van Aerden. Differences in general self-perceived health, burnout complaints, musculoskeletal health, and sickness absence between multiple and single job holders were studied cross-sectionally using logistic regression analyses.<h4>Results</h4>No significant differences were found between multiple and single job holders in precarious employment for self-perceived health (OR = 0.9; 95%CI = 0.7-1.3), burnout complaints (OR = 0.9; 95%CI = 0.7-1.2), and musculoskeletal health (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 0.8-1.5). In crude analyses, multiple job holders experienced less sickness absence than single job holders (OR = 0.7; 95%CI = 0.5-0.9). In adjusted analyses, this difference was no longer statistically significant (OR = 0.8; 95%CI = 0.6-1.0).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite potential health risks related to multiple job holding, we did not find health differences between multiple and single job holders in precarious employment in the Netherlands. More longitudinal research is necessary to provide recommendations for policy makers regarding multiple job holders in precarious employment.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing.<h4>Methods</h4>The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction - satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured.<h4>Results</h4>We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49±0.5) and employees (3.19±0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t=3.237; P=lt;0.001). Job satisfaction was explained by age (Plt;0.05; ?=0.091), years of employment (Plt;0.05; ?=0.193), personal characteristics of leaders (Plt;0.001; ?=0.158), and managerial competencies of leaders (Plt;0.000; ?=0.634) in 46% of cases. The factor analysis yielded four factors explaining 64% of the total job satisfaction variance.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization's success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees' job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees' job satisfaction levels on an annual basis.
Project description:The aim of this study is to analyse and compare the levels of job satisfaction reported by self-employed and salaried workers (aged 50-64) by disability status across Europe. Particular attention is paid to testing whether the effect of self-employment on job satisfaction is greater for disabled workers as compared to non-disabled ones. Using the first two waves (2004 and 2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) for eleven countries, we estimate job satisfaction equations for older workers with and without disabilities. The results show that self-employed persons are more satisfied with their jobs. However, there is no evidence that the association between self-employment and job satisfaction is different for disabled and non-disabled older persons. Policy makers can promote self-employment among older workers with disabilities to increase their employment and income rates and levels of job satisfaction.
Project description:Using U.S. Census firm-worker data, I document that firms' financial distress has an economically important effect on employee departures to entrepreneurship. The impact is amplified in the high-tech and service sectors, where employees are key assets. In states with enforceable noncompete contracts, the effect is mitigated. Compared to typical entrepreneurs, distress-driven entrepreneurs are high-wage workers who found better firms, as measured by jobs, pay, and survival. Startup jobs compensate for 33% of job losses at the constrained incumbents. Overall, the financial inability of incumbent firms to pursue productive opportunities increases the reallocation of economic activity into new firms. Authors have furnished an Internet Appendix, which is available on the Oxford University Press Web site next to the link to the final published paper online.
Project description:Analysis of transcript abundance estimates as a function generalized purpose in life and work-related dimensions of meaning. Gene expression profiling was conducted on peripheral blood samples collected from adult male employees of a Japanese technology firm. In addition to health-relevant background characteristics (age, indcome, body mass index/BMI, smoking history, heavy alcohol consumption history), participants were also assessed for hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of generalized well-being (assesed by the Short Flourishing Scale, Keyes, C (2006). The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) for adults) and work-specific variables including job evaluation (assessed by a12-item scale tapping both perceived significance of the firm’s work, through items such as “I am proud of my company” and “I think my company is really good,” as well as perceived significance of one’s own contribution to the firm's work, through items such as, “I think other employees within my company respect my work”), and workplace interdependence and independence of the self and coworkers (using the Singelis Self-Construal Scale, Singelis, T. M. (1994). The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580–591). Higher values of each scale score indicate greater levels of well-being, job satisfaction, etc. Dichotomous variables were coded 0=no/absent and 1=yes/present. Valid gene expression data are available for 106 participants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a response to population aging, reforms to increase the statutory retirement age and closing options for early retirement have been introduced in many European countries. This study analyzed the job satisfaction of employees in two countries with markedly different speeds of pension reforms. The German reform started in 1992 and abolished almost all options of early retirement. The Hungarian reforms started later and were completed only by 2011. Therefore, it is expected that older Hungarian workers were initially more satisfied with their jobs than similarly aged German workers. OBJECTIVE:The hypothesis was tested that older workers in a regulatory environment with accessible pathways to early retirement are on average relatively more satisfied with their job than older workers in a country with few and financially less advantageous options for early retirement. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This study used data from the European Working Conditions Surveys. Waves 2005 and 2010 represent years when early retirement pathways were abolished in Germany, while the Hungarian system offered a variety of pathways for early retirement. This is not the case in 2015 having tight regulations in both countries. Logit regressions were estimated using job satisfaction as an dependent variable and a variety of control variables were introduced step by step. RESULTS:The results from 2005 and 2010 indicate that older Hungarian employees are relatively more content with their job than similarly aged German workers. In 2015 this trend was reversed. CONCLUSION:It would be crucial to provide the opportunity and appropriate working conditions for older employees to work if they voluntarily opt for working longer. They seem to be an especially motivated pool of employees, and could productively contribute to decreasing the financial burdens caused by the demographic changes.
Project description:Job automation and associated psychosocial hazards are emerging workplace challenges. This study examined the trends in work conditions and associations with workers' health over time in jobs with different automation probabilities. We utilized data from six waves of national questionnaire surveys of randomly selected 95,762 employees between 2001 and 2016. The Job Content Questionnaire, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and the Self-Rated Health Scale were applied, and working time was self-reported. Automation probability was derived for 38 occupations and then categorized into three groups. Trends in work conditions and the associations between automation probability, work conditions and health were examined. We observed a 7% decrease in high automation probability jobs, an overall increase in job demands for and prevalence of shift work, and a decrease in job control. Workers with high automation probability jobs had low job demands, low job control and high job insecurity. Low automation probability was associated with burnout in logistic regression models. The odds ratio of job insecurity, long working hours, and shift work relating to health was higher in the later years of the surveys. In conclusion, there has been a decrease in high automation probability jobs. Workers employed in jobs with different levels of automation probability encountered different work condition challenges.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. METHODS:Participants aged 50-64?years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression, and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). RESULTS:Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60?years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (ORs of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS:Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement.