Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link.
ABSTRACT: Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.
Project description:Hyperentanglement is an effective quantum source for quantum communication network due to its high capacity, low loss rate, and its unusual character in teleportation of quantum particle fully. Here we present a deterministic error-correction scheme for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentangled photon pairs over collective-noise channels. In our scheme, the spatial-polarization hyperentanglement is first encoded into a spatial-defined time-bin entanglement with identical polarization before it is transmitted over collective-noise channels, which leads to the error rejection of the spatial entanglement during the transmission. The polarization noise affecting the polarization entanglement can be corrected with a proper one-step decoding procedure. The two parties in quantum communication can, in principle, obtain a nonlocal maximally entangled spatial-polarization hyperentanglement in a deterministic way, which makes our protocol more convenient than others in long-distance quantum communication.
Project description:High-dimensional quantum entanglement can enrich the functionality of quantum information processing. For example, it can enhance the channel capacity for linear optic superdense coding and decrease the error rate threshold of quantum key distribution. Long-distance distribution of a high-dimensional entanglement is essential for such advanced quantum communications over a communications network. Here, we show a long-distance distribution of a four-dimensional entanglement. We employ time-bin entanglement, which is suitable for a fibre transmission, and implement scalable measurements for the high-dimensional entanglement using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers. We observe that a pair of time-bin entangled photons has more than 1?bit of secure information capacity over 100?km. Our work constitutes an important step towards secure and dense quantum communications in a large Hilbert space.
Project description:Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell's inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.
Project description:We design schemes to generate and distribute hybrid entanglement and hyperentanglement correlated with degrees of freedom (polarization and time-bin) via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and linear optical devices (including time-bin encoders). In our scheme, the multi-photon gates (which consist of XKNLs, quantum bus [qubus] beams, and photon-number-resolving [PNR] measurement) with time-bin encoders can generate hyperentanglement or hybrid entanglement. And we can also purify the entangled state (polarization) of two photons using only linear optical devices and time-bin encoders under a noisy (bit-flip) channel. Subsequently, through local operations (using a multi-photon gate via XKNLs) and classical communications, it is possible to generate a four-qubit hybrid entangled state (polarization and time-bin). Finally, we discuss how the multi-photon gate using XKNLs, qubus beams, and PNR measurement can be reliably performed under the decoherence effect.
Project description:Hyperentanglement, the entanglement in several degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a quantum system, has attracted much attention as it can be used to increase both the channel capacity of quantum communication and its security largely. Here, we present the first scheme to completely distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states of two-photon systems in three DOFs with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity without destruction, including two longitudinal momentum DOFs and the polarization DOF. We use cross-Kerr nonlinearity to construct quantum nondemolition detectors which can be used to make a parity-check measurement and analyze Bell states of two-photon systems in different DOFs. Our complete scheme for two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled Bell-state analysis may be useful for the practical applications in quantum information, especially in long-distance high-capacity quantum communication.
Project description:Entanglement is the powerful and enigmatic resource central to quantum information processing, which promises capabilities in computing, simulation, secure communication, and metrology beyond what is possible for classical devices. Exactly quantifying the entanglement of an unknown system requires completely determining its quantum state, a task which demands an intractable number of measurements even for modestly-sized systems. Here we demonstrate a method for rigorously quantifying high-dimensional entanglement from extremely limited data. We improve an entropic, quantitative entanglement witness to operate directly on compressed experimental data acquired via an adaptive, multilevel sampling procedure. Only 6,456 measurements are needed to certify an entanglement-of-formation of 7.11 ± .04 ebits shared by two spatially-entangled photons. With a Hilbert space exceeding 68 billion dimensions, we need 20-million-times fewer measurements than the uncompressed approach and 1018-times fewer measurements than tomography. Our technique offers a universal method for quantifying entanglement in any large quantum system shared by two parties.
Project description:We present a two-step hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for polarization-spatial hyperentangled Bell states based on the high-capacity character of hyperentanglement resorting to the swap gates, which is used to obtain maximally hyperentangled states from partially hyperentangled pure states in long-distance quantum communication. The swap gate, which is constructed with the giant optical circular birefringence (GOCB) of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center embedded in a photonic crystal cavity, can be used to transfer the information in one degree of freedom (DOF) between photon systems. By transferring the useful information between hyperentangled photon pairs, more photon pairs in maximally hyperentangled state can be obtained in our hyper-ECP, and the success probability of the hyper-ECP is greatly improved. Moreover, we show that the high-fidelity quantum gate operations can be achieved by mapping the infidelities to heralded losses even in the weak coupling regime.
Project description:The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this asymmetric scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our results, which can be seen as a definition of genuine multipartite quantum steering, give a method to detect entanglement in a scenario in between the standard entanglement and fully device-independent scenarios, and provide a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks.
Project description:We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.
Project description:Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement.