Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion Among NCAA Women's Ice Hockey Athletes.
ABSTRACT: There are limited data on the incidence of concussion and concussion symptom nondisclosure among collegiate women's ice hockey athletes.To determine the incidence of sports-related concussion (SRC) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's ice hockey athletes.Descriptive epidemiology study.An anonymous online survey was completed by 459 NCAA women's ice hockey athletes. Players reported diagnosed concussions as well as incidents where they experienced an impact or blow to the head followed by symptoms associated with a concussion; reports spanned the duration of the 2014-2015 season and throughout players' organized hockey career.About half (n = 219, 47.7%) of respondents reported at least 1 diagnosed concussion over the duration of their entire organized ice hockey career. A total of 13.3% (n = 61) of respondents reported a diagnosed concussion during the 2014-2015 season. The incidence rate was 1.18 (95% CI, 0.92-1.51) per 1000 athlete-exposures to a game or practice and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.45-0.74) per 1000 hours of ice time. One-third (34.2%, n = 157) of players reported at least 1 impact where they experienced concussion-like symptoms during the 2014-2015 season; 82.8% of these players reported that they continued to play after at least 1 of these impacts, and 66.8% of players reported at least 1 impact where they never disclosed any symptoms.There is a high incidence of SRC in collegiate women's ice hockey and a concerning level of symptom nondisclosure. Additional research is needed to understand the causes of concussion and reasons for the lack of symptom disclosure, including factors specific to female athletes and contextual issues specific to women's collegiate ice hockey.
Project description:<h4>Background:</h4>Pediatric sports specialization, defined as intense year-round training in a single sport as a result of excluding other sports for more than 8 months per year, is common in the United States. There are demonstrated physical and social risks to early pediatric sports specialization (defined as before age 12 years). While thought to be needed to acquire appropriate experience and excel in a given sport, there remains little information on when athletes at the highest levels of their sport specialized. This study aimed to define when professional and collegiate ice hockey players specialized.<h4>Hypothesis:</h4>Early sports specialization before age 12 years will not be common among elite-level (professional and collegiate) ice hockey players.<h4>Study design:</h4>Retrospective cross-sectional survey study.<h4>Level of evidence:</h4>Level 3.<h4>Methods:</h4>Male professional and collegiate ice hockey players within 1 National Hockey League organization and 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) organizations who were 18 years of age or older completed a survey at training camp detailing their history of sports participation and specialization.<h4>Results:</h4>A total of 91 athletes participated in the study (mean age, 22.8 years; range, 18-39 years). The mean age at the start of any sports participation was 4.5 years, and the mean age of sports specialization was 14.3 years. The mean age of specialization in the professional group, the NCAA Division I group, and the NCAA Division III group was 14.1, 14.5, and 14.6 years, respectively.<h4>Conclusion:</h4>Early pediatric sports specialization is not common in elite-level (professional and collegiate) ice hockey players.<h4>Clinical relevance:</h4>Early pediatric sports specialization before age 12 years is not necessary for athletic success in professional and collegiate ice hockey. This study provides further evidence supporting the recommendations of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine against early sports specialization.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Since concussion is the most common injury in ice hockey, the objective of the current study was to elucidate risk factors, specific mechanisms, and clinical presentations of concussion in men's and women's ice hockey.<h4>Methods</h4>Ice hockey players from 5 institutions participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium were eligible for the current study. Participants who sustained a concussion outside of this sport were excluded. There were 332 (250 males, 82 females) athletes who participated in ice hockey, and 47 (36 males, 11 females) who sustained a concussion.<h4>Results</h4>Previous concussion (odds ratio (OR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.02‒3.91) was associated with increased incident concussion odds, while wearing a mouthguard was protective against incident concussion (OR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22‒0.85). Overall, concussion mechanisms did not significantly differ between sexes. There were specific differences in how concussions presented clinically across male and female ice hockey players, however. Females (9.09%) were less likely than males (41.67%) to have a delayed symptom onset (p = 0.045). Additionally, females took significantly longer to reach asymptomatic (p = 0.015) and return-to-play clearance (p = 0.005). Within the first 2 weeks post-concussion, 86.11% of males reached asymptomatic, while only 45.50% of females reached the same phase of recovery. Most males (91.67%) were cleared for return to play within 3 weeks of their concussion, compared to less than half (45.50%) of females.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The current study proposes possible risk factors, mechanisms, and clinical profiles to be validated in future concussions studies with larger female sample sizes. Understanding specific risk factors, concussion mechanisms, and clinical profiles of concussion in collegiate ice hockey may generate ideas for future concussion prevention or intervention studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although high rates of injury occur in youth ice hockey, disagreements exist about the risks and benefits of permitting bodychecking. We sought to evaluate associations between experience with bodychecking and rates of injury and concussion among ice hockey players aged 15-17 years.<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained data from a prospective cohort study of ice hockey players aged 15-17 years in Alberta who played in leagues that permitted bodychecking. We collected data over 3 seasons of play (2015/16-2017/18). We compared players based on experience with bodychecking (≤ 2 v. ≥ 3 yr), estimated using local and national bodychecking policy and region of play. We used validated methodology of ice hockey injury surveillance to identify all injuries related to ice hockey games and defined concussions according to the Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport.<h4>Results</h4>We included 941 players who contributed to 1168 player-seasons, with 205 players participating in more than 1 season. Compared with players with 2 years or less of bodychecking experience, those with 3 or more years of experience had higher rates of all injury (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-4.14), injury with more than 7 days of time loss (adjusted IRR 2.65, 95% CI 1.50-4.68) and concussion (adjusted IRR 2.69, 95% CI 1.34-5.42).<h4>Interpretation</h4>Among ice hockey players aged 15-17 years who participated in leagues permitting bodychecking, more experience with bodychecking did not protect against injury. This provides further support for removing bodychecking from youth ice hockey.
Project description:This prospective controlled observational cohort study assessed the performance of a novel panel of serum microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers on indicators of concussion, subconcussive impacts, and neurocognitive function in collegiate football players over the playing season. Male collegiate student football athletes participating in a Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were enrolled. There were a total of 53 participants included in the study, 30 non-athlete control subjects and 23 male collegiate student football athletes. Neurocognitive assessments and blood samples were taken within the week before the athletic season began and within the week after the last game of the season and measured for a panel of pre-selected miRNA biomarkers. All the athletes had elevated levels of circulating miRNAs at the beginning of the season compared with control subjects (p?<?0.001). Athletes with the lowest standard assessment of concussion (SAC) scores at the beginning of the season had the highest levels of miRNAs. The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting pre-season SAC scores were miR-195 (0.90), miR-20a (0.89), miR-151-5p (0.86), miR-505* (0.85), miR-9-3p (0.77), and miR-362-3p (0.76). In athletes with declining neurocognitive function over the season, concentrations of miRNAs increased over same period. There were significant negative correlations with miR-505* (p?=?0.011), miR-30d (p?=?0.007), miR-92 (p?=?0.033), and (p?=?0.008). The miRNAs correlating with balance problems were miR-505* (p?=?0.007), miR-30d (p?=?0.028), and miR-151-5p (p?=?0.023). Those correlating with poor reaction times were miR-20a (0.043), miR-505* (p?=?0.049), miR-30d (p?=?0.031), miR-92 (p?=?0.015), and miR-151-5p (p?=?0.044). Select miRNAs were associated with baseline concussion assessments at the beginning of the season and with neurocognitive changes from pre to post-season in collegiate football players. Should these findings be replicated in a larger cohort of athletes, these markers could potentially serve as measures of neurocognitive status in athletes at risk for concussion and subconcussive injuries.
Project description:Sports-related injuries increase healthcare cost burden, and in some instances have harmful long term physical and psychological implications. There is currently a lack of comprehensive data on temporal injury trends across professional North American sports. The purpose of this study was to compare temporal trends, according to incidence and time-loss injuries, by body part in professional baseball, basketball, football, and ice hockey. Public injury data from Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League from 2007 to December 2019 were extracted and used. A mean of 62.49 injuries per 100 players per season was recorded for all professional sports. The groin/hip/thigh reported the greatest season proportional injury incidence for baseball, football, and ice hockey, with the groin/hip/thigh as the third highest injury incidence in basketball. When stratifying by more specific body part groupings, the knee demonstrated the greatest injury proportional incidence for basketball, football, and ice hockey, with the knee as the third highest proportional injury incidence for baseball. There was an increased in basketball ankle injuries following 2011-2012 season. Football and ice hockey reported the greatest concussion proportion incidence, with football demonstrating an increase in concussions over time, and a substantial increase in concussions from the 2014 to 2015 season. These publicly extracted data and findings can be used as a shared resource for professional baseball, basketball, football, and ice hockey for future individual and across sport collaborations concerning resource allocation and decision making in order to improve player health.
Project description:Athletes are known to under-report concussion symptoms due to competitive disincentives to report and conflation of concussion symptoms with other conditions associated with rigorous participation in sports. A quantitative biomarker for concussion has the potential to decrease the reliance on inconsistent patient-reported symptoms for the diagnosis of concussion. The objective of this project was to monitor heart rate variability (HRV) patterns of in-season athletes as a potential biomarker for concussion. Twenty in-season National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 2 collegiate soccer players were given a wristband heart rate sensor with instructions to wear the band full time (24/7) for the entire fall season (approximately 3 months). The athletes were prompted by email to complete a weekly survey on the severity and frequency of any concussion symptoms. The survey and HRV data were de-identified for confidentiality, and to increase the likelihood of accurate reporting the athletes were told their responses would not be used to disqualify them from athletics. Our hypothesis was that HRV would be diminished in those with recent concussion. One athlete (5% of the cohort) sustained a concussion during the study period. A marked decrease in HRV was identified 7 days following the concussion, which eventually returned to baseline. This normalization of HRV followed the timing of resolution of concussion symptoms. Participants who did not sustain a concussion exhibited minimal variance in HRV over time. This preliminary study shows that HRV has potential as a biomarker for symptom resolution after clinically apparent concussion. HRV is unlikely to serve as a concussion diagnostic due to the 7-day lag in HRV change after concussion.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To describe and compare the epidemiology of lumbar spine injuries (LSIs) in women's and men's ice hockey during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years and to investigate sex-specific differences, using data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) database.<h4>Methods</h4>The incidence and characteristics of LSIs were identified utilizing the NCAA ISP. Rates of injury were calculated as number of injuries divided by total number of athlete exposures (AEs). AEs were defined as any student participation in one NCAA-sanctioned practice or competition. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare rates of injury between season, event type, mechanism, injury recurrence, and time lost from sport, and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were calculated to examine the differences in injury rates between men and women.<h4>Results</h4>There were a total of 165 LSIs from an average of 10 and 19 women's and men's teams, respectively, calculated to 1,254 LSIs nationally. Women were 2.48 times more likely to suffer a noncontact injury than men (95% CI: 1.33-4.61), whereas men were more likely than women to suffer contact LSIs (IPR: .51 [95% CI: .28-.92]). In Divisions II and III, women were 6.64 (95% CI: 4.14-10.64) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12-1.46) times more likely to suffer LSIs than men, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Women and men were similarly likely to suffer an LSI, but sex-specific differences existed in a mechanism of injury and likelihood of injury within NCAA Divisions.
Project description:In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players.We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997-2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play.Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days.Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the association between self-reported exposure to concussion education and knowledge, beliefs and self-reported behaviour among parents and coaches of youth ice hockey players. DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETTING:Community ice hockey teams from Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:Parents and coaches of ice hockey players (ages 11-17, all divisions of play). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Participants completed a questionnaire developed and validated to measure concussion knowledge, beliefs and concussion management behaviour (ie, coaches removing athletes from play; parents taking children with suspected concussions to physicians) consistent with the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The questionnaire examined specific HAPA constructs (ie, risk perception, outcome expectancies, action self-efficacy, intention, action planning, maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy) relevant to concussion management behaviour. RESULTS:Participants included 786 parents (31.8% with coaching experience) and 10 non-parent coaches. Of the participants, 649 (82.6%) previously received concussion education. Based on a multivariable regression analysis adjusting for coaching experience, previous history of a child sustaining one or more concussions, first aid experience and cluster by team, exposure to concussion education was associated with a mean score difference of 1.36 (95% CI 0.68 to 2.03), p<0.0001, in the knowledge score. Exposure to concussion education was not significantly associated with any of the HAPA constructs based on Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. CONCLUSION:Exposure to concussion education may be associated with small overall differences in concussion knowledge but may not be associated with significant differences in beliefs or intended behaviours related to concussion management among youth hockey parents and coaches.When providing education or recommendations for concussion education sources to coaches and parents, educational strategies grounded in behavioural change theory that specifically target the motivators of behavioural change should be considered.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the association between meeting physical activity (PA) volume recommendations and concussion rates in male ice hockey players aged 11-17 years. DESIGN:Pooled prospective injury surveillance cohort data from the 2011-2012, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 youth ice hockey seasons. PARTICIPANTS:Male Alberta-based Pee Wee (aged 11-12?years), Bantam (aged 13-14?years) and Midget (aged 15-17?years) ice hockey players participating in any of the three cohorts were eligible (n=1726). A total of 1208 players were included after the exclusion criteria were applied (ie, players with new/unhealed injuries within 6?weeks of study entry, missing 6-week PA history questionnaires, missing game and/or practice participation exposure hours, players who sustained concussions when no participation exposure hours were collected). OUTCOME MEASURES:Dependent variable: medically diagnosed concussion. Independent variable: whether or not players' self-reported history of PA (ie, hours of physical education and extracurricular sport participation) met the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology and Public Health Agency of Canada recommendation of one hour daily during the 6?weeks prior to study entry (ie, 42?hours or more). RESULTS:The PA volume recommendations were met by 65.05% of players who subsequently sustained concussions, and 75.34% of players who did not sustain concussions. The concussion incidence rate ratios (IRR) reflect higher concussion rates in players who did not meet the PA volume recommendations vs. players who met the PA volume recommendations among Pee Wee players (IRR 2.94 95% CI 1.30 to 6.64), Bantam players (IRR 2.18, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.93) and non-elite players aged 11-14 years (IRR 2.45, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.51). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE:The concussion rate of players who did not meet the Canadian PA volume recommendations was more than twice the concussion rate of players who met recommendations among male Pee Wee players, Bantam players and non-elite level players. Further exploration of the impact of public health PA recommendations in a sport injury prevention context is warranted.