Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women.
ABSTRACT: With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test), cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women.A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire.More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods. Barriers to self-sampling included confidence in the ability to perform the test and perceived cost, and facilitators included convenience and privacy being preserved.The results demonstrate that HPV self-sampling may provide a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing. These findings add important information to the literature related to promoting cancer screening among women who are under or never screened for cervical cancer.
Project description:In the United States certain minority groups, such as racial/ethnic immigrant women, are less likely than non-Hispanic White women to be screened for cervical cancer. Barriers to such care include health insurance, cost, knowledge, attitudes, health literacy, and cultural norms and practices. Among the most promising approaches to increase screening in these groups are patient navigators that can link women to sources of appropriate care. Another recent promising approach is using human papilloma virus (HPV) self-sampling. In this manuscript, we describe our National Cancer Institute-sponsored study testing such approaches among immigrant minority women.The South Florida Center for the Reduction of Cancer Health Disparities (SUCCESS) is conducting a three-arm randomized trial among Hispanic, Haitian, and African American women in Miami-Dade County. Community health workers (CHW) based in each of three communities are recruiting 200 women at each site (600 total). Eligibility criteria include women aged 30-65 years who have not had a Pap smear test in the last 3 years. Prior to randomization, all women undergo a standardized structured interview. Women randomized to public health outreach, Group 1, receive culturally tailored educational materials. Women in Group 2 receive an individualized comprehensive cervical cancer CHW-led education session followed by patient navigation to obtain the Pap smear test at community-based facilities. Women in Group 3 have the option of navigation to a Pap smear test or performing HPV self-sampling. The primary outcome is self-report of completed screening through a Pap smear test or HPV self-sampling within 6 months after enrollment.SUCCESS is one of the first trials testing HPV self-sampling as a screening strategy among underserved minority women. If successful, HPV self-sampling may be an important option in community outreach programs aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer.Clinical Trials.gov # NCT02121548, registered April 21, 2014.
Project description:PURPOSE:HPV self-sampling has previously been shown to increase cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority and immigrant women. We conducted a randomized pragmatic trial to examine the effectiveness of HPV self-sampling delivered via in-person versus by US mail for medically underserved Hispanic, Haitian, and non-Hispanic Black women living in South Florida. METHODS:We randomized women aged 30-65 who had not completed Pap smear screening in the past 3 years into two groups: (1) HPV self-sampling delivered in-person (IP) by a community health worker (CHW; IP?+?SS) or (2) HPV self-sampling delivered via US mail (SS?+?Mail). Our primary outcome was HPV self-sampling completion by 6-month post-study enrollment. RESULTS:We enrolled 600 women. Approximately 65% were Hispanic and 35% were Haitian or non-Hispanic Black. Nearly half (43%) had an income of less than $20,000/year and 67% were uninsured. In intent-to-treat analyses, 71.6% of participants in the SS?+?Mail group and 81.0% of participants in the IP?+?SS group completed HPV self-sampling. CONCLUSION:Mailed HPV self-sampling is an effective strategy to increase cervical cancer screening among underserved immigrant and ethnic minority women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer rates are higher in low-resourced countries than high, partly due to lower rates of screening. Incidence in Thailand is nearly three times higher than in the USA (16.2 vs 6.5 age-standardised incidence), even with Thailand's universal health coverage, which includes screening, suggesting that alternative methods are needed to reduce the burden. We investigated barriers to screening, as well as acceptability of self-collection human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary form of cervical cancer screening among Buddhist and Muslim communities in Southern Thailand. METHODS:267 women from the Buddhist district of Ranot and Muslim district of Na Thawi, Songkhla were recruited to complete a survey assessing knowledge and risk factors of HPV and cervical cancer. Participants were offered an HPV self-collection test with a follow-up survey assessing acceptability. Samples were processed at Prince of Songkhla University and results were returned to participants. RESULTS:267 women participated in the study (132 Buddhist, 135 Muslim), 264 (99%) self-collecting. 98% reported comfort and ease, and 70% preferred it to doctor-facilitated cytology. The main predictor of prior screening was religion (92% Buddhist vs 73% Muslim reporting prior Pap). After adjustment with multivariate logistic models, Muslim women had an OR of prior Pap of 0.30 compared with Buddhist (95%?CI: 0.12 to 0.66). CONCLUSIONS:Self-collection HPV testing was highly acceptable across religious groups, suggesting that it could be beneficial for cervical cancer reduction in this region. Focus should be put into educating women from all backgrounds about the importance of screening to further improve screening rates among Thai women.
Project description:Women in safety-net institutions are less likely to receive cervical cancer screening. Human papilloma virus (HPV) self-sampling is an alternative method of cervical cancer screening. We examine the acceptability and feasibility of HPV self-sampling among patients and clinic staff in two safety-net clinics in Miami.Haitian and Latina women aged 30-65 years with no Pap smear in the past 3 years were recruited. Women were offered HPV self-sampling or traditional Pap smear screening. The acceptability of HPV self-sampling among patients and clinic staff was assessed. If traditional screening was preferred the medical record was reviewed.A total of 180 women were recruited (134 Latinas and 46 Haitian). HPV self-sampling was selected by 67% women. Among those selecting traditional screening, 22% were not screened 5 months postrecruitment. Over 80% of women agreed HPV self-sampling was faster, more private, easy to use, and would prefer to use again. Among clinic staff, 80% agreed they would be willing to incorporate HPV self-sampling into practice.HPV self-sampling was both acceptable and feasible to participants and clinic staff and may help overcome barriers to screening.
Project description:Underserved ethnic minority women experience significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, mainly due to lack of cervical cancer screening. Barriers to Pap smear screening include lack of knowledge, lack of health insurance and access, and cultural beliefs regarding disease prevention. In our previous SUCCESS trial, we demonstrated that HPV self-sampling delivered by a community health worker (CHW) is efficacious in circumventing these barriers. This approach increased screening uptake relative to navigation to Pap smear screening. SUCCESS trial participants, as well as our community partners, provided feedback that women may prefer the HPV self-sampler to be delivered through the mail, such that they would not need to schedule an appointment with the CHW. Thus, our current trial aims to elucidate the efficacy of the HPV self-sampling method when delivered via mail.We are conducting a randomized controlled trial among 600 Haitian, Hispanic, and African-American women from the South Florida communities of Little Haiti, Hialeah, and South Dade. Women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who have not had a Pap smear within the past 3 years are eligible for the study. Women are recruited by CHWs and complete a structured interview to assess multilevel determinants of cervical cancer risk. Women are then randomized to receive HPV self-sampling delivered by either the CHW (group 1) or via mail (group 2). The primary outcome is completion of HPV self-sampling within 6 months post enrollment.Our trial is among the first to examine the efficacy of the mailed HPV self-sampling approach. If found to be efficacious, this approach may represent a cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer screening within underserved and underscreened minority groups.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02202109 . Registered on 9 July 2014.
Project description:Most cervical cancers occur in women who do not participate in cervical-cancer screening. We therefore evaluated adherence to screening for clinic-based Pap testing, self-collected sampling for HPV testing, and choice of the 2 among 483 unscreened/underscreened women in Brazil. Three public Basic Health Units (BHU) were each randomly assigned to three arms: (i) Pap testing at the BHU (N = 160), (ii) "Self&HPV" (self-collection for HPV testing) (N = 161), and (iii) "Choice" between self-collection and HPV testing and Pap test at the local BHU (N = 162). The theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model) intervention in all three arms was implemented by trained Community Health Workers (CHW) at participants' home. With the first invitation, 60.0% in the Pap arm, 95.1% [154 of 161 (95.7%) who selected Self&HPV and 0 of 1 (0.0%) who selected Pap] in the Choice arm, and 100% in the Self&HPV arm completed screening. By the second invitation to choose a method of screening in the Choice arm, 100% completed screening. After three invitations, 75.0% of women in the Pap arm completed screening. Adherence to screening differed by study arm (P < 0.001). In conclusion, Self&HPV testing is a promising strategy for unscreened/underscreened women who are recalcitrant or unable to undergo clinic-based cervical screening to complement the screening modality used in the general population. In Brazil, where Pap testing is recommended for routine cervical screening, training CHWs in behavior change strategies and offering Self&HPV or Choice could greatly improve screening population coverage by reaching the unscreened/underscreened populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethnic minority women are at increased risk of cervical cancer. Self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a promising approach to increase cervical screening among hard-to-reach populations. OBJECTIVE:To compare a community health worker (CHW)-led HPV self-sampling intervention with standard cervical cancer screening approaches. DESIGN:A 26-week single-blind randomized pragmatic clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS:From October 6, 2011 to July 7, 2014, a total of 601 Black, Haitian, and Hispanic women aged 30-65 years in need of cervical cancer screening were recruited, 479 of whom completed study follow-up. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomized into three groups: (1) outreach by CHWs and provision of culturally tailored cervical cancer screening information (outreach), (2) individualized CHW-led education and navigation to local health care facilities for Pap smear (navigation), or (3) individualized CHW-led education with a choice of HPV self-sampling or CHW-facilitated navigation to Pap smear (self-swab option). MAIN MEASURES:The proportion of women in each group whom self-reported completion of cervical cancer screening. Women lost to follow-up were considered as not having been screened. KEY RESULTS:Of the 601 women enrolled, 355 (59%) were Hispanic, 210 (35%) were Haitian, and 36 (6%) were non-Haitian Black. In intent-to-treat analyses, 160 of 207 (77%) of women in the self-swab option group completed cervical cancer screening versus 57 of 182 (31%) in the outreach group (aOR 95% CI, p?<?0.01) and 90 of 212 (43%) in the navigation group (aOR CI, p?=?0.02). CONCLUSIONS:As compared to more traditional approaches, CHW-facilitated HPV self-sampling led to increased cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in South Florida. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02121548.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cervical cancer screening coverage remains insufficient in most countries. Our objective was to assess whether in-home vaginal self-sampling with a dry swab for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing is effective and cost-effective in increasing participation in cervical cancer screening.<h4>Methods</h4>In March 2012, 6000 unscreened women aged 30-65 years, living in a French region covered by a screening programme, who had not responded to an initial invitation to have a Pap smear were equally randomised to three groups: 'no intervention'; 'recall', women received a letter to have a Pap smear; and 'self-sampling', women received a self-sampling kit to return to a centralised virology laboratory for PCR-based HPV testing.<h4>Results</h4>Participation was higher in the 'self-sampling' than in the 'no intervention' group (22.5% vs 9.9%, P<0.0001; OR 2.64) and 'recall' group (11.7%, P<0.0001; OR 2.20). In the 'self-sampling' group, 320 used the self-sampling kit; for 44 of these women with positive HR-HPV test results, 40 had the recommended triage Pap smear. The ICER per extra screened woman was 77.8[euro ] and 63.2[euro ] for the 'recall' and 'self-sampling' groups, respectively, relative to the 'no intervention' group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Offering an in-home, return-mail kit for vaginal self-sampling with a dry swab is more effective and cost-effective than a recall letter in increasing participation in cervical cancer screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While (Pap)anicolaou screening has helped to decrease cervical cancer incidence in Canada, First Nations women continue to have a higher burden and mortality relative to mainstream populations. Many First Nations women may feel uncomfortable with the invasiveness of this test, contributing to this statistic. Implemented from 2009 to 2015 in 10 Northwest Ontario First Nations communities, the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS) uniquely addressed this Indigenous health inequity through a mixed methods approach. OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to offer an alternative test which the women could do themselves: human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on self-sampling. We investigated whether First Nations women preferred HPV self-sampling over healthcare provider (HCP)-administered Pap screening. METHODS:Participatory action researchinformed by the ethical space concept has guided all stages of the ACCSS. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 HCPs and 8 focus group discussions with 69 female community members followed by a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT). Here, we draw on the qualitative field data and an end-of-study community update gathering to disseminate and contextualise research findings. Informant data were evaluated using thematic analysis. RESULTS:We discuss factors influencing participants' strong preference for HPV self-sampling over physician-conducted Pap screening. Key arguments included enhanced accessibility and more personal control, less physical and emotional discomfort and fewer concerns regarding privacy of test results. For future implementation of HPV self-sampling, study participants emphasised the need for more culturally sensitive education addressed to community members of all genders, starting at school, clarifying that HPV causes cervical cancer. Further, HPV infection should be de-stigmatised by accentuating that it affects men and women alike. CONCLUSION:Here we show that self-sampling in conjunction with community engagement and culturally sensitive education and could be a viable option for underscreened Canadian First Nations women. These informant data echo our previous RCT results.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. AIM: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. METHODS: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. RESULTS were summarized in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. CONCLUSION: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities.