How vegetation in flows modifies the turbulent mixing and spreading of jets.
ABSTRACT: While studies on vegetated channel flows have been developed in many research centers, studies on jets interacting with vegetation are still rare. This study presents and analyzes turbulent jets issued into an obstructed cross-flow, with emergent vegetation simulated with a regular array of cylinders. The paper presents estimates of the turbulence diffusion coefficients and the main turbulence variables of jets issued into a vegetated channel flow. The experimental results are compared with jets issued into unobstructed cross-flow. In the presence of the cylinder array, the turbulence length-scales in the streamwise and transverse directions were reduced, relative to the unobstructed crossflow. This contributed to a reduction in streamwise turbulent diffusion, relative to the unobstructed conditions. In contrast, the transverse turbulent diffusion was enhanced, despite the reduction in length-scale, due to enhanced turbulent intensity and the transverse deflection of flow around individual cylinders. Importantly, in the obstructed condition, the streamwise and transverse turbulent diffusion coefficients are of the same order of magnitude.
Project description:A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment. In nature, detrainment is usually associated with buoyancy-driven flows, such as plumes or density currents flowing in a stratified environment. The present study proves that detrainment occurs also when a momentum-driven jet is issued in a not-stratified obstructed current, such as a vegetated flow.
Project description:This numerical investigation deals with study of flow past seven square cylinders arranged in staggered configuration. Simulations to the underlying problem are carried out by using the single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method. The gap spacing between the staggered rows is varied in streamwise direction from 0.25 to 2 and for three transverse spacing i.e. T* = 1, 1.5 and 2. The complex vortex shedding mechanism is visualized for different streamwise and transverse gap spacings. Furthermore, the vortex shedding mechanisms in the wake of downstream row of cylinders are debated by using vorticity snapshots, time-trace plots of drag and lift coefficients and power spectra visualization of lift coefficient. It is also observed that the secondary cylinder interaction frequency contributes significantly to the hydrodynamic forces experienced by the cylinders. The physical parameters, such as Strouhal number, the drag and lift coefficients and their root-mean-square values have also been discussed in detail.
Project description:The visible matter in the universe is turbulent and magnetized. Turbulence in galaxy clusters is produced by mergers and by jets of the central galaxies and believed responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields. We report on experiments looking at the collision of two laser-produced plasma clouds, mimicking, in the laboratory, a cluster merger event. By measuring the spectrum of the density fluctuations, we infer developed, Kolmogorov-like turbulence. From spectral line broadening, we estimate a level of turbulence consistent with turbulent heating balancing radiative cooling, as it likely does in galaxy clusters. We show that the magnetic field is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a nonlinear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. Thus, our experiment provides a promising platform for understanding the structure of turbulence and the amplification of magnetic fields in the universe.
Project description:In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.
Project description:The mean state of the atmosphere and ocean is set through a balance between external forcing (radiation, winds, heat and freshwater fluxes) and the emergent turbulence, which transfers energy to dissipative structures. The forcing gives rise to jets in the atmosphere and currents in the ocean, which spontaneously develop turbulent eddies through the baroclinic instability. A critical step in the development of a theory of climate is to properly include the eddy-induced turbulent transport of properties like heat, moisture, and carbon. In the linear stages, baroclinic instability generates flow structures at the Rossby deformation radius, a length scale of order 1,000 km in the atmosphere and 100 km in the ocean, smaller than the planetary scale and the typical extent of ocean basins, respectively. There is, therefore, a separation of scales between the large-scale gradient of properties like temperature and the smaller eddies that advect it randomly, inducing effective diffusion. Numerical solutions show that such scale separation remains in the strongly nonlinear turbulent regime, provided there is sufficient drag at the bottom of the atmosphere and ocean. We compute the scaling laws governing the eddy-driven transport associated with baroclinic turbulence. First, we provide a theoretical underpinning for empirical scaling laws reported in previous studies, for different formulations of the bottom drag law. Second, these scaling laws are shown to provide an important first step toward an accurate local closure to predict the impact of baroclinic turbulence in setting the large-scale temperature profiles in the atmosphere and ocean.
Project description:This article describes a novel approach to generate increased turbulence levels in an incoming flow. It relies on a cost-effective and robust semi-active jet grid, equipped with flexible tubes as moving elements attached onto tube connections placed at the intersections of a fixed, regular grid. For the present study, these flexible tubes are oriented in counter-flow direction in a wind tunnel. Tube motion is governed by multiple interactions between the main flow and the jets exiting the tubes, resulting in chaotic velocity fluctuations and high turbulence intensities in the test section. After describing the structure of the turbulence generator, the turbulent properties of the airflow downstream of the grid in both passive and active modes are measured by hot-wire anemometry and compared with one another. When activating the turbulence generator, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and the Taylor Reynolds number are noticeably increased in comparison with the passive mode (corresponding to simple grid turbulence). Furthermore, the inertial subrange of the turbulent energy spectrum becomes wider and closely follows Kolmogorov's -5/3 law. These results show that the semi-active grid, in contrast to passive systems, is capable of producing high turbulence levels, even at low incoming flow velocity. Compared to alternatives based on actuators driven by servo-motors, the production and operation costs of the semi-active grid are very moderate and its robustness is much higher.
Project description:The properties of supersonic, compressible plasma turbulence determine the behavior of many terrestrial and astrophysical systems. In the interstellar medium and molecular clouds, compressible turbulence plays a vital role in star formation and the evolution of our galaxy. Observations of the density and velocity power spectra in the Orion B and Perseus molecular clouds show large deviations from those predicted for incompressible turbulence. Hydrodynamic simulations attribute this to the high Mach number in the interstellar medium (ISM), although the exact details of this dependence are not well understood. Here we investigate experimentally the statistical behavior of boundary-free supersonic turbulence created by the collision of two laser-driven high-velocity turbulent plasma jets. The Mach number dependence of the slopes of the density and velocity power spectra agree with astrophysical observations, and supports the notion that the turbulence transitions from being Kolmogorov-like at low Mach number to being more Burgers-like at higher Mach numbers.
Project description:Elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) is a new state of turbulence found in inertial flows with polymer additives. The dynamics of turbulence generated and controlled by such additives is investigated from the perspective of the coupling between polymer dynamics and flow structures. Direct numerical simulations of channel flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 1000 to 6000 (based on the bulk and the channel height) are used to study the formation and dynamics of elastic instabilities and their effects on the flow. The flow topology of EIT is found to differ significantly from Newtonian wall-turbulence. Structures identified by positive (rotational flow topology) and negative (extensional/compressional flow topology) second invariant Qa isosurfaces of the velocity gradient are cylindrical and aligned in the spanwise direction. Polymers are significantly stretched in sheet-like regions that extend in the streamwise direction with a small upward tilt. The Qa cylindrical structures emerge from the sheets of high polymer extension, in a mechanism of energy transfer from the fluctuations of the polymer stress work to the turbulent kinetic energy. At subcritical Reynolds numbers, EIT is observed at modest Weissenberg number (Wi, ratio polymer relaxation time to viscous time scale). For supercritical Reynolds numbers, flows approach EIT at large Wi. EIT provides new insights on the nature of the asymptotic state of polymer drag reduction (maximum drag reduction), and explains the phenomenon of early turbulence, or onset of turbulence at lower Reynolds numbers than for Newtonian flows observed in some polymeric flows.
Project description:A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.
Project description:Recently, when studying folding of a SH3 domain, we discovered that the flows of transitions between protein states can be surprisingly similar to turbulent fluid flows. This similarity was not restricted by a vortex pattern of the flow fields but extended to a spatial correlation of flow fluctuations, resulting, in particular, in the structure functions such as in the Kolmogorov theory of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Here, we undertake a detailed analysis of spatial distribution of folding flows and their similarity to turbulent fluid flows. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study folding of another benchmark system-Trp-cage miniprotein, which has different content of secondary structure elements and mechanism of folding. Calculating the probability fluxes of transitions in a three-dimensional space of collective variables, we have found that similar to the SH3 domain, the structure functions of the second and third orders correspond to the Kolmogorov functions. The spatial distributions of the probability fluxes are self-similar with a fractal dimension, and the fractal index decreases toward the native state, indicating that the flow becomes more turbulent as the native state is approached. We also show that the process of folding can be viewed as Brownian diffusion in the space of probability fluxes. The diffusion coefficient plays a role of the key parameter that defines the structures functions, similar to the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy in hydrodynamic turbulence. The obtained results, first, show that the very complex dynamics of protein folding allows a simple characterization in terms of scaling and diffusion of probability fluxes, and, secondly, they suggest that the turbulence phenomena similar to hydrodynamic turbulence are not specific of folding of a particular protein but are common to protein folding.