Selective surface marker and miRNA profiles of CD34+ blast-derived microvesicles in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at investigating the selective enrichment of surface marker and functional microRNA (miRNA) profiles of cluster of differentiation (CD)34+ blast-derived microvesicles (MVs) from parental cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), thus providing an experimental basis for MVs to be used to predict characteristics of CD34+ blasts. Magnetic activated cell sorting and continuous differential centrifugation were used to isolate primary CML CD34+ blasts and MVs, in addition to utilizing flow cytometry to identify surface markers of CD34+ blasts and blast-derived MVs. Microarray analysis and the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze miRNA profiles of CD34+ blasts and MVs. The results of the present study indicated that primary CML CD34+ blasts were able to release MVs, which were selectively enriched with the surface markers CD34 and CD123, and functional miRNAs from parental cells. A total of 15 miRNAs were upregulated in CD34+ blast derived-MVs compared with in CD34+ cells. Distinct Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and Gene Ontology terms characterized by altered gene expression and potentially associated miRNA were identified. Upregulated miRNAs in MVs were associated with cell development, tumorigenesis and signaling pathways involving ErbB and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B. The present study provides evidence, which increases the understanding of physiological functions of cancer-derived MVs, and aids the understanding of the roles of CD34+ blast-derived MVs in CML-associated processes.
Project description:In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) normal differentiation is impaired. Differentiation of immature stem/progenitor cells is critical for normal blood cell function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that interfere with gene expression by degrading messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or blocking protein translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is a feature of leukemia and miRNAs also play a significant role in normal hematopoiesis and differentiation. We have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in AML and BC CML and identified a new role for miR-150 in myeloid differentiation. Expression of miR-150 is low or absent in BC CML and AML patient samples and cell lines. We have found that expression of miR-150 in AML cell lines, CD34+ progenitor cells from healthy individuals, and primary BC CML and AML patient samples at levels similar to miR-150 expression in normal bone marrow promotes myeloid differentiation of these cells. MYB is a direct target of miR-150, and we have identified that the observed phenotype is partially mediated by MYB. In AML cell lines, differentiation of miR-150 expressing cells occurs independently of retinoic acid receptor ? (RARA) signaling. High-throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) studies of the AML cell lines HL60, PL21, and THP-1 suggest that activation of CEPBA, CEBPE, and cytokines associated with myeloid differentiation in miR-150 expressing cells as compared to control cells contributes to myeloid differentiation. These data suggest that miR-150 promotes myeloid differentiation, a previously uncharacterized role for this miRNA, and that absent or low miR-150 expression contributes to blocked myeloid differentiation in acute leukemia cells.
Project description:The development of Imatinib mesylate (IM), which targets the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion protein, has greatly improved the outcome of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients. However, BCR-ABL-positive progenitors can be detected in CML patients in complete cytogenetic response. Several evidence suggests that CML stem cells are intrinsically resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI), and therefore they represent the most likely candidate responsible for disease relapse.In this work, we investigated the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of different subpopulations of CML Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs): Lin-CD34+CD38- and Lin-CD34-CD38- cells. These cell fractions have been previously shown to be endowed with TKI intrinsic resistance. Our analysis identified 33 common deregulated miRNAs in CML LSCs. Among those, 8 miRNAs were deregulated in CML independently from BCR-ABL kinase activity and therefore are likely to be involved in the BCR-ABL-independent resistance to TKI that characterizes CML LSCs. In particular, the up-regulation of miR-29a-3p and miR-660-5p observed in CML LSCs, led to the down-regulation of their respective targets TET2 and EPAS1 and conferred TKI-resistance to CML LSCs in vitro. On the other hand, miR-494-3p down-regulation in CML LSCs, leading to c-MYC up-regulation, was able to decrease TKI-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that aberrant miRNA expression in CML LSCs could contribute to the intrinsic TKI-resistance observed in these cell populations, and support the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting aberrantly regulated miRNAs or their targets in order to effectively eradicate CML LSCs.
Project description:Altered mRNA translation is one of the effects exerted by the BCR/ABL oncoprotein in the blast crisis phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Here, we report that in BCR/ABL+ cell lines and in patient-derived CML blast crisis mononuclear and CD34+ cells, p210(BCR/ABL) increases expression and activity of the transcriptional-inducer and translational-regulator heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K or HNRPK) in a dose- and kinase-dependent manner through the activation of the MAPK(ERK1/2) pathway. Furthermore, HNRPK down-regulation and interference with HNRPK translation-but not transcription-regulatory activity impairs cytokine-independent proliferation, clonogenic potential, and in vivo leukemogenic activity of BCR/ABL-expressing myeloid 32Dcl3 and/or primary CD34+ CML-BC patient cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that decreased internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent Myc mRNA translation accounts for the phenotypic changes induced by inhibition of the BCR/ABL-ERK-dependent HNRPK translation-regulatory function. Accordingly, MYC protein but not mRNA levels are increased in the CD34+ fraction of patients with CML in accelerated and blastic phase but not in chronic phase CML patients and in the CD34+ fraction of marrow cells from healthy donors. Thus, BCR/ABL-dependent enhancement of HNRPK translation-regulation is important for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis and, perhaps, it might contribute to blast crisis transformation.
Project description:The dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression causes various kinds of diseases. Especially, alterations in miRNA expression levels are frequently observed in human tumor cells and are associated with cancer pathogenesis. Earlier we established Fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant human colon cancer DLD-1 cells (DLD-1/5FU) from parental 5-FU- sensitive DLD-1 cells. In the present study, we examined the expression of miRNA in each cell line and in its extracellular microvesicles (MVs) before and after treatment with 5-FU. The nascent RNAs of anti-oncogenic miR-34a and -145 labeled with EU in both cells were proved to be transferred into MVs in both cell lines. The levels of miR-34a and -145 in the cells and in their MVs were not largely different in the two cell lines, and a substantial amount of both miRNAs was secreted by both cell lines even in the steady-state condition. The exposure of both cell lines to 5-FU significantly increased the intracellular levels of miR-145 and miR-34a in the 5-FU-sensitive DLD-1 cells, whereas the level of neither miR was elevated in the DLD-1/5FU cells. Interestingly, the amount of miR-145 detected in the small MVs shed into the medium of the parental cells was reduced after the treatment with 5-FU. On the other hand, the intracellular expression of miR-34a in the DLD-1/5FU cells was down-regulated compared with that in the parental DLD-1 cells even in the steady-state condition. As to the miR-34a secreted into MVs, the increase in the level in DLD-1/5FU cells was greater than that in the parental DLD-1 cells after the treatment with 5-FU. Thus, the intra- and extracellular miR-145 and -34a were closely associated with 5-FU resistance, and the resistance was in part due to the enhanced secretion of miR-145 and -34a via MVs, resulting in low intracellular levels of both miRNAs.
Project description:Despite the efficacy of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia, the management of blast phase-chronic myeloid leukemia (BP-CML) remains a challenge. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify alternative agents that act synergistically with BCR-ABL TKIs in BP-CML. Our results show that the anti-malarial agent, mefloquine augments the efficacy of TKIs in CML cell lines and primary CML cells in vitro, including those with the T315I mutation. This effect is selective as mefloquine is more effective in inducing apoptosis, inhibiting colony formation and self-renewal capacity of CD34+ cells derived from TKI-resistant BP-CML patients than normal cord blood (CB) CD34+ stem/progenitor cells. Notably, the combination of mefloquine and TKIs at sublethal concentrations leads to synergistic effects in CML CD34+ cells, while sparing normal CB CD34+ cells. We further demonstrate that the initial action of mefloquine in CML cells is to increase lysosomal biogenesis and activation, followed by oxidative stress, lysosomal lipid damage and functional impairment. Taken together, our work elucidates that mefloquine selectively augments the effects of TKIs in CML stem/progenitor cells by inducing lysosomal dysfunction.
Project description:Senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only contributes to organism aging and the development of a variety of diseases but also severely impairs their therapeutic properties as a promising cell therapy. Studies searching for efficient biomarkers that represent cellular senescence have attracted much attention; however, no single marker currently provides an accurate cell-free representation of cellular senescence. Here, we studied characteristics of MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) that may reflect the senescence in their parental MSCs. We found that senescent late passage (LP) MSCs secreted higher levels of MSC-MVs with smaller size than did early passage (EP) MSCs, and the level of CD105+ MSC-MVs decreased with senescence in the parental MSCs. Also, a substantially weaker ability to promote osteogenesis in MSCs was observed in LP than EP MSC-MVs. Comparative analysis of RNA sequencing showed the same trend of decreasing number of highly-expressed miRNAs with increasing number of passages in both MSCs and MSC-MVs. Most of the highly-expressed genes in LP MSCs and the corresponding MSC-MVs were involved in the regulation of senescence-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, based on the miRNA profiling, transcription factors (TF) and genes regulatory networks of MSC senescence, and the datasets from GEO database, we confirmed that expression of miR-146a-5p in MSC-MVs resembled the senescent state of their parental MSCs. Our findings provide evidence that MSC-MVs are a key factor in the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of MSCs and demonstrate that their integrated characteristics can dynamically reflect the senescence state of MSCs representing a potential biomarker for monitoring MSC senescence.
Project description:Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) blast crisis is an ominous clinical event that is challenging to treat. This can develop at extramedullary sites rarely and is defined as the infiltration of blasts outside the bone marrow irrespective of proliferation of blasts within the bone marrow. We aim to report an unusual clinical presentation characterized by Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral arm weakness, and cervical lymphadenopathy as the first signs of extramedullary blast crisis in a CML patient. To the best of our knowledge, the extramedullary locations involving the brachial plexus along with cervicothoracic paraspinal chloroma have not been previously reported in the literature.
Project description:Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are a recently discovered mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Our previous data show that MVs secreted by equine amniotic mesenchymal-derived cells (AMCs) are involved in downregulation of proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide-stressed equine tendon and endometrial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AMC-MVs contain selected microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in inflammation. Two pools of cells, derived from 3 amniotic membranes each, and their respective MVs were collected. Small RNAs were extracted and deep sequenced, followed by miRNA in silico detection. The analysis identified 1,285 miRNAs, which were quantified both in AMCs and MVs. Among these miRNAs, 401 were classified as Equus caballus miRNAs, 257 were predicted by homology with other species (cow, sheep, and goat), and 627 were novel candidate miRNAs. Moreover, 146 miRNAs differentially expressed (DE) in AMCs and MVs were identified, 36 of which were known and the remaining were novel. Among the known DE miRNAs, 17 showed higher expression in MVs. Three of these were validated by real time polymerase chain reaction: eca-miR-26, eca-miR-146a, and eca-miR-223. Gene ontology analysis of validated targets showed that the DE miRNAs in cells and MVs could be involved both in immune system regulation by modulating interleukin signaling and in the inflammatory process. In conclusion, this study suggests a significant role of AMCs in modulating immune response through cell-cell communication via MV-shuttling miRNAs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) have been described as a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. MVs after internalization within target cells may deliver genetic information. Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and liver resident stem cells (HLSCs) were shown to release MVs shuttling functional mRNAs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MVs derived from MSCs and HLSCs contained selected micro-RNAs (miRNAs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MVs were isolated from MSCs and HLSCs. The presence in MVs of selected ribonucleoproteins involved in the traffic and stabilization of RNA was evaluated. We observed that MVs contained TIA, TIAR and HuR multifunctional proteins expressed in nuclei and stress granules, Stau1 and 2 implicated in the transport and stability of mRNA and Ago2 involved in miRNA transport and processing. RNA extracted from MVs and cells of origin was profiled for 365 known human mature miRNAs by real time PCR. Hierarchical clustering and similarity analysis of miRNAs showed 41 co-expressed miRNAs in MVs and cells. Some miRNAs were accumulated within MVs and absent in the cells after MV release; others were retained within the cells and not secreted in MVs. Gene ontology analysis of predicted and validated targets showed that the high expressed miRNAs in cells and MVs could be involved in multi-organ development, cell survival and differentiation. Few selected miRNAs shuttled by MVs were also associated with the immune system regulation. The highly expressed miRNAs in MVs were transferred to target cells after MV incorporation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MVs contained ribonucleoproteins involved in the intracellular traffic of RNA and selected pattern of miRNAs, suggesting a dynamic regulation of RNA compartmentalization in MVs. The observation that MV-highly expressed miRNAs were transferred to target cells, rises the possibility that the biological effect of stem cells may, at least in part, depend on MV-shuttled miRNAs. Data generated from this study, stimulate further functional investigations on the predicted target genes and pathways involved in the biological effect of human adult stem cells.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by developmental arrest, which is thought to arise from transcriptional dysregulation of myeloid development programs. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) isolated from human blood are frequently used as a normal comparator in AML studies. Previous studies have reported changes in the transcriptional program of genes involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and homing when HSPCs were expanded ex vivo. The intrinsic functional differences between quiescent and dividing CD34+ HSPCs prompted us to determine whether fresh or cytokine-induced cord blood-derived CD34+ HSPCs are a more appropriate normal control compared to AML blasts. Based on principal component analysis and gene expression profiling we demonstrate that CD34+ HSPCs that do not undergo ex vivo expansion are transcriptionally similar to minimally differentiated AML blasts. This was confirmed by comparing the cell cycle status of the AML blasts and the HSPCs. We suggest that freshly isolated CD34+ HSPCs that do not undergo ex vivo expansion would serve as a better control to identify novel transcriptional targets in the AML blast population.