Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.
ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.
Project description:We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.
Project description:Aiming at the assessment of the pro-health, and especially anti-hypochlorite properties of Moringa oleifera species a representative, commercially available Moringa oleifera dietary supplement was used as a substrate for the preparation of aqueous Moringa extract. The anti-hypochlorite activity of the extract was assessed using the hypochlorite-specific coumarin-based fluorescence turn-off sensor, namely 7-diethylamino-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-DCCA). This compound was synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-diethylamino-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with Meldrum's acid and the Moringa extract was employed as a medium and catalyst. Moreover, the total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability of the aqueous Moringa extract were determined. The results obtained demonstrated the applicability of Moringa extract as an anti-hypochlorite agent. Additionally, the satisfactory yield of the 7-DCCA obtained suggests the usefulness of the extract as a catalyst and the reaction medium. The antioxidative potential of the extract was notably lower than that of the standard (TROLOX). Determination of TPC in 100 g of the dry weight (DW) of studied material revealed a high number of polyphones present.
Project description:Moringa grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The genus Moringa belongs to family Moringaceae. It is found to possess various medicinal uses including hypoglycemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and the anticancer activity of the Moringa peregrina as well as Moringa oleifera leaves extracts grown locally in Egypt. Results indicated that most of the extracts were found to possess high antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungus. The survival rate of cancer cells was decreased in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines when treated with Moringa leaves extracts. In addition, the cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cancer-related genes confirmed its anticancer effect. The toxicity of each extract was also tested using the normal melanocytes cell line HFB4. The toxicity was low in both Moringa peregrina and Moringa oleifera leaves extracts. Furthermore, GC/MS analysis fractionized the phytochemicals content for each potential extract. In conclusion, results suggested that the Moringa peregrina and Moringa oleifera leaves extracts possess antimicrobial and anticancer properties which could be attributed to the bioactive phytochemical compounds present inside the extracts from this plant. These findings can be used to develop new drugs, especially for liver cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169?mg?GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094?mg?QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317?bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.
Project description:The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in diabetic group. However, the levels were decreased in Moringa-treated diabetic rats. Analysis of in-gel activity showed an increase in all complex activities in the diabetic group, but spectrophotometric determinations of complex II and IV activities were unaffected in this treatment. However, we found an oxygen consumption abolition through complex I-III-IV pathway in the diabetic group treated with Moringa. While respiration with succinate feeding into complex II-III-IV was increased in the diabetic group. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia modifies oxygen consumption, supercomplexes formation, and increases ROS levels in mitochondria from the liver of STZ-diabetic rats, whereas M. oleifera may have a protective role against some alterations.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of 2 methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera against strains of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) in vitro. Methods:The methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera were prepared in vitro. The antibacterial effect of the extracts against Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated using the agar diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxicity using the cellular line MDCK. Results:The methanolic extract with the most antibacterial effect during the first 24 and 48 hours against Enterococcus faecalis was Moringa oleifera, evidencing a growth inhibition zone of 35.5?±?1.05 and 44.83?±?0.98, respectively. The MIC for both extracts was 75?µg/ml. The bactericidal effect of the Azadirachta indica extract was found at a concentration of 25?µg/ml and a concentration of 75?µg/ml for Moringa extract. Conclusions:In conclusion, we demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera both have an antibacterial effect against Enterococcus faecalis strains during the first 24 and 48 hours. None of the extracts exhibited toxicity against the cell lines under low concentrations.
Project description:Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used as a treatment for many diseases. Recently, various therapeutic effects of M. oleifera such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated; however, most of these studies described only simple biological phenomena and their chemical compositions. Due to the increasing attention on natural products, such as those from plants, and the advantages of oral administration of anticancer drugs, soluble extracts from M. oleifera leaves (MOL) have been prepared and their potential as new anticancer drug candidates has been assessed in this study. Here, the soluble cold Distilled Water extract (4°C; concentration, 300 µg/mL) from MOL greatly induced apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the level of internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lung cancer cells as well as other several types of cancer cells, suggesting that the treatment of cancer cells with MOL significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, over 90% of the genes tested were unexpectedly downregulated more than 2-fold, while just below 1% of the genes were upregulated more than 2-fold in MOL extract-treated cells, when compared with nontreated cells. Since severe dose-dependent rRNA degradation was observed, the abnormal downregulation of numerous genes was considered to be attributable to abnormal RNA formation caused by treatment with MOL extracts. Additionally, the MOL extract showed greater cytotoxicity for tumor cells than for normal cells, strongly suggesting that it could potentially be an ideal anticancer therapeutic candidate specific to cancer cells. These results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the soluble extract from MOL in the treatment of various types of cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Moringa oleifera, also known as horseradish tree or drumstick tree, has strong antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of Moringa oleifera stem extract (MOSE) on cataract formation induced by oxidative stress in cultured mouse lenses. METHODS:Mouse lenses cultured in vitro were pretreated with MOSE (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h. Then, 1 mM hydrogen peroxide was added, and mouse lenses were cultured for a further 24 h. The medium was then changed to normal culture medium. After 48 h, lens opacification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in lens tissues. In addition, the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor with potential benefits to improve vision-threatening eye diseases, was assayed. RESULTS:MOSE (1 mg/mL) alleviated lens opacification, reduced ROS generation, increased GSH content, and elevated SOD and CAT activities in cultured lenses. Moreover, MOSE upregulated the expressions of SOD, CAT, and PPARα. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that MOSE alleviates oxidative stress-induced cataract formation, and the mechanism of the effect is mainly related to its improvement of the endogenous antioxidant system in the lens.
Project description:Background: Proteases cleave proteins, thereby providing essential amino acids for protein synthesis, and degrade misfolded and damaged proteins to maintain homeostasis. Proteases also serve as signaling molecules, therapeutic agents and find wide applications in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. Plant-derived proteases are suitable for many biomedical applications due to their easy availability and activity over a wide range of pH, temperature, and substrates. Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a very common food plant with medicinal property and geographically distributed in tropical countries. Here, we isolate proteases from the leaves of Moringa oleifera and characterize its enzymatic activity. Methods: Proteases were isolated from the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera by ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified by ion exchange chromatography. Subsequently, the enzyme kinetics was determined using casein as a substrate and calibrated over different pH and temperature range for maximal activity. Results: We obtained purified fraction of the protease having a molecular weight of 51 kDa. We observed that for the maximal caseinolytic activity of the protease, a pH of 8 and temperature of 37ºC was found to be most effective. Conclusion: The plant-derived proteolytic enzymes are finding increasing clinical and industrial applications. We could extract, purify and characterize the enzymatic activity of proteases from the leaves of Moringa oleifera. Further molecular characterization, substrate specificity and activity of the extracted protease are required for determining its suitability as a proteolytic enzyme for various applications.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the antibacterial and anticoagulant activity of Moringa (<i>Moringa oleifera</i>) seed extracts and coagulant protein for their potential application in water treatment. Pathogenic microorganisms were obtained from Ramachandra Hospital, Chennai, India. Bacterial cell aggregation and growth kinetics studies were employed for six bacterial strains with different concentrations of seed extracts and coagulant protein. Moringa seed extract and coagulant protein showed cell aggregation against six bacterial strains, whereas seed extract alone showed growth inhibition of all six bacterial strains for up to 6 h, compared to that of control. <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Salmonella para typhi</i> B did not develop resistance against coagulant protein. The results imply that <i>Moringa oleifera</i> is likely an efficient low-molecular bioactive peptide (with <7.5 kDa plant-based coagulant and antimicrobial peptides, confirmed by applying amino acid sequences), using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC, with the corresponding sequences from Napin-1A peptide posing different degrees of antibacterial activity against different pathogenic organisms.