Synergistic effect of bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus in combination with chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Gene therapy with adenoviral early region gene (E1A) may enhance the susceptibility of neoplastic cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death. Our previous study developed a urothelium-specific oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) with the uroplakin II (UPII) promoter controlling E1A expression. The present study investigated whether this urothelium-specific recombinant adenovirus (Ad5-UPII-E1A) enhanced mitomycin (MMC) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) sensitization and drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. The results of the MTT assay revealed that combination therapy, using Ad5-UPII-E1A and MMC or HCPT, synergistically inhibited the viability of bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when compared with either agent alone. When cells were treated with Ad5-UPII-E1A alone they arrested in the G1 phase, but cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed S phase arrest when treated with combined therapy. Treatment with MMC or HCPT enhanced Ad5-UPII-E1A-induced apoptosis in 5,637 cells, observed by transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis revealed that MMC and HCPT enhanced the E1A expression of the Ad5-UPII-E1A vectorin a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that Ad5-UPII-E1A combined with MMC or HCPT resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in a process which involved the promotion of apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines. MMC and HCPT also promoted the oncolytic effect of Ad5-UPII-E1A. Thus, treatment using Ad5-UPII-E1A combined with MMC or HCPT may be an attractive strategy for the sensitization of bladder cancer to chemotherapy.
Project description:Conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAds) display significant anti-tumor effects. However, the traditional adenovirus of serotype 5 (Ad5) entering cancer cells via coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) can't be utilized for bladder cancer with low expression of CAR, which limits the application of Ad5.We utilized Ad5/F11p containing the chimeric fiber gene encoding the Ad5 fiber tail domain and Ad11p fiber shaft and knob domains to construct bladder cancer-specific chimeric type viruses Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A, which can infect bladder cancer cells mediated by CD46 molecule. We carried out series of experiments in vitro to research anti-tumor effect of Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A and the interaction in combination with cisplatin.The results demonstrated Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A could infect bladder cancer cells (T24, EJ and 5637) in a CAR-independent way, and exert anti-tumor effect by blocking the cancer cells in G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin enhanced the anti-proliferative effect and increased the number of apoptotic cells compared with viruses or cisplatin alone. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin could upregulate the proteins expression of p53, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, and downregulated Bcl-2 protein expression in T24, EJ and 5637 cells.We constructed a bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus and provided new combination treatment strategies for bladder cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We have previously developed an oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) with chromogranin-A (CgA) promoter-controlled E1A expression, Ad[CgA-E1A], with the intention to treat neuroendocrine tumors, including carcinoids. Since carcinoids tend to metastasize to the liver it is important to fully repress viral replication in hepatocytes to avoid adenovirus-related liver toxicity. Herein, we explore miRNA-based regulation of E1A expression as a complementary mechanism to promoter-based transcriptional control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ad[CgA-E1A-miR122], where E1A expression is further controlled by six tandem repeats of the target sequence for the liver-specific miR122, was constructed and compared to Ad[CgA-E1A]. We observed E1A suppression and replication arrest of the miR122-detargeted adenovirus in normal hepatocytes, while the two viruses killed carcinoid cells to the same degree. Repeated intravenous injections of Ad[CgA-E1A] induced liver toxicity in mice while Ad[CgA-E1A-miR122] injections did not. Furthermore, a miR122-detargeted adenovirus with the wild-type E1A promoter showed reduced replication in hepatic cells compared to wild-type Ad5 but not to the same extent as the miR122-detargeted adenovirus with the neuroendocrine-selective CgA promoter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A combination of transcriptional (promoter) and post-transcriptional (miRNA target) regulation to control virus replication may allow for the use of higher doses of adenovirus for efficient tumors treatment without liver toxicity.
Project description:Oncolytic viruses represent an emerging approach to cancer therapy. However, better understanding of their interaction with the host cancer cell and approaches to enhance their efficacy are needed. Here, we investigate the effect of chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on the activity of the chimeric group B adenovirus Enadenotucirev, its closely related parental virus Ad11p, and the archetypal group C oncolytic adenovirus Ad5. We show that treatment of colorectal and ovarian cancer cell lines with thapsigargin or ionomycin caused an influx of Ca2+, leading to an upregulation in E1A transcript and protein levels. Increased E1A protein levels, in turn, increased levels of expression of the E2B viral DNA polymerase, genome replication, late viral protein expression, infectious virus particle production, and cell killing during Enadenotucirev and Ad11p, but not Ad5, infection. This effect was not due to the induction of ER stress, but rather the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and consequent increase in protein kinase C activity. These results underscore the importance of Ca2+ homeostasis during adenoviral infection, indicate a signaling pathway between protein kinase C and E1A, and raise the possibility of using Ca2+ flux-modulating agents in the manufacture and potentiation of oncolytic virotherapies.
Project description:Twenty-five patients with chemotherapy refractory cancer were treated with a fully serotype 3-based oncolytic adenovirus Ad3-hTERT-E1A. In mice, Ad3 induced higher amounts of cytokines but less liver damage than Ad5 or Ad5/3. In humans, the only grade 3 adverse reactions were self-limiting cytopenias and generally the safety profile resembled Ad5-based oncolytic viruses. Patients that had been previously treated with Ad5 viruses presented longer lasting lymphocytopenia but no median increase in Ad3-specific T-cells in blood, suggesting immunological activity against antigens other than Ad3 hexon. Frequent alterations in antitumor T-cells in blood were seen regardless of previous virus exposure. Neutralizing antibodies against Ad3 increased in all patients, whereas Ad5 neutralizing antibodies remained stable. Treatment with Ad3-hTERT-E1A resulted in re-emergence of Ad5 viruses from previous treatments into blood and vice versa. Signs of possible efficacy were seen in 11/15 (73%) patients evaluable for tumor markers, four of which were treated only intravenously. Particularly promising results were seen in breast cancer patients and especially those receiving concomitant trastuzumab. Taken together, Ad3-hTERT-E1A seems safe for further clinical testing or development of armed versions. It offers an immunologically attractive alternative, with possible pharmacodynamic differences and a different receptor compared to Ad5.
Project description:Studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses based on a 24 base pair deletion in the viral E1A gene (D24) may be promising therapeutics for treating a number of cancer types. In order to increase the therapeutic potential of these oncolytic viruses, a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus targeting multiple receptors upregulated on tumors was generated by incorporating an Ad5/3 fiber with a carboxyl terminus RGD ligand. The virus displayed full cytopathic effect in all tumor lines assayed at low titers with improved cytotoxicity over Ad5-RGD D24, Ad5/3 D24 and an HSV oncolytic virus. The virus was then engineered to deliver immunotherapeutic agents such as GM-CSF while maintaining enhanced heterogenic oncolysis.
Project description:Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder ranks fourth in incidence of all cancers in the developed world, yet the mechanisms of its origin and progression remain poorly understood. There are also few useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for this disease. We have combined a transgenic mouse model for invasive bladder cancer (UPII-SV40Tag mice) with DNA microarray technology to determine molecular mechanisms involved in early TCC development and to identify new biomarkers for detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of TCC. We have identified genes that are differentially expressed between the bladders of UPII-SV40Tag mice and their age-matched wild-type littermates at 3, 6, 20, and 30 weeks of age. These are ages that correspond to premalignant, carcinoma in situ, and early-stage and later stage invasive TCC, respectively. Our preliminary analysis of the microarray data sets has revealed approximately 1,900 unique genes differentially expressed (> or =3-fold difference at one or more time points) between wild-type and UPII-SV40Tag urothelium during the time course of tumor development. Among these, there were a high proportion of cell cycle regulatory genes and a proliferation signaling genes that are more strongly expressed in the UPII-SV40Tag bladder urothelium. We show that several of the genes upregulated in UPII-SV40Tag urothelium, including RacGAP1, PCNA, and Hmmr, are expressed at high levels in superficial bladder TCC patient samples. These findings provide insight into the earliest events in the development of bladder TCC as well as identify several promising early-stage biomarkers.
Project description:Oncolytic adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) have several shortcomings, including the downregulation of its receptor in cancer cells, high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies and hepatotoxicity. Another adenoviral serotype, Ad11, could overcome these obstacles. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines express higher levels of the Ad11 receptor CD46, resulting in much better infectivity than Ad5. Surprisingly, only 36% (9/25) of the cell lines were more sensitive to Ad11- than to Ad5-mediated cytotoxicity. Investigations revealed that it was the transcription of Ad11 E1A, not CD46 expression or virus infectivity, which determined the cell's sensitivity to Ad11 killing. Ad11 E1A mRNA levels have an effect on viral DNA replication, structural protein synthesis and infectious particle production. To test the hypothesis that increased E1A transcription would lead to improved Ad11 replication in Ad5-sensitive (but Ad11-less sensitive) cells, two Ad11 mutants (Ad11-Ad5-P and Ad11-Ad5-EP) were constructed where either the E1A promoter or enhancer-promoter, respectively, was replaced by that of Ad5. Ad11-Ad5-EP demonstrated increased E1A mRNA levels and replication, together with enhanced oncolytic potency in vitro and in vivo. This effect was found in both the Ad5-sensitive and Ad11-sensitive cancer cells, broadening the range of tumors that could be effectively killed by Ad11-Ad5-EP.
Project description:Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can trigger profound innate and adaptive immune responses, which have the potential both to potentiate and reduce the activity of OVs. Natural killer (NK) cells can mediate potent anti-viral and anti-tumoral responses, but there are no data on the role of NK cells in oncolytic adenovirus activity. Here, we have used two different oncolytic adenoviruses-the Ad5 E1A CR2-deletion mutant dl922-947 (group C) and the chimeric Ad3/Ad11p mutant enadenotucirev (group B)-to investigate the effect of NK cells on overall anti-cancer efficacy in ovarian cancer. Because human adenoviruses do not replicate in murine cells, we utilized primary human NK cells from peripheral blood and ovarian cancer ascites. Our results show that dl922-947 and enadenotucirev do not infect NK cells, but induce contact-dependent activation and anti-cancer cytotoxicity against adenovirus-infected ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, manipulation of NK receptors DNAM-1 (DNAX accessory molecule-1) and TIGIT (T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) significantly influences NK cytotoxicity against adenovirus-infected cells. Together, these results indicate that NK cells act to increase the activity of oncolytic adenovirus in ovarian cancer and suggest that strategies to augment NK activity further via the blockade of inhibitory NK receptor TIGIT could enhance therapeutic potential of OVs.
Project description:Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely and frequently used as a virus vector in cancer gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel antitumor treatment for inducing lytic cell death in tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Based on the Ad5 genome, we have generated three types of telomerase-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses: OBP-301 (Telomelysin), green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing OBP-401 (TelomeScan), and tumor suppressor p53-armed OBP-702. These viruses drive the expression of the adenoviral E1A and E1B genes under the control of the hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase-encoding gene) promoter, providing tumor-specific virus replication. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of three hTERT promoter-driven oncolytic adenoviruses against bone and soft-tissue sarcoma cells with telomerase activity. OBP-301 induces the antitumor effect in monotherapy or combination therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs via induction of autophagy and apoptosis. OBP-401 enables visualization of sarcoma cells within normal tissues by serving as a tumor-specific labeling reagent for fluorescence-guided surgery via induction of GFP expression. OBP-702 exhibits a profound antitumor effect in OBP-301-resistant sarcoma cells via activation of the p53 signaling pathway. Taken together, telomerase-specific oncolytic adenoviruses are promising antitumor reagents that are expected to provide novel therapeutic options for the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.
Project description:Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.