COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF d-PHENOTHRIN AND MALATHION IN THE CONTROL OF PEDICULOSIS.
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in a semi-urban community of Pune for estimating the prevalence of pediculosis (head lice) and evaluating the relative efficacy of d-phenothrin and malathion. A total of 729 subjects from the community and 126 school children were included in the study. A prevalence of 69 per cent in the community and 54 per cent in school children was found, d-phenothrin had a better pediculicidal (84%) and ovicidal (62%) activity as compared to malathion (82% pediculicidal and 40% ovicidal activity).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pediculosis caused by head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation is still an important health problem in schoolchildren, especially girls, worldwide, including in Thailand. Although pediculicidal agents effectively kill head lice, the re-infestation rate is still high. Thus, prevention is an important strategy for any sustainable control program. We aimed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a health education program for increasing knowledge, changing attitudes and promoting preventive practices to reduce prevalence of pediculosis among school girls in Amphoe Muang, Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.<h4>Methodology</h4>Six schools were selected using multistage simple randomization and were allocated into intervention or control groups. A total of 267 girls was enrolled from these schools. A "knowledge, attitude and practice" (KAP) questionnaire, consent forms and health education materials were constructed and tested by experts and in one pilot school before the main investigation. Baseline prevalence of adult lice and nits was determined. The health education package was given only to the intervention group. The KAP questionnaire was re-evaluated at two months after intervention.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, the prevalence and intensity of head lice infestation, and the KAP scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. After re-evaluation at two months, the KAP score was significantly greater in the intervention group. A significant decrease of the infestation rate from 59% to 44% was observed in the intervention group, whereas infestation increased in the control group (from 56% to 65%). The incidence of new cases in the intervention group (6.14%) was lower than in the control group (12.62%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings indicated that the newly-established health education package is an effective tool for increasing KAP and reducing head lice infestation in school girls. Efforts to combat pediculosis in schoolchildren elsewhere may consider including this, or a similar, health education package in their programs.
Project description:Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.
Project description:This study investigated the adsorption of malathion to copper and iron surfaces including microspheres and pipe specimens similar to those in drinking water infrastructure. The solid phase concentration of malathion on the virgin and used copper pipe specimens was generally between 0.2 - 1 mg/g. The adsorption capacity for copper and iron microspheres were greater than those of the pipe specimens because of their higher surface area-to-volume ratios. Copper materials adsorbed more malathion than comparable iron materials. XPS analysis of copper and iron surfaces revealed peaks at 164 eV (S 2p) and 135 eV (P 2p), which suggests that malathion chemically bonded to the surfaces of the specimens. Metal oxides likely formed stable bonds with phosphorus through pi conjugation. These findings are the first to show that malathion can chemically adhere to copper and iron pipe materials. This insight is critical for understanding the decontamination strategies needed for water networks.
Project description:This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 ?g/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 ?g O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities.
Project description:In this study, the use of Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and High Density Polystyrene (HDPS) was demonstrated as an alternative for the adsorption of Malathion. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms were used to compare three different adsorbent materials: PVC, HDPS, and activated carbon. The adsorption capacity of PVC was three times higher than activated carbon, and a theoretical value of 96.15 mg of Malathion could be adsorbed when using only 1 g of PVC. A pseudo first-order rate constant of 1.98 (1/h) was achieved according to Lagergren kinetic model. The adsorption rate and capacity values obtained in the present study are very promising since with very little adsorbent material it is possible to obtain high removal efficiencies. Phosphorous and sulfur elements were identified through Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and evidenced the malathion adsorption on PVC. The characteristic spectrum of malathion was identified by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy analysis. The Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) suggested that the adsorption of malathion on the surface of the polymers was mainly determined by hydrogen bonds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malathion 0.5% has been the most prescribed pediculicide in the United Kingdom for around 10 years, and is widely used in Europe and North America. Anecdotal reports suggest malathion treatments are less effective than formerly, but this has not been confirmed clinically. This study was designed to determine whether malathion is still effective and if 4% dimeticone lotion is a more effective treatment for head louse infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We designed this study as an assessor blinded, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial involving 58 children and 15 adults with active head louse infestation. Each participant received two applications 7 days apart of either 4% dimeticone lotion, applied for 8 hours or overnight, or 0.5% malathion liquid applied for 12 hours or overnight. All treatment and check-up visits were conducted in participants' homes. Cure of infestation was defined as no evidence of head lice after the second treatment. Some people were found free from lice but later reinfested. Worst case, intention to treat, analysis found dimeticone was significantly more effective than malathion, with 30/43 (69.8%) participants cured using dimeticone compared with 10/30 (33.3%) using malathion (p<0.01, difference 36.4%, 95% confidence interval 14.7% to 58.2%). Per protocol analysis showed cure rates of 30/39 (76.9%) and 10/29 (34.5%) respectively. Irritant reactions were observed in only two participants, both treated with malathion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:We concluded that, although malathion liquid is still effective for some people, dimeticone lotion offers a significantly more effective alternative treatment for most people. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN47755726.
Project description:High doses of malathion, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide ubiquitously used in agriculture, residential settings, and public health programs worldwide, induce a well-defined toxidrome that results from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, prenatal exposures to malathion levels that are below the threshold for AChE inhibition have been associated with increased risks of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability comorbidity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposures to a non-AChE-inhibiting dose of malathion are causally related to sex-biased cognitive deficits later in life in a precocial species. To this end, pregnant guinea pigs were injected subcutaneously with malathion (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 0.5 ml/kg) once daily between approximate gestational days 53 and 63. This malathion dose regimen caused no significant AChE inhibition in the brain or blood of dams and offspring and had no significant effect on the postnatal growth of the offspring. Around postnatal day 30, locomotor activity and habituation, a form of non-associative learning, were comparable between malathion- and peanut oil-exposed offspring. However, in the Morris water maze, malathion-exposed offspring presented significant sex-dependent spatial learning deficits in addition to memory impairments. These results are far-reaching as they indicate that: (i) malathion is a developmental neurotoxicant and (ii) AChE inhibition is not an adequate biomarker to derive safety limits of malathion exposures during gestation. Continued studies are necessary to identify the time and dose dependence of the developmental neurotoxicity of malathion and the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of this insecticide in the developing brain.
Project description:Phosphotriesterases (PTEs) have been isolated from a range of bacterial species, including Agrobcaterium radiobacter (PTEAr), and are efficient enzymes with broad substrate ranges. The turnover rate of PTEAr for the common organophosphorous insecticide malathion is lower than expected based on its physical properties; principally the pka of its leaving group. In this study, we rationalise the turnover rate of PTEAr for malathion using computational docking of the substrate into a high resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, suggesting that malathion is too large for the PTEAr binding pocket. Protein engineering through combinatorial active site saturation testing (CASTing) was then used to increase the rate of malathion turnover. Variants from a CASTing library in which Ser308 and Tyr309 were mutated yielded variants with increased activity towards malathion. The most active PTEAr variant carried Ser308Leu and Tyr309Ala substitutions, which resulted in a ca. 5000-fold increase in kcat/KM for malathion. X-ray crystal structures for the PTEAr Ser308Leu\Tyr309Ala variant demonstrate that the access to the binding pocket was enhanced by the replacement of the bulky Tyr309 residue with the smaller alanine residue.
Project description:Organophosphate pesticides are a major source of occupational exposure in the United States. Moreover, malathion has been sprayed over major urban populations in an effort to control mosquitoes carrying West Nile virus. Previous research, reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of malathion has been inconclusive, although malathion is a known endocrine disruptor. Here, interindividual variations and commonality of gene expression signatures have been studied in normal human mammary epithelial cells from four women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. The cell strains were obtained from the discarded tissues through the Cooperative Human Tissue Network (sponsors: National Cancer Institute and National Disease Research Interchange). Interindividual variation of gene expression patterns in response to malathion was observed in various clustering patterns for the four cell strains. Further clustering identified three genes with increased expression after treatment in all four cell strains. These genes were two aldo-keto reductases (AKR1C1 and AKR1C2) and an estrogen-responsive gene (EBBP). Decreased expression of six RNA species was seen at various time points in all cell strains analyzed: plasminogen activator (PLAT), centromere protein F (CPF), replication factor C (RFC3), thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), a putative mitotic checkpoint kinase (BUB1), and a gene of unknown function (GenBank accession no. AI859865). Expression changes in all these genes, detected by DNA microarrays, have been verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Differential changes in expression of these genes may yield biomarkers that provide insight into interindividual variation in malathion toxicity.
Project description:A carboxylesterase gene from thermophilic bacterium, Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The gene coded for a 513 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57.82 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence had structural features highly conserved among serine hydrolases, including Ser204, Glu325, and His415 as a catalytic triad, as well as type-B carboxylesterase serine active site (FGGDPENITIGGQSAG) and type-B carboxylesterase signature 2 (EDCLYLNIWTP). The purified enzyme exhibited optimum activity with β-naphthyl acetate at 60 °C and pH 7 as well as stability at 25 °C and pH 7. One unit of the enzyme hydrolyzed 5 mg malathion l(-1) by 50 % within 25 min and 89 % within 100 min. The enzyme strongly degraded malathion and has a potential use for the detoxification of malathion residues.