An analysis of the predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted after suicidal hanging to an Indian multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit.
ABSTRACT: Hanging is a frequently used method to attempt suicide in India. There is a lack of data in the Indian population regarding clinical features and outcomes of suicidal hanging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting mortality and morbidity in patients admitted with suicidal hanging to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).A 6-year retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the ICU with suicidal hanging was analysed for demographics, mode of hanging, lead time to emergency room (ER) admission, clinical presentation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and neurological outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU-LOS, time for neurological recovery, organ support and duration of mechanical ventilation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables.We analysed data of 106 patients. The median age was 27 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) (22-34)]. The median lead time to ER admission was 1 h [IQR (0.5-1.4)] with median ICU stay of 3 days [IQR (2-4)]. Vasopressors were administered to 27.4% patients. GCS was ≤7 in 65% patients, and 84.9% patients received mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 10.3%. Survivors recovered with normal organ function.Suicidal hanging is associated with significant mortality. Admission GCS, APACHE II and 48 h SOFA score were predictors of poor outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mortality rate in patients with severe liver dysfunction secondary to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) who do not respond to the standard treatment is exceptionally high. OBJECTIVES:The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of applying extracorporeal liver support techniques to treat this group of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The data from 23 hospital admissions of 21 patients with ALD who were admitted to the department of anesthesiology and intensive therapy (A&IT) at the Dr W?. Biega?ski Regional Specialist Hospital in ?ód? between March 2013 and July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 111 liver dialysis procedures were performed during the 23 hospitalizations, including 13 dialyses using fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) with the Prometheus® system, and 98 procedures using the single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) system. Upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), the median (interquartile range [IQR]) Glasgow coma scale (GCS), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II scores were 15 (14 - 15), 9 (7 - 13), 17 (14 - 24), and 32 (22 - 50), respectively. The ICU, 30-day, and three-month mortality rates were 43.48%, 39.13%, and 73.91%, respectively. As determined by the receiver operative characteristic (ROC) analysis for single-factor models, the significant predictors of death in the ICU included the patients' SOFA, APACHE II, SAPS II, and model of end-stage liver disease modified by the united network for organ sharing (MELD UNOS Modification) scores; the duration of stay (in days) in the A&IT Department; and bile acid, creatinine and albumin levels upon ICU admission. The ROC analysis indicated the significant discriminating power of the SOFA, APACHE II, SAPS II, and MELD UNOS modification scores on the three-month mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS:The application of extracorporeal liver support techniques in patients with severe liver dysfunction secondary to ALD appears justified in the subset of patients with MELD UNOS Modification scores of 18 - 30.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II), SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II) and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) scores compared to simpler models based on age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in predicting long-term outcome of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A national ICU database was screened for eligible TBI patients (age over 15 years, GCS 3-13) admitted in 2003-2012. Logistic regression was used for customization of APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA score-based models for six-month mortality prediction. These models were compared to an adjusted SOFA-based model (including age) and a reference model (age and GCS). Internal validation was performed by a randomized split-sample technique. Prognostic performance was determined by assessing discrimination, calibration and precision. RESULTS: In total, 1,625 patients were included. The overall six-month mortality was 33%. The APACHE II and SAPS II-based models showed good discrimination (area under the curve (AUC) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.82; and 0.80, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.83, respectively), calibration (P?>?0.05) and precision (Brier score 0.166 to 0.167). The SOFA-based model showed poor discrimination (AUC 0.68, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.72) and precision (Brier score 0.201) but good calibration (P?>?0.05). The AUC of the SOFA-based model was significantly improved after the insertion of age and GCS (?AUC +0.11, P?<?0.001). The performance of the reference model was comparable to the APACHE II and SAPS II in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.77; compared to APACHE II, ?AUC -0.02, P?=?0.425; compared to SAPS II, ?AUC -0.03, P?=?0.218), calibration (P?>?0.05) and precision (Brier score 0.181). CONCLUSIONS: A simple prognostic model, based only on age and GCS, displayed a fairly good prognostic performance in predicting six-month mortality of ICU-treated patients with TBI. The use of the more complex scoring systems APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA added little to the prognostic performance.
Project description:Purpose. The objectives were to describe the management and outcomes of acute leukemia (AL) patients admitted to the ICU and to identify predictors of ICU mortality. Methods. Data was retrospectively collected from the medical records of all patients with AML or ALL admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital ICU from August 2009 to December 2012. Results. 151 AL patients (117 AML, 34 ALL) were admitted to the ICU. Mean age was 54 (SD 15) years, median APACHE II score was 27 (IQR 22-33), and 50% were female. While in ICU, 128 (85%) patients had sepsis and 56 (37%) had ARDS. The majority of patients required invasive organ support: 94 (62%) required mechanical ventilation while 23 (15%) received renal replacement therapy. Multivariable analysis identified SOFA score (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38) and invasive ventilation (OR 9.64, 95% CI 3.39-27.4) as independent predictors of ICU mortality. Ninety-four (62%) patients survived to ICU discharge. Only 39% of these 94 patients discharged were alive 12 months after ICU admission. Conclusions. AL patients admitted to the ICU had a 62% ICU survival rate; yet only 25% of cohort patients were alive 12 months after ICU admission. Higher admission SOFA scores and invasive ventilation are independently associated with a greater risk of dying in the ICU.
Project description:Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate's area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p < 0.0001); the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple organ dysfunction is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs). Original development of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was not to predict outcome, but to describe temporal changes in organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. Organ dysfunction scoring may be a reasonable surrogate outcome in clinical trials but further exploration of the impact of case mix on the temporal sequence of organ dysfunction is required. Our aim was to compare temporal changes in SOFA scores between hospital survivors and non-survivors. METHODS:We performed a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2013, to 4 multisystem adult intensive care units (ICUs) in Calgary, Canada. The primary outcome was temporal changes in daily SOFA scores during the first 14?days of ICU admission. SOFA scores were modeled between hospital survivors and non-survivors using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and were also stratified by admission SOFA (??11 versus >?11). RESULTS:The cohort consisted of 20,007 patients with at least one SOFA score and was mostly male (58.2%) with a median age of 59 (interquartile range [IQR] 44-72). Median ICU length of stay was 3.5 (IQR 1.7-7.5) days. ICU and hospital mortality were 18.5% and 25.5%, respectively. Temporal change in SOFA scores varied by survival and admission SOFA score in a complicated relationship. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using admission SOFA as a predictor of hospital mortality was 0.77. The hospital mortality rate was 5.6% for patients with an admission SOFA of 0-2 and 94.4% with an admission SOFA of 20-24. There was an approximately linear increase in hospital mortality for SOFA scores of 3-19 (range 8.7-84.7%). CONCLUSIONS:Examining the clinical course of organ dysfunction in a large non-selective cohort of patients provides insight into the utility of SOFA. We have demonstrated that hospital outcome is associated with both admission SOFA and the temporal rate of change in SOFA after admission. It is necessary to further explore the impact of additional clinical factors on the clinical course of SOFA with large datasets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are many prognostic models and scoring systems in use to predict mortality in ICU patients. The only general ICU scoring system developed and validated for patients after cardiac surgery is the APACHE-IV model. This is, however, a labor-intensive scoring system requiring a lot of data and could therefore be prone to error. The SOFA score on the other hand is a simpler system, has been widely used in ICUs and could be a good alternative. The goal of the study was to compare the SOFA score with the APACHE-IV and other ICU prediction models. METHODS:We investigated, in a large cohort of cardiac surgery patients admitted to Dutch ICUs, how well the SOFA score from the first 24?h after admission, predict hospital and ICU mortality in comparison with other recalibrated general ICU scoring systems. Measures of discrimination, accuracy, and calibration (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Brier score, R2, and ?-statistic) were calculated using bootstrapping. The cohort consisted of 36,632 Patients from the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE) registry having had a cardiac surgery procedure for which ICU admission was necessary between January 1st, 2006 and June 31st, 2018. RESULTS:Discrimination of the SOFA-, APACHE-IV-, APACHE-II-, SAPS-II-, MPM24-II - models to predict hospital mortality was good with an AUC of respectively: 0.809, 0.851, 0.830, 0.850, 0.801. Discrimination of the SOFA-, APACHE-IV-, APACHE-II-, SAPS-II-, MPM24-II - models to predict ICU mortality was slightly better with AUCs of respectively: 0.809, 0.906, 0.892, 0.919, 0.862. Calibration of the models was generally poor. CONCLUSION:Although the SOFA score had a good discriminatory power for hospital- and ICU mortality the discriminatory power of the APACHE-IV and SAPS-II was better. The SOFA score should not be preferred as mortality prediction model above traditional prognostic ICU-models.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: To systematically review studies evaluating the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)-based models for predicting mortality in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for English-language articles with the major objective of evaluating the prognostic performance of SOFA-based models in predicting mortality in surgical and/or medical ICU admissions. The quality of each study was assessed based on a quality framework for prognostic models. RESULTS: Eighteen articles met all inclusion criteria. The studies differed widely in the SOFA derivatives used and in their methods of evaluation. Ten studies reported about developing a probabilistic prognostic model, only five of which used an independent validation data set. The other studies used the SOFA-based score directly to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors without fitting a probabilistic model. In five of the six studies, admission-based models (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II/III) were reported to have a slightly better discrimination ability than SOFA-based models at admission (the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SOFA-based models ranged between 0.61 and 0.88), and in one study a SOFA model had higher AUC than the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II model. Four of these studies used the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests for calibration, none of which reported a lack of fit for the SOFA models. Models based on sequential SOFA scores were described in 11 studies including maximum SOFA scores and maximum sum of individual components of the SOFA score (AUC range: 0.69 to 0.92) and delta SOFA (AUC range: 0.51 to 0.83). Studies comparing SOFA with other organ failure scores did not consistently show superiority of one scoring system to another. Four studies combined SOFA-based derivatives with admission severity of illness scores, and they all reported on improved predictions for the combination. Quality of studies ranged from 11.5 to 19.5 points on a 20-point scale. CONCLUSIONS: Models based on SOFA scores at admission had only slightly worse performance than APACHE II/III and were competitive with SAPS II models in predicting mortality in patients in the general medical and/or surgical ICU. Models with sequential SOFA scores seem to have a comparable performance with other organ failure scores. The combination of sequential SOFA derivatives with APACHE II/III and SAPS II models clearly improved prognostic performance of either model alone. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, it is impossible to draw general conclusions on the optimal mathematical model and optimal derivatives of SOFA scores. Future studies should use a standard evaluation methodology with a standard set of outcome measures covering discrimination, calibration and accuracy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The clinical course of COVID-19 critically ill patients, during their admission in the intensive care unit (UCI), including medical and infectious complications and support therapies, as well as their association with in-ICU mortality has not been fully reported. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and clinical course of ICU COVID-19 patients, and to determine risk factors for ICU mortality of COVID-19 patients. METHODS:Prospective, multicentre, cohort study that enrolled critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted into 30 ICUs from Spain and Andorra. Consecutive patients from March 12th to May 26th, 2020 were enrolled if they had died or were discharged from ICU during the study period. Demographics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory markers, supportive therapies, pharmacological treatments, medical and infectious complications were reported and compared between deceased and discharged patients. RESULTS:A total of 663 patients were included. Overall ICU mortality was 31% (203 patients). At ICU admission non-survivors were more hypoxemic [SpO2 with non-rebreather mask, 90 (IQR 83 to 93) vs. 91 (IQR 87 to 94); P<.001] and with higher sequential organ failure assessment score [SOFA, 7 (IQR 5 to 9) vs. 4 (IQR 3 to 7); P<.001]. Complications were more frequent in non-survivors: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95% vs. 89%; P=.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs. 24%; P<10-16), shock (42% vs. 14%; P<10-13), and arrhythmias (24% vs. 11%; P<10-4). Respiratory super-infection, bloodstream infection and septic shock were higher in non-survivors (33% vs. 25%; P=.03, 33% vs. 23%; P=.01 and 15% vs. 3%, P=10-7), respectively. The multivariable regression model showed that age was associated with mortality, with every year increasing risk-of-death by 1% (95%CI: 1 to 10, P=.014). Each 5-point increase in APACHE II independently predicted mortality [OR: 1.508 (1.081, 2.104), P=.015]. Patients with AKI [OR: 2.468 (1.628, 3.741), P<10-4)], cardiac arrest [OR: 11.099 (3.389, 36.353), P=.0001], and septic shock [OR: 3.224 (1.486, 6.994), P=.002] had an increased risk-of-death. CONCLUSIONS:Older COVID-19 patients with higher APACHE II scores on admission, those who developed AKI grades ii or iii and/or septic shock during ICU stay had an increased risk-of-death. ICU mortality was 31%.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> The clinical course of COVID-19 critically ill patients, during their admission in the intensive care unit (UCI), including medical and infectious complications and support therapies, as well as their association with in-ICU mortality has not been fully reported. <h4>Objective</h4> This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and clinical course of ICU COVID-19 patients, and to determine risk factors for ICU mortality of COVID-19 patients. <h4>Methods</h4> Prospective, multicentre, cohort study that enrolled critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted into 30 ICUs from Spain and Andorra. Consecutive patients from March 12th to May 26th, 2020 were enrolled if they had died or were discharged from ICU during the study period. Demographics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory markers, supportive therapies, pharmacological treatments, medical and infectious complications were reported and compared between deceased and discharged patients. <h4>Results</h4> A total of 663 patients were included. Overall ICU mortality was 31% (203 patients). At ICU admission non-survivors were more hypoxemic [SpO2 with non-rebreather mask, 90 (IQR 83–93) vs 91 (IQR 87–94); p < 0.001] and with higher sequential organ failure assessment score [SOFA, 7 (IQR 5–9) vs 4 (IQR 3–7); p < 0.001]. Complications were more frequent in non-survivors: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95% vs 89%; p = 0.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs 24%; p < 10−16), shock (42% vs 14%; p < 10−13), and arrhythmias (24% vs 11%; p < 10−4). Respiratory super-infection, bloodstream infection and septic shock were higher in non-survivors (33% vs 25%; p = 0.03, 33% vs 23%; p = 0.01 and 15% vs 3%, p = 10−7), respectively. The multivariable regression model showed that age was associated with mortality, with every year increasing risk-of-death by 1% (95%CI: 1–10, p = 0.014). Each 5-point increase in APACHE II independently predicted mortality [OR: 1.508 (1.081, 2.104), p = 0.015]. Patients with AKI [OR: 2.468 (1.628, 3.741), p < 10−4)], cardiac arrest [OR: 11.099 (3.389, 36.353), p = 0.0001], and septic shock [OR: 3.224 (1.486, 6.994), p = 0.002] had an increased risk-of-death. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Older COVID-19 patients with higher APACHE II scores on admission, those who developed AKI grades II or III and/or septic shock during ICU stay had an increased risk-of-death. ICU mortality was 31%.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study investigated the outcomes of antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) based on mortality and the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogen occurrence in patients with culture-negative pneumonia presenting with sepsis and septic shock.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and possessing negative microbiological culture results at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea from March 2008 to July 2018.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 107 patients with culture-negative pneumonia. The Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) mean scores were 20.3?±?8.6 and 9.6?±?3.3, respectively. Among the patients, 40 (37.4%) underwent ADE. The APACHE II, SOFA, and follow-up SOFA scores did not differ significantly between the groups, and no differences were found in ICU mortality and MDR pathogen occurrence (27.5% vs 41.8%, P?=?.137 and 15.0% vs 16.9% P?=?.794, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We observed similar ICU mortality and MDR pathogen occurrence in patients with culture-negative pneumonia presenting with sepsis/shock regardless of whether they received ADE. Additionally, ADE lowered the antimicrobial burden.