S1PR1 (Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1) Signaling Regulates Blood Flow and Pressure.
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is one of the major endothelial-derived vasoactive factors that regulate blood pressure (BP), and the bioactive lipid mediator S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) is a potent activator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase through G protein-coupled receptors. Endothelial-derived S1P and the autocrine/paracrine activation of S1PR (S1P receptors) play an important role in preserving vascular functions and BP homeostasis. Furthermore, FTY720 (fingolimod), binding to 4 out of 5 S1PRs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat autoimmune conditions, induces a modest and transient decrease in heart rate in both animals and humans, suggesting that drugs targeting sphingolipid signaling affect cardiovascular functions in vivo. However, the role of specific S1P receptors in BP homeostasis remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the role of the key vascular S1P receptors, namely, S1PR1 and S1PR3, in BP regulation in physiological and hypertensive conditions. The specific loss of endothelial S1PR1 decreases basal and stimulated endothelial-derived nitric oxide and resets BP to a higher-than-normal value. Interestingly, we identified a novel and important role for S1PR1 signaling in flow-mediated mechanotransduction. FTY720, acting as functional antagonist of S1PR1, markedly decreases endothelial S1PR1, increases BP in control mice, and exacerbates hypertension in angiotensin II mouse model, underlining the antihypertensive functions of S1PR1 signaling. Our study identifies S1P-S1PR1-nitric oxide signaling as a new regulatory pathway in vivo of vascular relaxation to flow and BP homeostasis, providing a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.
Project description:The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P?), an abundantly-expressed G protein-coupled receptor which regulates key vascular and immune responses, is a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases. Fingolimod/Gilenya (FTY720), an oral medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, targets S1P? receptors on immune and neural cells to suppress neuroinflammation. However, suppression of endothelial S1P? receptors is associated with cardiac and vascular adverse effects. Here we report the genetic variations of the S1P? coding region from exon sequencing of >12,000 individuals and their functional consequences. We conducted functional analyses of 14 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the S1PR1 gene. One SNP mutant (Arg¹²? to Pro) failed to transmit sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced intracellular signals such as calcium increase and activation of p44/42 MAPK and Akt. Two other mutants (Ile?? to Thr and Gly³?? to Cys) showed normal intracellular signals but impaired S1P-induced endocytosis, which made the receptor resistant to FTY720-induced degradation. Another SNP mutant (Arg¹³ to Gly) demonstrated protection from coronary artery disease in a high cardiovascular risk population. Individuals with this mutation showed a significantly lower percentage of multi-vessel coronary obstruction in a risk factor-matched case-control study. This study suggests that individual genetic variations of S1P? can influence receptor function and, therefore, infer differential disease risks and interaction with S1P?-targeted therapeutics.
Project description:The development of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We now report that bortezomib causes the dysregulation of de novo sphingolipid metabolism in the spinal cord dorsal horn to increase the levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) ligands, S1P and dihydro-S1P. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological disruption of S1PR1 with multiple S1PR1 antagonists, including FTY720, blocked and reversed neuropathic pain. Mice with astrocyte-specific alterations of S1pr1 did not develop neuropathic pain and lost their ability to respond to S1PR1 inhibition, strongly implicating astrocytes as a primary cellular substrate for S1PR1 activity. At the molecular level, S1PR1 engaged astrocyte-driven neuroinflammation and altered glutamatergic homeostasis, processes blocked by S1PR1 antagonism. Our findings establish S1PR1 as a target for therapeutic intervention and provide insight into cellular and molecular pathways. As FTY720 also shows promising anticancer potential and is FDA approved, rapid clinical translation of our findings is anticipated.
Project description:We have demonstrated that simvastatin and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) both attenuate increased vascular permeability in preclinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. As Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) serves as a critical regulator for cellular stress response in endothelial cells (EC), we hypothesized that simvastatin enhances endothelial barrier function via increasing expression of the barrier-promoting S1P receptor, S1PR1, via a KLF2-dependent mechanism. S1PR1 luciferase reporter promoter activity in human lung artery EC (HPAEC) was tested after simvastatin (5??M), and S1PR1 and KLF2 protein expression detected by immunoblotting. In vivo, transcription and expression of S1PR1 and KLF2 in mice lungs were detected by microarray profiling and immunoblotting after exposure to simvastatin (10?mg/kg). Endothelial barrier function was measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance with the S1PR1 agonist FTY720-(S)-phosphonate. Both S1PR1 and KLF2 gene expression (mRNA, protein) were significantly increased by simvastatin in vitro and in vivo. S1PR1 promoter activity was significantly increased by simvastatin (P?<?0.05), which was significantly attenuated by KLF2 silencing (siRNA). Simvastatin induced KLF2 recruitment to the S1PR1 promoter, and consequently, significantly augmented the effects of the S1PR1 agonist on EC barrier enhancement (P?<?0.05), which was significantly attenuated by KLF2 silencing (P?<?0.05). These results suggest that simvastatin upregulates S1PR1 transcription and expression via the transcription factor KLF2, and consequently augments the effects of S1PR1 agonists on preserving vascular barrier integrity. These results may lead to novel combinatorial therapeutic strategies for lung inflammatory syndromes.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that acts through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) and plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response. Our previous studies demonstrated that rat sensory neurons express the mRNAs for all five S1PRs and that S1P increases neuronal excitability primarily, but not exclusively, through S1PR1. This raises the question as to which other S1PRs mediate the enhanced excitability.Isolated sensory neurons were treated with either short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or a variety of pharmacological agents targeted to S1PR1/R2/R3 to determine the role(s) of these receptors in regulating neuronal excitability. The excitability of isolated sensory neurons was assessed by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording to measure the capacity of these cells to fire action potentials (APs).After siRNA treatment, exposure to S1P failed to augment the excitability. Pooled siRNA targeted to S1PR1 and R3 also blocked the enhanced excitability produced by S1P. Consistent with the siRNA results, pretreatment with W146 and CAY10444, selective antagonists for S1PR1 and S1PR3, respectively, prevented the S1P-induced increase in neuronal excitability. Similarly, S1P failed to augment excitability after pretreatment with either VPC 23019, which is a S1PR1 and R3 antagonist, or VPC 44116, the phosphonate analog of VPC 23019. Acute exposure (10 to 15 min) to either of the well-established functional antagonists, FTY720 or CYM-5442, produced a significant increase in the excitability. Moreover, after a 1-h pretreatment with FTY720 (an agonist for S1PR1/R3/R4/R5), neither SEW2871 (S1PR1 selective agonist) nor S1P augmented the excitability. However, after pretreatment with CYM-5442 (selective for S1PR1), SEW2871 was ineffective, but S1P increased the excitability of some, but not all, sensory neurons.These results demonstrate that the enhanced excitability produced by S1P is mediated by activation of S1PR1 and/or S1PR3.
Project description:The immunomodulatory prodrug 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol (FTY720), which acts as an agonist for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1PR) when phosphorylated, is proposed as a novel pain therapeutic. In this study, we assessed FTY720-mediated antinociception in the radiant heat tail-flick test and in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in mice. FTY720 produced antinociception and antiallodynia, respectively, and these effects were dose-dependent and mimicked by the S1PR1-selective agonist CYM-5442. Repeated administration of FTY720 for 1 week produced tolerance to acute thermal antinociception, but not to antiallodynia in the CCI model. S1PR-stimulated [35S]GTP?S autoradiography revealed apparent desensitization of G protein activation by S1P or the S1PR1 agonist 5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-thienyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole (SEW-2871) throughout the brain. Similar results were seen in spinal cord membranes, whereby the Emax value of S1PR-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding was greatly reduced in repeated FTY720-treated mice. These results suggest that S1PR1 is a primary target of FTY720 in alleviating both acute thermal nociception and chronic neuropathic nociception. Furthermore, the finding that tolerance develops to antinociception in the tail-flick test but not in chronic neuropathic pain suggests a differential mechanism of FTY720 action between these models. The observation that repeated FTY720 administration led to desensitized S1PR1 signaling throughout the central nervous system suggests the possibility that S1PR1 activation drives the acute thermal antinociceptive effects, whereas S1PR1 desensitization mediates the following: 1) tolerance to thermal antinociceptive actions of FTY720 and 2) the persistent antiallodynic effects of FTY720 in neuropathic pain by producing functional antagonism of pronociceptive S1PR1 signaling.
Project description:At the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Recently, we showed that signaling through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sphingolipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) rapidly and reversibly reduced basal P-glycoprotein transport activity in the rat blood-brain barrier. The present study extends those findings to the mouse blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers and, importantly, identifies multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) as the transporter that mediates S1P efflux from brain and spinal cord endothelial cells. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from wild-type mice, TNF-α, sphingosine, S1P, the S1PR agonist fingolimod (FTY720), and its active, phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720P, reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity; these effects were abolished by a specific S1PR1 antagonist. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from Mrp1-null mice, neither TNF-α nor sphingosine nor FTY720 reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity. However, S1P and FTY720P had the same S1PR1-dependent effects on transport activity as in capillaries from wild-type mice. Thus, deletion of Mrp1 alone terminated endogenous signaling to S1PR1. These results identify Mrp1 as the transporter essential for S1P efflux from the endothelial cells and thus for inside-out S1P signaling to P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.
Project description:Effective therapeutic agents are lacking for the prevention and reversal of vascular leak, a frequent pathophysiologic result of inflammatory processes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. We previously demonstrated the potent barrier-enhancing effects of related compounds sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the pharmaceutical agent FTY720, and its analog (S)-FTY720 phosphonate (Tys) in models of inflammatory lung injury. In this study, we characterize additional novel FTY720 analogs for their potential to reduce vascular leak as well as utilize them as tools to better understand the mechanisms by which this class of agents modulates permeability. Transendothelial resistance (TER) and labeled dextran studies demonstrate that (R)-methoxy-FTY720 ((R)-OMe-FTY), (R)/(S)-fluoro-FTY720 (FTY-F), and ?-glucuronide-FTY720 (FTY-G) compounds display in vitro barrier-enhancing properties comparable or superior to FTY720 and S1P. In contrast, the (S)-methoxy-FTY720 ((S)-OMe-FTY) analog disrupts lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity in TER studies in association with actin stress fiber formation and robust intracellular calcium release, but independent of myosin light chain or ERK phosphorylation. Additional mechanistic studies with (R)-OMe-FTY, FTY-F, and FTY-G suggest that lung EC barrier enhancement is mediated through lipid raft signaling, Gi-linked receptor coupling to downstream tyrosine phosphorylation events, and S1PR1-dependent receptor ligation. These results provide important mechanistic insights into modulation of pulmonary vascular barrier function by FTY720-related compounds and highlight common signaling events that may assist the development of novel therapeutic tools in the prevention or reversal of the pulmonary vascular leak that characterizes ARDS.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates various molecular and cellular events in cultured endothelial cells, such as cytoskeletal restructuring, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and intercellular junction interactions. We utilized the venular leakage model of the cremaster muscle vascular bed in Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of S1P signaling in regulation of microvascular permeability. S1P signaling is mediated by the S1P family of G protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1-5) receptors). S1P(1) and S1P(2) receptors, which transduce stimulatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively, are expressed in the endothelium of the cremaster muscle vasculature. S1P administration alone via the carotid artery was unable to protect against histamine-induced venular leakage of the cremaster muscle vascular bed in Sprague-Dawley rats. However, activation of S1P(1)-mediated signaling by SEW2871 and FTY720, two agonists of S1P(1), significantly inhibited histamine-induced microvascular leakage. Treatment with VPC 23019 to antagonize S1P(1)-regulated signaling greatly potentiated histamine-induced venular leakage. After inhibition of S1P(2) signaling by JTE-013, a specific antagonist of S1P(2), S1P was able to protect microvascular permeability in vivo. Moreover, endothelial tight junctions and barrier function were regulated by S1P(1)- and S1P(2)-mediated signaling in a concerted manner in cultured endothelial cells. These data suggest that the balance between S1P(1) and S1P(2) signaling regulates the homeostasis of microvascular permeability in the peripheral circulation and, thus, may affect total peripheral vascular resistance.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) not only regulates angiogenesis, vascular permeability and vascular tone, but it also promotes vascular inflammation. However, the molecular basis for the proinflammatory effects of S1P is not understood. We now show that S1P activates endothelial cell exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, releasing vasoactive substances capable of causing vascular thrombosis and inflammation. S1P triggers endothelial exocytosis in part through phospholipase C-gamma signal transduction. However, S1P also modulates endothelial cell exocytosis by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase production of nitric oxide, which inhibits exocytosis. Thus S1P plays a dual role in regulating endothelial exocytosis, triggering pathways that both promote and inhibit endothelial exocytosis. Regulation of endothelial exocytosis may explain part of the proinflammatory effects of S1P.