Project description:Microtissues containing multiple cell types have been used in both in vitro models and in vivo tissue repair applications. However, to improve throughput, there is a need to develop a platform that supports self-assembly of a large number of 3D microtissues containing multiple cell types in a dynamic suspension system. Thus, the objective of this study was to exploit the binding interaction between the negatively charged glycosaminoglycan, heparin, and a known heparin binding peptide to establish a method that promotes assembly of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) spheroids into larger aggregates. We characterized heparin binding peptide (HEPpep) and heparin coatings on cell surfaces and determined the specificity of these coatings in promoting assembly of MSC spheroids in dynamic culture. Overall, combining spheroids with both coatings promoted up to 70 ± 11% of spheroids to assemble into multiaggregate structures, as compared to only 10 ± 4% assembly when cells having the heparin coating were cultured with cells coated with a scrambled peptide. These results suggest that this self-assembly method represents an exciting approach that may be applicable for a wide range of applications in which cell aggregation is desired.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells therapies have the potential to treat many pathologies, however, controlling cell fate after implantation remains challenging. We have used a multilayer technology to graft a range of 5 ?g/mL - 5 mg/mL heparin onto the surface of MSC aggregates. Heparin coating does not affect cell viability (seen through LIVE/DEAD staining), cell anti-inflammatory properties (seen through co-culture with activated monocytes)and facilitates sequestration by coated cells of a growth factor (TGF-?1) that remains bioactive. This system can maximize therapeutic potential of MSC-based treatments because the cell surface-loaded protein could both signal to the cells to influence transplanted cell fate and be released into the surrounding environment to help repair injured tissue.
Project description:A pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles comprising filamentous aggregates of the microtubule associated protein tau. Tau self-assembly is accelerated by polyanions including heparin, an analogue of heparan sulfate. Tau filaments colocalize with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in vivo, and HSPGs may also assist the transcellular propagation of tau aggregates. Here, we investigate the role of the sulfate moieties of heparin in the aggregation of a recombinant tau fragment ?tau187, comprising residues 255-441 of the C-terminal microtubule-binding domain. The effects that the selective removal of the N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfate groups from heparin have on the kinetics of tau aggregation, aggregate morphology, and protein structure and dynamics were examined. Aggregation kinetics monitored by thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence revealed that aggregation is considerably slower in the presence of 2-O-desulfated heparin than with N- or 6-O-desulfated heparin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that tau filaments induced by 2-O-desulfated heparin were more slender than filaments formed in the presence of intact heparin or 6-O-desulfated heparin. The 2-O-desulfated heparin-induced filaments had more extensive regions of flexibility than the other filaments, according to circular dichroism and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. These results indicate that the sulfation pattern of heparin regulates tau aggregation, not purely though electrostatic forces but also through conformational perturbations of heparin when the 2-O-sulfate is removed. These findings may have implications for the progression of AD, as the sulfation pattern of GAGs is known to change during the aging process, which is the main risk factor for the disease.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs) interact with a number of extracellular signaling proteins, thereby playing an essential role in the regulation of many physiological processes. One major function of HS is to interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) and form FGF.HS.FGFR signaling complexes. Past studies primarily examined the selectivity of HS for FGF or FGFR. In this report, we used a new strategy to study the structural specificity of HS binding to 10 different FGF.FGFR complexes. Oligosaccharide libraries prepared from heparin, 6-desulfated heparin, and HS were used for the interaction studies by solution competition surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and filter trapping assays. Specific oligosaccharides binding to FGF.FGFR complexes were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The competition SPR studies using sized oligosaccharide mixtures showed that binding of each of the tested FGFs or FGF.FGFR complexes to heparin immobilized to an SPR chip was size-dependent. The 6-desulfated heparin oligosaccharides exhibited a reduced level of inhibition of FGF and FGF.FGFR complex binding to heparin in the competition experiments. Heparin and the 6-desulfated heparin exhibited higher levels of inhibition of the FGF.FGFR complex binding to heparin than of FGF binding to heparin. In the filter trapping experiments, PAGE analysis showed different affinities between the FGF.FGFR complexes and oligosaccharides. Disaccharide analysis showed that HS disaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 10 (dp10) had high binding selectivity, while dp10 heparin and dp10 6-desulfated heparin showed reduced or no selectivity for the different FGF.FGFR complexes tested.
Project description:This study was designed to develop and characterize a silica-coating method for crystalline nonsilicate ceramic nanoparticles (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, TiO<sub>2</sub>, and ZrO<sub>2</sub>). The hypothesis was that the coated nonsilicate nanoparticles would stably reinforce a polymeric matrix due to effective silanation. Silica coating was applied via a sol-gel method, with tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor, followed by heat treatment. The chemical and microstructural characteristics of the nanopowders were evaluated before and after silica coating through x-ray diffraction, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Coated and noncoated nanoparticles were silanated before preparation of hybrid composites, which contained glass microparticles in addition to the nanoparticles. The composites were mechanically tested in 4-point bending mode after aging (10,000 thermal cycles). Results of all chemical and microstructural analyses confirmed the successful obtaining of silica-coated nanoparticles. Two distinct aspects were observed depending on the type of nanoparticle tested: 1) formation of a silica shell on the surface of the particles and 2) nanoparticle clusters embedded into a silica matrix. The aged hybrid composites formulated with the coated nanoparticles showed improved flexural strength (10% to 30% higher) and work of fracture (35% to 40% higher) as compared with composites formulated with noncoated nanoparticles. The tested hypothesis was confirmed: silanated silica-coated nonsilicate nanoparticles yielded stable reinforcement of dimethacrylate polymeric matrix due to effective silanation. The silica-coating method presented here is a versatile and promising novel strategy for the use of crystalline nonsilicate ceramics as a reinforcing phase of polymeric composite biomaterials.
Project description:Tau aggregates into paired helical filaments within neurons, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Heparin promotes tau aggregation and recently has been shown to be involved in the cellular uptake of tau aggregates. Although the tau-heparin interaction has been extensively studied, little is known about the glycan determinants of this interaction. Here, we used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and NMR spectroscopy to characterize the interaction between two tau fragments, K18 and K19, and several polysaccharides, including heparin, heparin oligosaccharides, chemically modified heparin, and related glycans. Using a heparin-immobilized chip, SPR revealed that tau K18 and K19 bind heparin with a KD of 0.2 and 70 ?M, respectively. In SPR competition experiments, N-desulfation and 2-O-desulfation had no effect on heparin binding to K18, whereas 6-O-desulfation severely reduced binding, suggesting a critical role for 6-O-sulfation in the tau-heparin interaction. The tau-heparin interaction became stronger with longer-chain heparin oligosaccharides. As expected for an electrostatics-driven interaction, a moderate amount of salt (0.3 M NaCl) abolished binding. NMR showed the largest chemical-shift perturbation (CSP) in R2 in tau K18, which was absent in K19, revealing differential binding sites in K18 and K19 to heparin. Dermatan sulfate binding produced minimal CSP, whereas dermatan disulfate, with the additional 6-O-sulfo group, induced much larger CSP. 2-O-desulfated heparin induced much larger CSP in K18 than 6-O-desulfated heparin. Our data demonstrate a crucial role for the 6-O-sulfo group in the tau-heparin interaction, which to our knowledge has not been reported before.
Project description:Syndecans, a family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, regulate cell differentiation via binding of their heparan sulfate chains to growth factors and cytokines and play a role in tumor growth and progression, wound repair, and intestinal mucosal damage. However, the functional and mechanistic roles of syndecans in osteoclast differentiation and bone metabolism are yet unclear. Here, we demonstrated that post-translationally glycosylated ectodomains of syndecan-1 to 4 obtained from mammalian cells efficiently suppressed osteoclast differentiation compared to those obtained from Escherichia coli with no systems for glycosylation. A concomitant decrease in the expression of osteoclast markers such as nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, and ATP6V0D2 was observed. In addition, heparan sulfate and selectively N-desulfated heparin derivatives with 2-O- and 6-O-sulfate groups and no anticoagulant activity in blood inhibited osteoclast differentiation. The inhibitory effects of syndecan ectodomains, heparan sulfate, and N-desulfated heparin derivatives on osteoclast differentiation were attributed to their direct binding to the macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), resulting in the blocking of M-CSF-mediated downstream signals such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and Akt. Furthermore, mice injected with syndecan ectodomains, heparan sulfate, and N-desulfated heparin derivatives into periosteal regions of calvaria showed reduction in the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive mature osteoclasts on the calvarial bone surface, thereby exhibiting decreased bone resorption. Together, these results revealed a novel role of heparan sulfate chains of syndecan ectodomains in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation.
Project description:High-density mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) aggregates can be guided to form bone-like tissue via endochondral ossification in vitro when culture media is supplemented with proteins, such as growth factors (GFs), to first guide the formation of a cartilage template, followed by culture with hypertrophic factors. Recent reports have recapitulated these results through the controlled spatiotemporal delivery of chondrogenic transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and chondrogenic and osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from microparticles embedded within human MSC aggregates to avoid diffusion limitations and the lengthy, costly in vitro culture necessary with repeat exogenous supplementation. However, since GFs have limited stability, localized gene delivery is a promising alternative to the use of proteins. Here, mineral-coated hydroxyapatite microparticles (MCM) capable of localized delivery of Lipofectamine-plasmid DNA (pDNA) nanocomplexes encoding for TGF-?1 (pTGF-?1) and BMP-2 (pBMP-2) were incorporated, alone or in combination, within MSC aggregates from three healthy porcine donors to induce sustained production of these transgenes. Three donor populations were investigated in this work due to the noted MSC donor-to-donor variability in differentiation capacity documented in the literature. Delivery of pBMP-2 within Donor 1 aggregates promoted chondrogenesis at week 2, followed by an enhanced osteogenic phenotype at week 4. Donor 2 and 3 aggregates did not promote robust glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production at week 2, but by week 4, Donor 2 aggregates with pTGF-?1/pBMP-2 and Donor 3 aggregates with both unloaded MCM and pBMP-2 enhanced osteogenesis compared to controls. These results demonstrate the ability to promote osteogenesis in stem cell aggregates through controlled, non-viral gene delivery within the cell masses. These findings also indicate the need to screen donor MSC regenerative potential in response to gene transfer prior to clinical application. Taken together, this work demonstrates a promising gene therapy approach to control stem cell fate in biomimetic 3D condensations for treatment of bone defects.
Project description:Complement factor H (CFH) is the major regulator of the central complement protein C3b in the alternative pathway of complement activation. A molecular view of the CFH interaction with native heparan sulfate (HS) is central for understanding the mechanism of how surface-bound CFH interacts with C3b bound to host cell surfaces. HS is composed of sulfated heparin-like S-regions that alternate with desulfated NA-regions. Solution structural studies of heparin (equivalent to the S-regions) and desulfated HS (the NA-regions) by scattering and ultracentrifugation showed that each structure was mostly extended and partially bent, but with greater bending and flexibility in the NA-regions compared to the S-regions. Their solution structures have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The largest HS oligosaccharides showed more bent and flexible structures than those for heparin. A folded-back domain structure for the solution structure of the 20 domains in CFH was determined likewise. CFH binds to the S-regions but less so to the NA-regions of HS. The bivalent interaction of CFH-heparin was observed by ultracentrifugation, and binding studies of CFH fragments with heparin-coated sensor chips. In common with other CFH interactions with its physiological and pathophysiological ligands, the CFH-heparin and CFH-C3b interactions have moderate micromolar dissociation constants K D, meaning that these complexes do not fully form in vivo. The combination of the solution structures and binding studies indicated a two-site interaction model of CFH with heparin at cell surfaces. By this, the bivalent binding of CFH to a cell surface is co-operative. Defective interactions at either of the two independent CFH-heparin sites reduce the CFH interaction with surface-bound C3b and lead to immune disorders.
Project description:Cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory histones are present in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and are elevated in blood in several inflammatory conditions, sepsis being a major example. Compounds which can attenuate activities of histones are therefore of interest, with heparin being one such material that has previously been shown to bind to histones. Heparin, a successful anticoagulant for nearly a century, has been shown experimentally to bind to histones and exhibit a protective effect in inflammatory conditions. In the present study carried out in whole blood, heparin and selectively desulfated heparin reduced histone induced inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 (IL 6), interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tissue factor and C3a, a complement component. The selectively desulfated heparins, with reduced anticoagulant activities, retained a high degree of effectiveness as an anti-histone agent, whereas fully desulfated heparin was found to be ineffective. The results from this study indicate that the presence of sulfate and other specific structural features are required for heparin to attenuate the inflammatory action of histones in whole blood.