Bonnevillamides, Linear Heptapeptides Isolated from a Great Salt Lake-Derived Streptomyces sp.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces sp. GSL-6B was isolated from sediment collected from the Great Salt Lake and investigation of its organic extract led to the isolation of three new linear heptapeptides, bonnevillamides A (1), B (2), and C (3). The bonnevillamides represent a new class of linear peptides featuring unprecedented non-proteinogenic amino acids. All three peptides contain the newly characterized bonnevillic acid moiety (3-(3,5-dichloro-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyacrylic acid), as well as a heavily modified proline residue. Moreover, in bonnevillamide A, the terminal proline residue found in bonnevillamides B and C is replaced with 4-methyl-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester. The structures of the three heptapeptides were elucidated by NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS), and LC-MS/MS, and the absolute configuration of all proteinogenic amino acid residues were determined by advanced Marfey's method. Bonnevillamides A, B and C were evaluated for their effects on zebrafish embryo development. All three heptapeptides were shown to modulate heart growth and cardiac function, with bonnevillamide B having the most pronounced effect.
Project description:A new investigation of the active sponge extracts of Prosuberites laughlini collected off the West coast of Puerto Rico has yielded three new cyclic heptapeptides, namely euryjanicins E (1)-G (3), containing multiple phenylalanine and proline residues. In CDCl3 solution, each euryjanicin F (2) and G (3) exists as an inseparable complex mixture of conformational isomers. The molecular structures of 1-3 were elucidated by a combination of chemical degradation, extensive ESI-MS/MS n analyses, and 2D NMR methods. The elucidation of the absolute configuration was achieved by HPLC following analysis of the acid hydrolysates after derivatization with Marfey's reagent. When assayed against the National Cancer Institute 60 tumor cell line panel, the new cyclic peptides did not display significant in vitro cytotoxicity.
Project description:The Antarctic fungus Cadophora malorum produces previously undescribed cyclic heptapeptides (cadophorin A and B) containing an anthranilic acid residue. The planar structure of these peptides was determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configuration of the amino acids was determined by Marfey's method, with HPLC analysis of FDVA (Nα-(2,4-dinitro-5-fluorphenyl)-L-valinamide) derivatives making use of a PFP column. Remarkably, cadophorin 2 possesses both the uncommon D-Ile and D-allo-Ile in its structure. The peptides have metal binding properties as shown by LCMS with post column addition of metal salt solutions. These results were supported by DFT calculations.
Project description:Hundreds of non-proteinogenic (np) amino acids (AA) are found in plants and can in principle enter human protein synthesis through foods. While aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) editing potentially provides a mechanism to reject np AAs, some have pathological associations. Co-crystal structures show that vegetable-sourced azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze), a dual mimic of proline and alanine, is activated by both human prolyl- and alanyl-tRNA synthetases. However, it inserts into proteins as proline, with toxic consequences in vivo. Thus, dual mimicry increases odds for mistranslation through evasion of one but not both tRNA synthetase editing systems.
Project description:Six new endomorphin analogues, incorporating constrained amino acids in place of native proline have been synthesized. Residues of (S)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze), 3,4-dehydro-(S)-proline (Delta(3)Pro), azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (3Aze) and dehydro-alanine (DeltaAla) have been used to prepare [Delta(3)Pro(2)]EM-2 (1), [Aze(2)]EM-1 (2), [Aze(2)]EM-2 (3), [3Aze(2)]EM-1 (4), [3Aze(2)]EM-2 (5) and [DeltaAla(2)]EM-2 (6). Binding assays and functional bioactivities for mu- and delta-receptors are reported. The highest affinity, bioactivity and selectivity are shown by peptides 2 and 3 containing the Aze residue.
Project description:Non-proteinogenic amino acids, such as the proline analog L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC), are detrimental to cells because they are mis-incorporated into proteins and lead to proteotoxic stress. Our goal was to identify genes that show chemical-genetic interactions with AZC in <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> and thus also potentially define the pathways cells use to cope with amino acid mis-incorporation. Screening the yeast deletion and temperature sensitive collections, we found 72 alleles with negative chemical-genetic interactions with AZC treatment and 12 alleles that suppress AZC toxicity. Many of the genes with negative chemical-genetic interactions are involved in protein quality control pathways through the proteasome. Genes involved in actin cytoskeleton organization and endocytosis also had negative chemical-genetic interactions with AZC. Related to this, the number of actin patches per cell increases upon AZC treatment. Many of the same cellular processes were identified to have interactions with proteotoxic stress caused by two other amino acid analogs, canavanine and thialysine, or a mistranslating tRNA variant that mis-incorporates serine at proline codons. Alleles that suppressed AZC-induced toxicity functioned through the amino acid sensing TOR pathway or controlled amino acid permeases required for AZC uptake. Further suggesting the potential of genetic changes to influence the cellular response to proteotoxic stress, overexpressing many of the genes that had a negative chemical-genetic interaction with AZC suppressed AZC toxicity.
Project description:1. A prolyl-s-RNA synthetase (prolyl-transfer RNA synthetase) has been purified about 250-fold from seed of Phaseolus aureus (mung bean), a species not producing azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and more than 10-fold from rhizome apices of Polygonatum multiflorum, a liliaceous species containing azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. The latter enzyme was unstable during ammonium sulphate fractionation. 2. The enzymes exhibited different substrate specificities towards the analogue. That from Phaseolus, when assayed by the ATP-PP(i) exchange, showed azetidine-2-carboxylic acid activation at about one-third the rate with proline. Both labelled imino acids gave rise to a labelled aminoacyl-s-RNA. The enzyme from Polygonatum, however, activated only proline. 3. The enzyme from Polygonatum also formed a labelled prolyl-s-RNA with Phaseolus s-RNA but at a lower rate than when the Phaseolus enzyme was used. No reaction occurred when the Phaseolus enzyme was coupled with Polygonatum s-RNA, and only a very slight one was observed when both enzyme and s-RNA came from Polygonatum. 4. Protein preparations from seeds of Pisum sativum, another species not producing azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, also activated the analogue in addition to proline, whereas those from rhizome and seeds of Convallaria, the species from which the analogue was originally isolated, failed to activate it. However, a liliaceous species not producing the analogue, Asparagus officinalis, activated it. 5. Of the other proline analogues investigated, only 3,4-dehydro-dl-proline and l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid were active with the enzyme preparation from Phaseolus. 6. pH optima of 7.9 and 8.4 were established for the enzymes from Phaseolus and Polygonatum respectively. 7. The Phaseolus enzyme was specific for ATP and PP(i). Mn(2+) partially replaced the requirement for Mg(2+) as cofactor. Preincubation with p-chloromercuribenzoate at a concentration of 0.5mm or higher produced over 99% inhibition of the Phaseolus enzyme. One-half the enzymic activity was destroyed by preheating for 5min. at 62 degrees in tris-hydrochloric acid buffer, pH7.9. 8. All experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and proline are activated by the same enzyme in Phaseolus preparations, whereas the analogue was inactive in all Polygonatum preparations. The possible nature of this different substrate behaviour is discussed.
Project description:Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are routinely used in understanding the conformational space sampled by peptides in the solution state. To investigate the role of single-residue change in the ensemble of conformations sampled by a set of heptapeptides, AEVXEVG with X = L, F, A, or G, comprehensive NMR, and MD simulations were performed. The rationale for selecting the particular model peptides is based on the high variability in the occurrence of tri-peptide E*L between the transmembrane ?-barrel (TMB) than in globular proteins. The ensemble of conformations sampled by E*L was compared between the three sets of ensembles derived from NMR spectroscopy, MD simulations with explicit solvent, and the random coil conformations. In addition to the estimation of global determinants such as the radius of gyration of a large sample of structures, the ensembles were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). In general, the results suggest that the -EVL- peptide indeed adopts a conformational preference that is distinctly different not only from a random distribution but also from other peptides studied here. The relatively straightforward approach presented herein could help understand the conformational preferences of small peptides in the solution state.
Project description:We discovered on the chromosome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma 1278b novel genes involved in L-proline analogue L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance which are not present in the standard laboratory strains. The 5.4 kb-DNA fragment was cloned from the genomic library of the L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid-resistant mutant derived from a cross between S. cerevisiae strains S288C and Sigma 1278b. The nucleotide sequence of a 4.5-kb segment exhibited no identity with the sequence in the genome project involving strain S288C. Deletion analysis indicated that one open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 229 amino acids is indispensable for L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance. The protein sequence was found to be a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Genomic Southern analysis and gene disruption showed that two copies of the novel gene with one amino acid change at position 85 required for L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance were present on chromosomes X and XIV of Sigma 1278b background strains. When this novel MPR1 or MPR2 gene (sigma 1278b gene for L-proline analogue resistance) was introduced into the other S. cerevisiae strains, all of the recombinants were resistant to L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, indicating that both MPR1 and MPR2 are expressed and have a global function in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:LC/MS-based chemical profiling of a ginseng farm soil-derived actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. BYK1371, enabled the discovery of two new cyclic heptapeptides, depsidomycins B and C (1 and 2), each containing two piperazic acid units and a formyl group at their N-terminus. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. These new compounds were determined to possess d-leucine, d-threonine, d-valine, and S-piperazic acid based on the advanced Marfey's method and a GITC (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate) derivatization of their hydrolysates, followed by LC/MS analysis. Depsidomycins B and C displayed significant antimetastatic activities against metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).
Project description:Cytotoxicity-directed purification of a Symploca cf. hydnoides sample from Cetti Bay, Guam, afforded seven new cyclic depsipeptides, veraguamides A-G (1-7), together with the known compound dolastatin 16. The planar structures of 1-7 were elucidated using NMR and MS experiments, while enantioselective HPLC and Mosher's analysis of acid and base hydrolysates, respectively, were utilized to assign the absolute configurations of the stereocenters. Veraguamides A-G (1-7) are characterized by the presence of an invariant proline residue, multiple N-methylated amino acids, an ?-hydroxy acid, and a C8-polyketide-derived ?-hydroxy acid moiety with a characteristic terminus as either an alkynyl bromide, alkyne, or vinyl group. These compounds and a semisynthetic analogue (8) showed moderate to weak cytotoxic activity against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma and HeLa cervical carcinoma cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis identified several sensitive positions in the veraguamide scaffold that affect the cytotoxic activity of this compound class. Dolastatin 16 showed only weak cytotoxic activity on both cell lines tested. The complete stereostructure of dolastatin 16 was proposed for the first time through degradation followed by a combination of advanced Marfey's analysis and modified Mosher's analysis using phenylglycine methyl ester as a chiral anisotropic reagent.