A spongy nickel-organic CO2 reduction photocatalyst for nearly 100% selective CO production.
ABSTRACT: Solar-driven photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into fuels has attracted a lot of interest; however, developing active catalysts that can selectively convert CO2 to fuels with desirable reaction products remains a grand challenge. For instance, complete suppression of the competing H2 evolution during photocatalytic CO2-to-CO conversion has not been achieved before. We design and synthesize a spongy nickel-organic heterogeneous photocatalyst via a photochemical route. The catalyst has a crystalline network architecture with a high concentration of defects. It is highly active in converting CO2 to CO, with a production rate of ~1.6 × 104 μmol hour-1 g-1. No measurable H2 is generated during the reaction, leading to nearly 100% selective CO production over H2 evolution. When the spongy Ni-organic catalyst is enriched with Rh or Ag nanocrystals, the controlled photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions generate formic acid and acetic acid. Achieving such a spongy nickel-organic photocatalyst is a critical step toward practical production of high-value multicarbon fuels using solar energy.
Project description:Solar hydrogen (H2) evolution from water utilizing covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as heterogeneous photosensitizers has gathered significant momentum by virtue of the COFs' predictive structural design, long-range ordering, tunable porosity, and excellent light-harvesting ability. However, most photocatalytic systems involve rare and expensive platinum as the co-catalyst for water reduction, which appears to be the bottleneck in the development of economical and environmentally benign solar H2 production systems. Herein, we report a simple, efficient, and low-cost all-in-one photocatalytic H2 evolution system composed of a thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-linked COF (TpDTz) as the photoabsorber and an earth-abundant, noble-metal-free nickel-thiolate hexameric cluster co-catalyst assembled in situ in water, together with triethanolamine (TEoA) as the sacrificial electron donor. The high crystallinity, porosity, photochemical stability, and light absorption ability of the TpDTz COF enables excellent long-term H2 production over 70 h with a maximum rate of 941 μmol h-1 g-1, turnover number TONNi > 103, and total projected TONNi > 443 until complete catalyst depletion. The high H2 evolution rate and TON, coupled with long-term photocatalytic operation of this hybrid system in water, surpass those of many previously known organic dyes, carbon nitride, and COF-sensitized photocatalytic H2O reduction systems. Furthermore, we gather unique insights into the reaction mechanism, enabled by a specifically designed continuous-flow system for non-invasive, direct H2 production rate monitoring, providing higher accuracy in quantification compared to the existing batch measurement methods. Overall, the results presented here open the door toward the rational design of robust and efficient earth-abundant COF-molecular co-catalyst hybrid systems for sustainable solar H2 production in water.
Project description:A precious metal and Cd-free photocatalyst system for efficient CO2 reduction in water is reported. The hybrid assembly consists of ligand-free ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) as a visible-light photosensitiser combined with a phosphonic acid-functionalised Ni(cyclam) catalyst, NiCycP. This precious metal-free photocatalyst system shows a high activity for aqueous CO2 reduction to CO (Ni-based TONCO > 120), whereas an anchor-free catalyst, Ni(cyclam)Cl2, produced three times less CO. Additional ZnSe surface modification with 2-(dimethylamino)ethanethiol (MEDA) partially suppresses H2 generation and enhances the CO production allowing for a Ni-based TONCO of > 280 and more than 33% selectivity for CO2 reduction over H2 evolution, after 20 h visible light irradiation (? > 400 nm, AM 1.5G, 1 sun). The external quantum efficiency of 3.4 ± 0.3% at 400 nm is comparable to state-of-the-art precious metal photocatalysts. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed that band-gap excitation of ZnSe QDs is followed by rapid hole scavenging and very fast electron trapping in ZnSe. The trapped electrons transfer to NiCycP on the ps timescale, explaining the high performance for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. With this work we introduce ZnSe QDs as an inexpensive and efficient visible light-absorber for solar fuel generation.
Project description:The integration of molecular catalysts with low-cost, solid light absorbers presents a promising strategy to construct catalysts for the generation of solar fuels. Here, we report a photocatalyst for CO<sub>2</sub> reduction that consists of a polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine catalyst (CoPPc) coupled with mesoporous carbon nitride (mpg-CN<sub>x</sub> ) as the photosensitizer. This precious-metal-free hybrid catalyst selectively converts CO<sub>2</sub> to CO in organic solvents under UV/Vis light (AM 1.5G, 100?mW?cm<sup>-2</sup> , ?>300?nm) with a cobalt-based turnover number of 90 for CO after 60?h. Notably, the photocatalyst retains 60?% CO evolution activity under visible light irradiation (?>400?nm) and displays moderate water tolerance. The in situ polymerization of the phthalocyanine allows control of catalyst loading and is key for achieving photocatalytic CO<sub>2</sub> conversion.
Project description:Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an L-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS2 (SnS2-C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS2. This SnS2-C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS2-C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.
Project description:Gaseous CO2 is transformed photochemically and thermochemically in the presence of H2 to CH4 at millimole per hour per gram of catalyst conversion rates, using visible and near-infrared photons. The catalyst used to drive this reaction comprises black silicon nanowire supported ruthenium. These results represent a step towards engineering broadband solar fuels tandem photothermal reactors that enable a three-step process involving i) CO2 capture, ii) gaseous water splitting into H2, and iii) reduction of gaseous CO2 by H2.
Project description:The photocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (CRR) represents a promising route for the clean utilization of stranded renewable resources, but poor selectivity resulting from the competing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in aqueous solution limits its practical applicability. In the present contribution a photocatalyst with hydrophobic surfaces was fabricated. It facilitates an efficient three-phase contact of CO2 (gas), H2 O (liquid), and catalyst (solid). Thus, concentrated CO2 molecules in the gas phase contact the catalyst surface directly, and can overcome the mass-transfer limitations of CO2 , inhibit the HER because of lowering proton contacts, and overall enhance the CRR. Even when loaded with platinum nanoparticles, one of the most efficient HER promotion cocatalysts, the three-phase photocatalyst maintains a selectivity of 87.9?%. Overall, three-phase photocatalysis provides a general and reliable method to enhance the competitiveness of the CRR.
Project description:Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into fuels is an important challenge for clean energy research and has attracted considerable interest. Here we show that tethering molecular catalysts-a rhenium complex, [Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl]-together in the form of a crystalline covalent organic framework (COF) affords a heterogeneous photocatalyst with a strong visible light absorption, a high CO2 binding affinity, and ultimately an improved catalytic performance over its homogeneous Re counterpart. The COF incorporates bipyridine sites, allowing for ligation of the Re complex, into a fully ?-conjugated backbone that is chemically robust and promotes light-harvesting. A maximum rate of 1040 ?mol g-1 h-1 for CO production with 81% selectivity was measured. CO production rates were further increased up to 1400 ?mol g-1 h-1, with an improved selectivity of 86%, when a photosensitizer was added. Addition of platinum resulted in production of syngas, hence, the co-formation of H2 and CO, the chemical composition of which could be adjusted by varying the ratio of COF to platinum. An amorphous analog of the COF showed significantly lower CO production rates, suggesting that crystallinity of the COF is beneficial to its photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction.
Project description:Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to hydrocarbons represents a viable and sustainable process toward greenhouse gas reduction and fuel/chemical production. Development of more efficient catalysts is the key to mitigate the limits in photocatalytic processes. Here, a novel ultrathin-film photocatalytic light absorber (UFPLA) with TiO2 films to design efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion processes is created. The UFPLA structure conquers the intrinsic trade-off between optical absorption and charge carrier extraction efficiency, that is, a solar absorber should be thick enough to absorb majority of the light allowable by its bandgap but thin enough to allow charge carrier extraction for reactions. The as-obtained structures significantly improve TiO2 photocatalytic activity and selectivity to oxygenated hydrocarbons than the benchmark photocatalyst (Aeroxide P25). Remarkably, UFPLAs with 2-nm-thick TiO2 films result in hydrocarbon formation rates of 0.967 mmol g-1 h-1, corresponding to 1145 times higher activity than Aeroxide P25. This observation is confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic experiments where longer charge carrier lifetimes are recorded for the thinner films. The current work demonstrates a powerful strategy to control light absorption and catalysis in CO2 conversion and, therefore, creates new and transformative ways of converting solar energy and greenhouse gas to alcohol fuels/chemicals.
Project description:Photocatalytic CO2 reduction into hydrocarbon fuels over photocatalysts has hypothetical and reasonably developed into a trendy exploration topic. In this study, the progress of the quaternary nanocomposite containing a graphene-based catalyst was reported; this was fabricated using the hydrothermal technique. The analysis of physical characteristics of the nanocomposite confirmed the interaction between all parts. The quaternary nanocomposite containing the graphene-based catalyst was utilized for carbon dioxide reduction to methanol (CH3OH) under light irradiation. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the quaternary nanocomposite of AgCuInS2 were monotonously spread on the graphene exterior. This nanomaterial showed superior activity compared with TiO2 and the binary composite for CO2 conversion, and the obtained result indicates that the synthesized ternary composite enhaces the properties of the photocatalyst in the reduction process.
Project description:Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.