The Youngest Reported and Successfully Treated Patient with a Dermoid Cyst of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Pediatric Case.
ABSTRACT: Dermoid cysts (DCs) are rare benign, epithelial-lined lesions. Up to 7% of them are found in the head and neck region and 80% of those predominantly occur in the orbit, in the nose, and in the floor of the mouth. The average age of presentation is around the age of six. Dermoid cysts located in the parotid gland have only been published in 19 cases so far. Interestingly, the mean age of occurrence in the parotid gland was much higher (31 years). We report on a four-year-old girl being the youngest patient who had ever been diagnosed with this disease.
Project description:Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue.
Project description:Dermoid cysts are rare in the skull base. There have been 10 reported cases of dermoid cysts in the cavernous sinus, two in the petrous apex, and one in the extradural Meckel cave. This is the first case report of a dermoid cyst in the anterior infratemporal fossa attached to the anterior dura of the foramen ovale. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings, histologic features, tumor origin, and operative technique are described along with a review of the literature.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland. The overall incidence rates and characteristics of APGs and FPs were evaluated according to age, sex, and side. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs were 10.2% (163/1,600) and 28.3% (452/1,600), respectively. The mean size of an APG was 15.8 mm × 5.0 mm and the mean distance from the main parotid gland was 10.5 mm. The FP reached anteriorly between the anterior edge of the mandibular ramus and the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 405 (89.6%) cases, while it extended over the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 47 (10.4%) cases. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, showing significant linear correlations. However, the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland (either an APG or an FP) was similar across all age groups. The present study showed that CT might be helpful in identifying anterior extensions of the parotid gland including APGs and FPs. The anatomical information gained from this study contributes to a better understanding of APGs and FPs and how their incidence changes with age.
Project description:Spontaneous ruptures of dermoid cysts are a rare occurrence due to their thick capsules. This is the first systematic review on spontaneously ruptured dermoid cysts. A comprehensive literature search was performed from PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE. The cases were analysed for patient demographics, presenting signs and symptoms, imaging modalities used, management methods, and outcomes. The majority of cases report an idiopathic cause with symptoms of abdominal pain, distension, and fever. Computed tomography is the most accurate in detecting ruptured dermoid cysts. We also report a case of a 66-year-old who presented with sudden abdominal pain and a low-grade temperature. Imaging showed a 10?cm well-circumscribed hyperechoic mass consistent with a dermoid cyst with no suggestive signs of rupture. She was planned for a laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. However, intraoperatively, a ruptured dermoid cyst was found with bowel adhesions and chemical peritonitis as cyst contents covered the entirety of the intra-abdominal cavity. Her operative course was complicated by inadvertent iatrogenic small bowel injury, unsuccessful laparoscopy, needing conversion to laparotomy. Despite their benign nature, complications from ruptured dermoid cysts include peritonitis, bowel obstruction, and abscesses. Surgical management by both laparoscopy and laparotomy is successful, with laparotomies more likely to be performed. Complications have mostly no long-term sequelae.
Project description:We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented in an acute setting with pelvic pain, an adnexal mass on imaging and a high CA19-9 level. She was taken for surgery, where a large dermoid cyst was found at the fimbrial end of a fallopian tube at the time of laparoscopy, with no apparent connection to either ovary and absence of ovarian necrosis. This was corroborated on final histology. Dermoid cysts in aberrant locations are usually reported at Caesarean section or during laparoscopic sterilisation and thus, understandably, a pre-operative CA19-9 level is rarely available. That and the rarity of these 'ectopic dermoids' make it hard to give further support for a causative association with the high tumour marker levels. Some authors suggest that auto-amputation of a dermoid cyst or part thereof and subsequent reimplantation may give rise to this phenomenon, and thus the term 'wandering dermoid' has been applied to similar situations. This is what we postulated as the cause in our case. It is likely that a full understanding of the aetiology of wandering dermoid cysts will remain elusive, given the paucity of cases.
Project description:Ovarian dermoid cysts are one of the most common benign neoplasms in women. Rectal fistula formation due to an ovarian dermoid cyst, particularly a benign dermoid cyst, is extremely rare. A 17-year-old girl with symptoms of lower abdominal pain, passage of sebaceous materials in the stool, and hematochezia was found to have an 11-cm dermoid cyst complicated with a rectal fistula formation. Laparoscopic repair of the rectal fistula was performed successfully with bilateral ovarian cystectomies. This case presents the rare formation of a fistula between a benign dermoid cyst and the rectum and its treatment using laparoscopic repair without laparotomy.
Project description:Dermoid cysts are benign and congenital ectodermal inclusions. Their occurrence in an intracranial location is quite rare. They constitute 0.1 to 0.7% of all intracranial tumors. Their occurrence in the fourth ventricle and their multicentric feature are extraordinary. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic with a dermoid cyst with sixth cranial nerve involvement. He had symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. This case is the first dermoid cyst in the literature at this unusual location; a mature tooth structure was found within the cyst, which extended over the cervical subsegments. There was a second dermoid cyst in the thoracic spine (multicentric). Our aim is to present an atypical dermoid cyst along with radiodiagnostic characteristics and macroscopic findings.
Project description:Background Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumors of congenital origin. We report a case of a large dermoid tumor arising in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) with erosion into the middle cranial fossa. After reviewing the literature, we believe this represents the first reported dermoid tumor of the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. Results A 21-year-old women presented with a large cystic mass involving the left infratemporal fossa and middle cranial fossa that was discovered following a motor vehicle collision. Neurologic examination was normal. The mass was resected through a frontotemporal extradural approach with endoscopic assistance. Imaging studies, gross findings, and histopathology were consistent with a dermoid tumor. Conclusion This is the first report of a dermoid cyst arising in the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. We suggest including dermoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of cystic abnormalities in this region. Complete resection of the cyst remains the preferred treatment with surgical approach guided by preoperative imaging.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dermoid cysts are well-known lesions that manifest as subcutaneous tumors around the lateral sides of the eyebrows in young patients. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often performed to confirm the diagnosis. On the other hand, a lipoma is usually a circular lesion, which is sometimes observed in the upper part of the face. The signals of both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images of MRI of a lipoma are, in general, relatively highly homogenous, and the signals decrease in fat-suppressed images. Therefore, differential diagnosis between a dermoid cyst and a lipoma is usually made with MRI, especially based on fat-suppressed images. Here, we present a case of misdiagnosis of a dermoid cyst as a lipoma because of atypical magnetic resonance images.<h4>Case presentation</h4>We report a case of a 24-year-old Japanese woman with a dermoid cyst around the lateral edge of the eyebrow. The cyst had been gradually increasing in size for the past 2 years. On MRI, it showed high internal signals on T1- and T2-weighted images. However, the signal intensity decreased homogeneously in the fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. The observed tumor had a yellowish appearance under the endoscope. On the basis of these findings, the lesion was considered a lipoma until it ruptured intraoperatively. The pathological diagnosis confirmed it to be a dermoid cyst.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Some dermoid cysts contain lipid-rich liquid, and these may be misdiagnosed as lipomas by MRI. When a tumor is located at a common site for a dermoid cyst, the MRI images should be validated carefully if it appears like a lipoma, and the differential diagnosis should be considered carefully.
Project description:A clinical observation to diagnose parotid hemangioma is presented in this article. A hemangioma can be made to distend by blocking its venous outflow. If a distended hemangioma is located within the parotid gland, it stretches the parotid capsule. Thus application of pressure over parotid venous outflow causes the hemangioma to bulge, thereby stretching the parotid capsule. It makes the outline of the gland clinically apparent. This observation is useful to differentiate a hemangioma present in the parotid gland from one that is placed outside the gland like an intramuscular hemangioma of the masseter muscle or internal jugular phlebectasia.