Comparative analysis of the effects of a sphingosine kinase inhibitor to temozolomide and radiation treatment on glioblastoma cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) exhibits high resistance to the standard treatment of temozolomide (TMZ) combined with radiotherapy, due to its remarkable cell heterogeneity. Accordingly, there is a need to target alternative molecules enhancing specific GBM autocrine or paracrine mechanisms and amplifying the effect of standard treatment. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is such a lipid target molecule with an important role in cell invasion and proliferation. Sphingosine kinase inhibitors (SKI) prevent S1P formation and induce increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may potentiate radiation cytotoxicity. We analyzed the effect of SKI singular versus combined treatments with TMZ and radiation on 2 human GBM cell lines characterized by a lack of MGMT expression and low or high expression of the anti-oxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Effects were drug concentration-, cell line-dependent and partly ROS-mediated. Clonogenic survival assay demonstrates that SKI was more effective than TMZ in increasing the sensitivity of U87 cells, which express low GPx1 amount, to a 2 Gy X-ray dose. Addition of both SKI and TMZ drastically decreased U87 cells survival compared with the combination temozolomide/radiation. SKI less effectively than TMZ sensitized LN229 cells to the 2 Gy X-ray dose. Its combination to TMZ in absence of irradiation was as efficient as TMZ combination with X-ray. We provide first evidence for SKI as an alternative or complementary treatment to TMZ, and for efficient combinations of low doses of drugs and X-ray. These may help as novel bi-modal and tri-modal therapies to contend with GBM heterogeneity.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary malignant brain tumor with a dismal prognosis, partially due to our inability to completely remove and kill all GBM cells. Rapid tumor recurrence contributes to a median survival of only 15 months with the current standard of care which includes maximal surgical resection, radiation, and temozolomide (TMZ), a blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrant chemotherapy. Radiation and TMZ cause sphingomyelinases (SMase) to hydrolyze sphingomyelins to generate ceramides, which induce apoptosis. However, cells can evade apoptosis by converting ceramides to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P has been implicated in a wide range of cancers including GBM. Upregulation of S1P has been linked to the proliferation and invasion of GBM and other cancers that display a propensity for brain metastasis. To mediate their biological effects, SMases and S1P modulate signaling via phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD). In addition, both SMase and S1P may alter the integrity of the BBB leading to infiltration of tumor-promoting immune populations. SMase activity has been associated with tumor evasion of the immune system, while S1P creates a gradient for trafficking of innate and adaptive immune cells. This review will explore the role of sphingolipid metabolism and pharmacological interventions in GBM and metastatic brain tumors with a focus on SMase and S1P.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, and current standard therapy provides modest improvements in progression-free and overall survival of patients. Innate tumor resistance and presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) require the development of multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Previously, cytosine deaminase (CD)-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC/CD) were found to exhibit anticancer activity with a wide therapeutic index by converting 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a nontoxic prodrug into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a potent anticancer drug. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of MSC/CD in a multi-modal combination regimen with temozolomide (TMZ). Cell viability test, cell cycle, and normalized isobologram analyses were performed. <i>In vivo</i> anticancer effects were tested in a mouse orthotopic glioma model. TMZ and MSC/CD with 5-FC synergistically interacted and suppressed U87 glioma cell line growth <i>in vitro</i>. Combined treatment with TMZ and 5-FU increased cell cycle arrest and DNA breakage. In an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, treatment with TMZ alone suppressed tumor growth; however, this effect was more intense with MSC/CD transplantation followed by the sequential treatment with 5-FC and TMZ. Therefore, we propose that sequential treatment with 5-FC and MSC/CD can be used in patients with GBM during the immediate postoperative period to sensitize tumors to subsequent adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor of the central nervous system, is characterized by a relentless disease recurrence despite continued advancement in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), a standard chemotherapeutic agent for GBM, remains a major challenge. Understanding the mechanisms behind TMZ resistance can direct the development of novel strategies for the prevention, monitoring, and treatment of tumor relapse.Our research platform, based on the establishment of 2 pairs of TMZ-sensitive/resistant GBM cells (D54-S and D54-R; U87-S and U87-R), has successfully identified prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB) over-expression to be associated with an increased IC50 of TMZ. Elevated P4HB expression was verified using in vivo xenografts developed from U87-R cells. Clinically, we found that P4HB was relatively up-regulated in the recurrent GBM specimens that were initially responsive to TMZ but later developed acquired resistance, when compared with treatment-naive tumors. Functionally, P4HB inhibition by RNAi knockdown and bacitracin inhibition could sensitize D54-R and U87-R cells to TMZ in vitro and in vivo, whereas over-expression of P4HB in vitro conferred resistance to TMZ in both D54-S and U87-S cells. Moreover, targeting P4HB blocked its protective function and sensitized glioma cells to TMZ through the PERK arm of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.Our study identified a novel target together with its functional pathway in the development of TMZ resistance. P4HB inhibition may be used alone or in combination with TMZ for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemoresistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). We previously found that miR-519a functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated autophagy oncogenic pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-519a on TMZ chemosensitivity and autophagy in GBM cells. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways were explored. METHODS:In the present study, two stable TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines were successfully generated by exposure of parental cells to a gradually increasing TMZ concentration. After transfecting U87-MG/TMZ and U87-MG cells with miR-519a mimic or inhibitor, a series of biochemical assays such as MTT, apoptosis, and colony formation were performed to determine the chemosensitive response to TMZ. The autophagy levels in GBM cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, LC3B protein immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis. Stable knockdown and overexpression of miR-519a in GBM cells were established using lentivirus. A xenograft nude mouse model and in situ brain model were used to examine the in vivo effects of miR-519a. Tumor tissue samples were collected from 48 patients with GBM and were used to assess the relationship between miR-519a and STAT3 expression. RESULTS:TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-519a in U87-MG cells but not in U87-MG/TMZ cells. Moreover, the expression of miR-519a and baseline autophagy levels was lower in U87-MG/TMZ cells as compared to U87-MG cells. miR-519a dramatically enhanced TMZ-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death in U87-MG/TMZ cells, while inhibition of miR-519a promoted TMZ resistance and reduced TMZ-induced autophagy in U87-MG cells. Furthermore, miR-519a induced autophagy through modification of STAT3 expression. The in vivo results showed that miR-519a can enhance apoptosis and sensitized GBM to TMZ treatment by promoting autophagy and targeting the STAT3/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 pathway. In human GBM tissues, we found an inverse correlation between miR-519a and STAT3 expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that miR-519a increased the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ therapy. The positive effects of miR-519a may be mediated through autophagy. In addition, miR-519a overexpression can induce autophagy by inhibiting STAT3/Bcl-2 pathway. Therefore, a combination of miR-519a and TMZ may represent an effective therapeutic strategy in GBM.
Project description:Here we investigate the effects of the novel transforming growth factor-? receptor I (TGF-?RI) serine/threonine kinase inhibitor LY2109761 on glioblastoma when combined with the present clinical standard combination regimen radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). Human GBM U87 (methylated MGMT promoter), T98 (unmethylated MGMT promoter), and endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with combinations of LY2109761, TMZ, and radiation. We found that LY2109761 reduced clonogenic survival of U87 and T98 cells and further enhanced the radiation-induced anticlonogenicity. In addition, LY2109761 had antimigratory and antiangiogenic effects in Matrigel migration and tube formation assays. In vivo, in human xenograft tumors growing subcutaneously on BALB/c nu/nu mice, LY2109761 delayed tumor growth alone and in combination with fractionated radiation and TMZ. Interestingly, as expected, the methylated U87 model was more sensitive to TMZ than the unmethylated T98 model in all experiments, whereas the opposite was found for LY2109761. Moreover, with respect to tumor angiogenesis, while LY2109761 decreased the glioblastoma proliferation index (Ki-67) and the microvessel density (CD31 count), the relative pericyte coverage (?-SMA/CD31 ratio) increased in particular after triple therapy, suggesting a vascular normalization effect induced by LY2109761. This normalization could be attributed in part to a decrease in the Ang-2/Ang-1 messenger RNA ratio. LY2109761 also reduced tumor blood perfusion as quantified by noninvasive dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Together, the data indicate that the addition of a TGF-?RI kinase inhibitor to the present clinical standard (radiation plus TMZ) has the potential to improve clinical outcome in human glioblastoma, especially in patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter status.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor with a very poor survival rate. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the common chemotherapeutic agent used for GBM treatment. We recently demonstrated that simvastatin (Simva) increases TMZ-induced apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagic flux in GBM cells. Considering the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in the regulation of autophagy, we investigated the involvement of UPR in Simva-TMZ-induced cell death by utilizing highly selective IRE1 RNase activity inhibitor MKC8866, PERK inhibitor GSK-2606414 (PERKi), and eIF2? inhibitor salubrinal. Simva-TMZ treatment decreased the viability of GBM cells and significantly increased apoptotic cell death when compared to TMZ or Simva alone. Simva-TMZ induced both UPR, as determined by an increase in GRP78, XBP splicing, eukaryote initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) phosphorylation, and inhibited autophagic flux (accumulation of LC3?-II and inhibition of p62 degradation). IRE1 RNase inhibition did not affect Simva-TMZ-induced cell death, but it significantly induced p62 degradation and increased the microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3)?-II/LC3?-I ratio in U87 cells, while salubrinal did not affect the Simva-TMZ induced cytotoxicity of GBM cells. In contrast, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) inhibition significantly increased Simva-TMZ-induced cell death in U87 cells. Interestingly, whereas PERK inhibition induced p62 accumulation in both GBM cell lines, it differentially affected the LC3?-II/LC3?-I ratio in U87 (decrease) and U251 (increase) cells. Simvastatin sensitizes GBM cells to TMZ-induced cell death via a mechanism that involves autophagy and UPR pathways. More specifically, our results imply that the IRE1 and PERK signaling arms of the UPR regulate Simva-TMZ-mediated autophagy flux inhibition in U251 and U87 GBM cells.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Current standard radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) yield poor clinical outcome. This is due to the stem-like properties of tumor cells and genetic abnormalities in GBM, which contribute to resistance to TMZ and progression. In this study, we used cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to enhance the sensitivity to TMZ through inhibition of antioxidant signaling (linked to TMZ resistance). We demonstrate that CAP indeed enhances the cytotoxicity of TMZ by targeting the antioxidant specific glutathione (GSH)/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) signaling. We optimized the threshold concentration of TMZ on five different GBM cell lines (U251, LN18, LN229, U87-MG and T98G). We combined TMZ with CAP and tested it on both TMZ-sensitive (U251, LN18 and LN229) and TMZ-resistant (U87-MG and T98G) cell lines using two-dimensional cell cultures. Subsequently, we used a three-dimensional spheroid model for the U251 (TMZ-sensitive) and U87-MG and T98G (TMZ-resistant) cells. The sensitivity of TMZ was enhanced, i.e., higher cytotoxicity and spheroid shrinkage was obtained when TMZ and CAP were administered together. We attribute the anticancer properties to the release of intracellular reactive oxygen species, through inhibiting the GSH/GPX4 antioxidant machinery, which can lead to DNA damage. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of CAP with TMZ is a promising combination therapy to enhance the efficacy of TMZ towards the treatment of GBM spheroids.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible genes may contribute to therapy resistance in glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive and hypoxic brain tumours. It has been recently reported that erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are involved in glioma growth. We now investigated whether EPOR signalling may modulate the efficacy of the GBM current treatment based on chemotherapy (temozolomide, TMZ) and radiotherapy (X-rays). Using RNA interference, we showed on glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) that EPOR silencing induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest, consistent with the slowdown of glioma growth induced by EPOR knock-down. In vivo, we also reported that EPOR silencing combined with TMZ treatment is more efficient to delay tumour recurrence and to prolong animal survival compared to TMZ alone. In vitro, we showed that EPOR silencing not only increases the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ as well as X-rays but also counteracts the hypoxia-induced chemo- and radioresistance. Silencing EPOR on glioma cells exposed to conventional treatments enhances senescence and induces a robust genomic instability that leads to caspase-dependent mitotic death by increasing the number of polyploid cells and cyclin B1 expression. Overall these data suggest that EPOR could be an attractive target to overcome therapeutic resistance toward ionising radiation or temozolomide.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) recurrences after temozolomide (TMZ) treatment result from the expansion of drug-resistant and potentially invasive GBM cells. This process is facilitated by O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT), which counteracts alkylating TMZ activity. We traced the expansion of invasive cell lineages under persistent chemotherapeutic stress in MGMT<sup>low</sup> (U87) and MGMT<sup>high</sup> (T98G) GBM populations to look into the mechanisms of TMZ-induced microevolution of GBM invasiveness. TMZ treatment induced short-term, pro-invasive phenotypic shifts of U87 cells, in the absence of Snail-1 activation. They were illustrated by a transient induction of their motility and followed by the hypertrophy and the signs of senescence in scarce U87 sub-populations that survived long-term TMZ stress. In turn, MGMT<sup>high</sup> T98G cells reacted to the long-term TMZ treatment with the permanent induction of invasiveness. Ectopic Snail-1 down-regulation attenuated this effect, whereas its up-regulation augmented T98G invasiveness. MGMT<sup>low</sup> and MGMT<sup>high</sup> cells both reacted to the long-term TMZ stress with the induction of Cx43 expression. However, only in MGMT<sup>high</sup> T98G populations, Cx43 was directly involved in the induction of invasiveness, as manifested by the induction of T98G invasiveness after ectopic Cx43 up-regulation and by the opposite effect after Cx43 down-regulation. Collectively, Snail-1/Cx43-dependent signaling participates in the long-term TMZ-induced microevolution of the invasive GBM front. High MGMT activity remains a prerequisite for this process, even though MGMT-related GBM chemoresistance is not necessary for its initiation.
Project description:Development of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance contributes to the poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. It was previously demonstrated that delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex (SGT-53) which crosses the blood-brain barrier could sensitize highly TMZ-resistant GBM tumors to TMZ. Here we assessed whether SGT-53 could inhibit development of TMZ resistance. SGT-53 significantly chemosensitized TMZ-sensitive human GBM cell lines (U87 and U251), in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in an intracranial GBM tumor model, two cycles of concurrent treatment with systemically administered SGT-53 and TMZ inhibited tumor growth, increased apoptosis and most importantly, significantly prolonged median survival. In contrast TMZ alone had no significant effect on median survival compared to a single cycle of TMZ. These results suggest that combining SGT-53 with TMZ appears to limit development of TMZ resistance, prolonging its anti-tumor effect and could be a more effective therapy for GBM.Using human glioblastoma multiforma cell lines, this research team demonstrated that the delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex limited the development of temozolomide resistance and prolonged its anti-tumor effect, which may enable future human application of this or similar techniques.