Upregulation of UCP2 in beta-cells confers partial protection against both oxidative stress and glucotoxicity.
ABSTRACT: Deterioration of pancreatic beta-cells plays a critical role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Among the various stressors contributing to these deleterious effects, glucotoxicity and superoxides have been proposed as major players. In this context, the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 is regularly associated with the stress response. In the present study, we tested the effects of UCP2 upregulation in mouse islets with beta-cell specific overexpression of UCP2 (RIP-UCP2). Islets were subjected to both chronic glucotoxicity (7 days at 30mM glucose) and acute oxidative stress (200µM H2O2 for 10min). Increased UCP2 expression did not alter mitochondrial potential and ATP generation but protected against glucotoxic effects. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was altered by both glucotoxicity and oxidative stress, in particular through higher basal insulin release at non-stimulatory glucose concentrations. The secretory response to glucose stimulation was partially preserved in beta-cells overexpressing UCP2. The higher rate of cell death induced by chronic high glucose exposure was lower in RIP-UCP2 islets. Finally, superoxide production was reduced by high glucose, both under acute and chronic conditions, and not modified by UCP2 overexpression. In conclusion, upregulation of UCP2 conferred protective effects to the stressed beta-cell through mechanisms not directly associated with superoxide production.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive β cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair β cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors NKX6.1 and MAFB was decreased by chronic insulin resistance, but only MAFB decreased under chronic hyperglycemia. Knockdown of NKX6.1 or MAFB expression in a human β cell line recapitulated the insulin secretion defect seen in vivo. Contrary to rodent islet studies, neither insulin resistance nor hyperglycemia led to human β cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results demonstrate profound differences in how excess glucose or lipid influence mouse and human insulin secretion and β cell activity and show that reduced expression of key islet-enriched transcription factors is an important mediator of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity.
Project description:Apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells is a feature of type 2 diabetes and its prevention may have therapeutic benefit. High glucose concentrations induce apoptosis of islet cells, and this requires the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins Bim and Puma. We studied the stress pathways induced by glucotoxicity in beta cells that result in apoptosis. High concentrations of glucose or ribose increased expression of the transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein) but not endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, indicating activation of proapoptotic ER stress signaling. Inhibition of ER stress prevented ribose-induced upregulation of Chop and Puma mRNA, and partially protected islets from glucotoxicity. Loss of Bim or Puma partially protected islets from the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine also partially protected islets from glucotoxicity. Islets deficient in both Bim and Puma, but not Bim or Puma alone, were significantly protected from killing induced by the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species donor rotenone. Our data demonstrate that high concentrations of glucose induce ER and oxidative stress, which causes cell death mediated by Bim and Puma. We observed significantly higher Bim and Puma mRNA in islets of human donors with type 2 diabetes. This indicates that inhibition of Bim and Puma, or their inducers, may prevent beta-cell destruction in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:This study was aimed at the elucidation of the pathogenesis of glucotoxicity, i.e. the mechanism whereby hyperglycaemia damages pancreatic beta cells. The identification of pathways in the process may help identify targets for beta cell-protective therapy. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple hyperglycaemia-induced genes, is produced in abundance in pancreatic beta cells. We hypothesise that ChREBP plays a pivotal role in mediating beta cell glucotoxicity.We assessed the role of ChREBP in glucotoxicity in 832/13 beta cells, isolated mouse islets and human pancreas tissue sections using multiple complementary approaches under control and high-glucose-challenge conditions as well as in adeno-associated virus-induced beta cell-specific overexpression of Chrebp (also known as Mlxipl) in mice.Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, ChREBP activates downstream target genes, including fatty acid synthase and thioredoxin-interacting protein, leading to lipid accumulation, increased oxidative stress, reduced insulin gene transcription/secretion and enhanced caspase activity and apoptosis, processes that collectively define glucotoxicity. Immunoreactive ChREBP is enriched in the nucleuses of beta cells in pancreatic tissue sections from diabetic individuals compared with non-diabetic individuals. Finally, we demonstrate that induced beta cell-specific Chrebp overexpression is sufficient to phenocopy the glucotoxicity manifestations of hyperglycaemia in mice in vivo.These data indicate that ChREBP is a key transcription factor that mediates many of the hyperglycaemia-induced activations in a gene expression programme that underlies beta cell glucotoxicity at the molecular, cellular and whole animal levels.
Project description:An excessive and prolonged increase in glucose levels causes β-cell dysregulation, which is accompanied by impaired insulin synthesis and secretion, a condition known as glucotoxicity. Although it is known that both Lin28a and Lin28b regulate glucose metabolism, other molecular mechanisms that may protect against glucotoxicity are poorly understood. We investigated whether Lin28a overexpression can improve glucotoxicityinduced β-cell dysregulation in INS-1 and primary rat islet cells. INS-1, a rat insulinoma cell line was cultured and primary rat islet cells were isolated from SD-rats. To define the effect of Lin28a in chronic high glucose-induced β-cell dysregulation, we performed several in vitro and ex-vivo experiments. Chronic exposure to high glucose led to a downregulation of Lin28a mRNA and protein expression, followed by a decrease in insulin mRNA expression and secretion in β-cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PDX-1 and BETA2, were reduced; The levels of apoptotic factors, including c-caspase3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, were increased due to glucotoxicity. Adenovirusmediated Lin28a overexpression in β-cells reversed the glucotoxicity- induced reduction of insulin secretion and insulin mRNA expression via regulation of β-cell-enriched transcription factors such as PDX-1 and BETA2. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Lin28a downregulated the glucotoxicity-induced upregulation of c-caspase3 levels and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, while inhibition of endogenous Lin28a by small interfering RNA resulted in their up-regulation. Lin28a counteracted glucotoxicity-induced downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR. Our results suggest that Lin28a protects pancreatic β-cells from glucotoxicity through inhibition of apoptotic factors via the PI3 kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(4): 215-220].
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) develops after years of prediabetes during which high glucose (glucotoxicity) impairs insulin secretion. We report that the ATP-conducting mitochondrial outer membrane voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) is upregulated in islets from T2D and non-diabetic organ donors under glucotoxic conditions. This is caused by a glucotoxicity-induced transcriptional program, triggered during years of prediabetes with suboptimal blood glucose control. Metformin counteracts VDAC1 induction. VDAC1 overexpression causes its mistargeting to the plasma membrane of the insulin-secreting ? cells with loss of the crucial metabolic coupling factor ATP. VDAC1 antibodies and inhibitors prevent ATP loss. Through direct inhibition of VDAC1 conductance, metformin, like specific VDAC1 inhibitors and antibodies, restores the impaired generation of ATP and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in T2D islets. Treatment of db/db mice with VDAC1 inhibitor prevents hyperglycemia, and maintains normal glucose tolerance and physiological regulation of insulin secretion. Thus, ? cell function is preserved by targeting the novel diabetes executer protein VDAC1.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous disease, which has ?-cell dysfunction at its core. Glucotoxicity affects pancreatic islets, causing ?-cell apoptosis. However, the role of JNK/?-catenin signaling in glucotoxic ?-cell apoptosis is not well understood. Recently, we identified tetraspanin-2 (TSPAN2) protein as a proapoptotic ?-cell factor induced by glucose, suggesting that TSPAN2 might contribute to pancreatic ?-cell glucotoxicity. To investigate the effects of glucose concentration on TSPAN2 expression and apoptosis, we used reverted immortalized RNAKT-15 human pancreatic ? cells. High TSPAN2 levels up-regulated phosphorylated (p) JNK and induced apoptosis. p-JNK enhanced the phosphorylation of ?-catenin and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1). Dkk1 knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA up-regulated nuclear ?-catenin, suggesting that it is a JNK/?-catenin-dependent pathway. siRNA-mediated TSPAN2 depletion in RNAKT-15 cells increased nuclear ?-catenin. This decreased BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) activation, leading to marked protection against high glucose-induced apoptosis. Bax subfamily proteins induced apoptosis through caspase-3. Thus, TSPAN2 might have induced Bax translocation and caspase-3 activation in pancreatic ? cells, thereby promoting the apoptosis of RNAKT-15 cells by regulating the JNK/?-catenin pathway in response to high glucose concentrations. Targeting TSPAN2 could be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat glucose toxicity-induced ?-cell failure.-Hwang, I.-H., Park, J., Kim, J. M., Kim, S. I., Choi, J.-S., Lee, K.-B., Yun, S. H., Lee, M.-G., Park, S. J., Jang, I.-S. Tetraspanin-2 promotes glucotoxic apoptosis by regulating the JNK/?-catenin signaling pathway in human pancreatic ? cells.
Project description:It has been well established that glucotoxicity induces pancreatic β-cells dysfunction; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated that high glucose concentrations are associated with decreased hepcidin expression, which inhibits insulin synthesis. In this study, we focused on the role of low hepcidin level-induced increased iron deposition in β-cells and the relationship between abnormal iron metabolism and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased hepcidin expression increased iron absorption by upregulating transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression, resulting in iron accumulation within cells. Prussia blue stain and calcein-AM assays revealed greater iron accumulation in the cytoplasm of pancreatic tissue isolated from db/db mice, cultured islets and Min6 cells in response to high glucose stimulation. Increased cytosolic iron deposition was associated with greater Fe2+ influx into the mitochondria, which depolarized the mitochondria membrane potential, inhibited ATP synthesis, generated excessive ROS and induced oxidative stress. The toxic effect of excessive iron on mitochondrial function eventually resulted in impaired insulin secretion. The restricted iron content in db/db mice via reduced iron intake or accelerated iron clearance improved blood glucose levels with decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FIns), HbA1c level, as well as improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) results. Thus, our study may reveal the mechanism involved in the role of hepcidin in the glucotoxcity impaired pancreatic β cell function pathway.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) may regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The current study investigated the effects of berberine, an alkaloid found in many medicinal plants, on oxidative stress and insulin secretion through restoration of UCP2 expression in high glucose (HG)-treated INS-1E cells and rat islets or in db/db mouse islets.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Mouse and rat pancreatic islets were isolated. Nitrotyrosine, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation were examined by Western blotting. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by confocal microscopy.<h4>Key results</h4>Incubation of INS-1E cells and rat islets with HG (30 mmol·L(-1); 8 h) elevated nitrotyrosine level, reduced SOD-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, and inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. HG also increased mitochondrial ROS in INS-1E cells. Co-treatment with berberine inhibited such effects. The AMPK inhibitor compound C, the UCP2 inhibitor genipin and adenovirus ucp2 shRNA inhibited these protective effects of berberine. Furthermore, compound C normalized berberine-stimulated UCP2 expression but genipin did not affect AMPK phosphorylation. Islets from db/db mice exhibited elevated nitrotyrosine levels, reduced expression of SOD-1 and UCP2 and AMPK phosphorylation, and decreased insulin secretion compared with those from db/m(+) mice. Berberine also improved these defects in diabetic islets and genipin blocked the effects of berberine.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Berberine inhibited oxidative stress and restored insulin secretion in HG-treated INS-IE cells and diabetic mouse islets by activating AMPK and UCP2. UCP2 is an important signalling molecule in mediating anti-diabetic effects of berberine.
Project description:The presenilin-mediated Notch1 cleavage pathway plays a critical role in controlling pancreatic beta cell fate and survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Notch1 activation in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell impairment and the contributions of miR-375, miR-30a, and miR-34a to this pathway. We found that the protein levels of presenilins (PSEN1 and PSEN2), and NOTCH1 were decreased in INS-1 cells after treatment with increased concentrations of glucose, whereas no significant alteration of mRNA level of Notch1 was observed. Targeting of miR-375, miR-30a, and miR-34a to the 3'utr of Psen1, Psen2, and Notch1, respectively, reduced the amounts of relevant proteins, thereby reducing NICD1 amounts and causing beta cell apoptosis. Overexpression of NICD1 blocked the effects of glucotoxicity as well as miRNA overabundance. Downregulating the expression of miR-375, miR-30a, and miR-34a restored PSEN1, PSEN2, and NICD1 production and prevented glucotoxicity-induced impairment of the beta cells. These patterns of miRNA regulation of the Notch1 cleavage pathway were reproduced in GK rats as well as in aged rats. Our findings demonstrated that miRNA-mediated suppression of NICD1 links the presenilin/Notch1 pathway to glucotoxicity in mature pancreatic beta cells.
Project description:Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial protein, is known to be upregulated in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, the pathological significance of this increase in UCP2 expression is unclear. In this study, we highlight the molecular link between the increase in UCP2 expression in β-cells and β-cell failure by using genetically engineered mice and human islets. β-cell-specific UCP2-overexpressing transgenic mice (βUCP2Tg) exhibited glucose intolerance and a reduction in insulin secretion. Decreased mitochondrial function and increased aldolase B (AldB) expression through oxidative-stress-mediated pathway were observed in βUCP2Tg islets. AldB, a glycolytic enzyme, was associated with reduced insulin secretion via mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, our findings provide a new mechanism of β-cell dysfunction by UCP2 and AldB. Targeting the UCP2/AldB axis is a promising approach for the recovery of β-cell function.