Continuity of care in hospital rehabilitation services: a qualitative insight from inpatients' experience.
ABSTRACT: Few empirical studies have been conducted on the continuity of rehabilitation services, despite the fact that it may affect clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, the perception of quality, and safety.The aim of this study was to explore experiences and perceptions of inpatients receiving physical rehabilitation in an acute care hospital and how these experiences may have led to perceived gaps in the continuity of rehabilitation care.Using qualitative research methods, fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who received physical rehabilitation during hospital stay in an acute care hospital in Murcia, Spain. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analyzed, and grouped into predetermined and emergent codes.Patients described three main themes in continuity of care: informational, management, and relational continuity. Several factors were described as influencing the perceived gaps in these three types of continuity. Informational continuity was influenced by the transfer of information among care providers. Relational continuity was influenced by patient-therapist relations and consistency on the part of the provider. Management continuity was influenced by consistency of care between providers and the involvement of patients in their own care.The participants in this study identified several gaps in three types of continuity of care (informational, management, and relational). Inpatients often perceive their experiences of rehabilitation as being disconnected or incoherent over time.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify and synthesise existing literature exploring the impact of relational and informational continuity of care on preferred place of death, hospital admissions and satisfaction for palliative care patients in qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods literature. DESIGN:A mixed methods rapid review. METHODS:PUBMED, PsychINFO, CINAHL were searched from June 2008 to June 2018 in order to identify original peer reviewed, primary qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research exploring the impact of continuity of care for people receiving palliative care. Synthesis methods as outlined by the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group were applied to qualitative studies while meta-analyses for quantitative data were planned. OUTCOMES:The impact of interventions designed to promote continuity of care for people receiving palliative care on the following outcomes was explored: achieving preferred place of death, satisfaction with care and avoidable hospital admissions. RESULTS:18 eligible papers were identified (11 qualitative, 6 quantitative and 1 mixed methods papers). In all, 1951 patients and 190 family caregivers were recruited across included studies. Meta-analyses were not possible due to heterogeneity in outcome measures and tools used. Two studies described positive impact on facilitating preferred place of death. Four described a reduction in avoidable hospital admissions. No negative impacts of interventions designed to promote continuity were reported. Patient satisfaction was not assessed in quantitative studies. Participants described a significant impact on their experiences as a result of the lack of informational and relational continuity. CONCLUSIONS:This rapid review highlights the impact that continuity of care can have on the experiences of patients receiving palliative care. The evidence for the impact of continuity on place of death and hospital admissions is limited. Methods for enhancing, and recording continuity should be considered in the design and development of future healthcare interventions to support people receiving palliative care.
Project description:Continuity of care can bring a wide range of benefits to consumers, providers and health care systems. This study aimed to understand the relationship preferences of primary care patients and their associations with patient experience of continuity of care.A questionnaire survey was conducted on 700 patients who sought medical care from a community health organisation in Beijing. The survey contained four items examining the relationship preferences of the respondents, and a modified Questionnaire of Continuity between Care Levels (CCAENA) measuring patient experience of continuity of care based on a three dimensional (relational, informational and managerial) model. The associations between the relationship preferences and the experience of respondents in continuity of care was tested using a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, education, medical insurance, personal income and servicing facilities.The respondents experienced relatively lower levels of informational and managerial continuity compared with relational continuity of care. More than 80% of respondents preferred free choice and a continuing relationship with doctors, compared with 59% who endorsed community facility control over hospital appointments. A preference for a continuing relationship with doctors was associated with all aspects of continuity of care. A preference in favour of community facility control over hospital appointments was a strong predictor of managerial continuity (??=?0.333, p?<?0.001) and informational continuity (??=?0.256, p?<?0.001). Patient preference for free choice of doctors was positively associated with relational continuity with specialists (p?<?0.001), but not with primary care providers (p > 0.08). Perceived importance of information exchange was associated with relational and managerial continuity (p?<?0.05), but not with informational continuity (p?=?0.34).Patients prefer a high level of freedom of choice and sustained individual relationship with doctors. Relationship preferences of patients are associated with their experience of continuity of care. But patient strong preference for free choice of doctors is not aligned with relational continuity with primary care, a desirable feature of cost-effective healthcare systems.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether continuity of care in family practice reduces unplanned hospital use for people with serious mental illness (SMI). DATA SOURCES:Linked administrative data on family practice and hospital utilization by people with SMI in England, 2007-2014. STUDY DESIGN:This observational cohort study used discrete-time survival analysis to investigate the relationship between continuity of care in family practice and unplanned hospital use: emergency department (ED) presentations, and unplanned admissions for SMI and ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC). The analysis distinguishes between relational continuity and management/ informational continuity (as captured by care plans) and accounts for unobserved confounding by examining deviation from long-term averages. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS:Individual-level family practice administrative data linked to hospital administrative data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Higher relational continuity was associated with 8-11 percent lower risk of ED presentation and 23-27 percent lower risk of ACSC admissions. Care plans were associated with 29 percent lower risk of ED presentation, 39 percent lower risk of SMI admissions, and 32 percent lower risk of ACSC admissions. CONCLUSIONS:Family practice continuity of care can reduce unplanned hospital use for physical and mental health of people with SMI.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate how changes in patient-rated health and disability from baseline to after rehabilitation were associated with communication and relationships in rehabilitation teams and patient-rated continuity of care. METHODS:Linear models were used to assess the associations between relational coordination [RC] and Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire-Norwegian version [NCQ-N] with changes in the World Health Association Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 [WHODAS 2.0] and EuroQol EQ-VAS [EQ-VAS]. To express change in WHODAS 2.0 and EQ-VAS, the model was adjusted for WHODAS 2.0 and EQ-VAS baseline scores. Analyses for possible slopes for the various diagnosis groups were performed. RESULTS:A sample of 701 patients were included in the patient cohort, followed from before rehabilitation to 1 year after a rehabilitation stay involving treatment by 15 different interprofessional teams. The analyses revealed associations between continuity of care and changes in patient-rated health, measured with EQ-VAS (all p values < 0.01). RC communication was associated with more improvement in functioning in neoplasms patient group, compared to improvement of health among included patient groups. The results revealed no associations between NCQ-N and WHODAS 2.0 global score, or between RC in the rehabilitation teams treating the patients and changes in WHODAS 2.0 global score. CONCLUSION:The current results revealed that better personal, team and cross-boundary continuity of rehabilitation care was associated with better patient health after rehabilitation at 1-year follow-up. Measures of patient experiences with different types of continuity of care may provide a promising indicator of the quality of rehabilitation care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Concordance refers to shared characteristics between a clinician and patient, such as ethnicity or language. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patient-clinician concordance is associated with patient-reported continuity of care (relational, informational and management) and patient-reported impacts of care (quality and empowerment). METHODS:This is a secondary analysis of cross-sectional patient surveys that were administered across British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec using random digit dialling. Participants were adults who spoke English, French, Mandarin, Cantonese or Punjabi and who had visited a primary care clinician in the previous 12 months (n = 3156). Patients self-identified as being of European, Chinese, South Asian and Indigenous descent. Outcome measures included patients' perceptions of continuity, quality and empowerment. Adjusted logistic regression models and odds ratio were generated. RESULTS:More than 64% of non-Indigenous respondents reported ethnocultural concordance. Ethnocultural concordance was associated with higher odds of relational and management continuity. This same pattern held when there was both ethnocultural and language concordance. No association was found between language concordance and any outcome measure. Chinese participants reported lower quality (odds ratio [OR] 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.48), as did South Asian participants (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.31) than did participants of European descent. INTERPRETATION:Higher relational and management continuity is more likely with the presence of patient-clinician ethnocultural and language concordance. Lower continuity and quality reported by Chinese and South Asian particpants could indicate important health care disparities.
Project description:Rehabilitation services depend on competent professionals who collaborate effectively. Well-functioning interprofessional teams are expected to positively impact continuity of care. Key factors in continuity of care are communication and collaboration among health care professionals in a team and their patients. This study assessed the associations between team functioning and patient-reported benefits and continuity of care in somatic rehabilitation centres.This prospective cohort study uses survey data from 984 patients and from health care professionals in 15 teams in seven somatic rehabilitation centres in Western Norway. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between the interprofessional team communication and relationship scores (measured by the Relational Coordination [RC] Survey and patient-reported benefit and personal-, team- and cross-boundary continuity of care. Patient-reported continuity of care was measured using the Norwegian version of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire.The mean communication score for healthcare teams was 3.9 (standard deviation [SD]?=?0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.78, 4.00), and the mean relationship score was 4.1 (SD?=?0.56, 95% CI?=?3.97, 4.18). Communication scores in rehabilitation teams varied from 3.4-4.3 and relationship scores from 3.6-4.5. Patients treated by teams with higher relationship scores experienced better continuity between health care professionals in the team at the rehabilitation centre (b?=?0.36, 95% CI?=?0.05, 0.68; p =?0.024). There was a positive association between RC communication in the team the patient was treated by and patient-reported activities of daily living benefit score; all other associations between RC scores and rehabilitation benefit scores were not significant.Team function is associated with better patient-reported continuity of care and higher ADL-benefit scores among patients after rehabilitation. These findings indicate that interprofessional teams' RC scores may predict rehabilitation outcomes, but further studies are needed before RC scores can be used as a quality indicator in somatic rehabilitation.
Project description:Continuity of care has been explored largely from academic and service provider perspectives, and in relation to adult patient/client groups. We interviewed parents of children with complex chronic health conditions to examine how their experiences and perceptions of continuity of care fit with these perspectives; and to identify the salient factors in the experience of, and factors contributing to, continuity in this population.Parents of 47 elementary school-aged children with spina bifida, Down syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis participated in semi-structured interviews. Parents described and mapped the pattern of their interactions with service providers over time in all domains relevant to their child's health, well-being, and development (medical, rehabilitational, educational, and social supportive services), with particular attention paid to their perceptions of connectedness or coherency in these interactions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using a framework approach to impose structure regarding parents' perspectives on continuity of care.Existing academic concepts of relational, informational and management continuity were all discernable in parents' narratives. A thorough knowledge of the child on the part of service providers emerged as extremely important to parents; such knowledge was underpinned by continuity of personal relationships, principally, and also by written information. For this population, notions of continuity extend to the full range of service providers these children and families need to achieve optimal health status, and are not limited to physicians and nurses. Communication among providers was seen as integral to perceived continuity. Compartmentalization of services and information led to parents assuming a necessary, though at times, uncomfortable, coordinating role. Geographic factors, institutional structures and practices, provider attitudes, and, on occasion, parent preferences and judgments, were all found to create barriers to "seamless" management and provision of care continuity across providers, settings, and sectors.These findings add new perspectives to the understanding of continuity within chronically ill children's health care. They are relevant to contemporary initiatives to improve continuity of services to children with special health care needs, demonstrate the need for parental support of their important role in maintaining continuity, and suggest avenues for further research.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To systematically map and synthesise the literature on older adults' perceptions and experiences of integrated care. SETTING:Various healthcare settings, including primary care, hospitals, allied health practices and emergency departments. PARTICIPANTS:Adults aged ?60 years. INTERVENTIONS:Integrated (or similarly coordinated) healthcare. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Using scoping review methodology, four electronic databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses) and the grey literature (Open Grey and Google Scholar) were searched to identify studies reporting on older adults' experiences of integrated care. Studies reporting on empirical, interpretive and critical research using any type of methodology were included. Four independent reviewers performed study selection, data extraction and analysis. RESULTS:The initial search retrieved 436 articles, of which 30 were included in this review. Patients expressed a desire for continuity, both in terms of care relationships and management, seamless transitions between care services and/or settings, and coordinated care that delivers quick access, effective treatment, self-care support, respect for patient preferences, and involves carers and families. CONCLUSIONS:Participants across the studies desired accessible, efficient and coordinated care that caters to their needs and preferences, while keeping in mind their rights and safety. This review highlights the salience of the relational, informational and organisational aspects of care from an older person's perspective. Findings are transferable and could be applied in various healthcare settings to derive patient-centred success measures that reflect the aspects of integrated care that are deemed important to older adults and their supporters.
Project description:Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area.Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded.Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS.Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement.Clinical Trial or Systematic Review Registry: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42014013799 .
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effects of facility-level acute-postacute continuity on probability of community discharge and 30-day rehospitalization following inpatient rehabilitation. DATA SOURCES:We used national Medicare enrollment, claims, and assessment data to study 541,097 patients discharged from 1,156 inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) in 2010-2011. STUDY DESIGN:We calculated facility-level continuity as the percentages of an IRF's patients admitted from each contributing acute care hospital. Patients were categorized into three groups: low continuity (<26 percent from same hospital that discharged the patient), medium continuity (26-75 percent from same hospital), or high continuity (>75 percent from same hospital). The multivariable models included an interaction term to examine the potential moderating effects of facility type (freestanding facility vs. hospital-based rehabilitation unit) on the relationships between facility-level continuity and our two outcomes: community discharge and 30-day rehospitalization. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Medicare beneficiaries in hospital-based rehabilitation units were more likely to be referred from a high-contributing hospital compared to those in freestanding facilities. However, the association between higher acute-postacute continuity and desirable outcomes is significantly better in freestanding rehabilitation facilities than in hospital-based units. CONCLUSIONS:Improving continuity is a key premise of health care reform. We found that both observed referral patterns and continuity-related benefits differed markedly by facility type. These findings provide a starting point for health systems establishing or strengthening acute-postacute relationships to improve patient outcomes in this new era of shared accountability and public quality reporting programs.