Crystal Structure of the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the Bacteriophage T4 Proximal Long Tail Fiber Protein Gp34.
ABSTRACT: Long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4 are formed by proteins gp34, gp35, gp36, and gp37, with gp34 located at the phage-proximal end and gp37 at the phage-distal, receptor-binding end. We have solved the structure of the carboxy-terminal region of gp34, consisting of amino acids 894-1289, by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction and extended the structure to amino acids 744-1289 using data collected from crystals containing longer gp34-fragments. The structure reveals three repeats of a mixed ?-? fibrous domain in residues 744 to 877. A triple-helical neck connects to an extended triple ?-helix domain (amino acids 900-1127) punctuated by two ?-prism domains. Next, a ?-prism domain decorated with short helices and extended ?-helices is present (residues 1146-1238), while the C-terminal end is capped with another short ?-helical region and three ?-hairpins. The structure provides insight into the stability of the fibrous gp34 protein.
Project description:Bacteriophage T4 initially recognizes its host cells using its long tail fibers. Long tail fibers consist of a phage-proximal and a phage-distal rod, each around 80 nm long and attached to each other at a slight angle. The phage-proximal rod is formed by a homo-trimer of gene product 34 (gp34) and is attached to the phage-distal rod by a monomer of gp35. The phage-distal rod consists of two protein trimers: a trimer of gp36, attached to gp35, although most of the phage-distal rod, including the receptor-binding domain, is formed by a trimer of gp37. In this review, we discuss what is known about the detailed structure and function of the different long tail fiber domains. Partial crystal structures of gp34 and gp37 have revealed the presence of new protein folds, some of which are present in several repeats, while others are apparently unique. Gp38, a phage chaperone protein necessary for folding of gp37, is thought to act on an α-helical coiled-coil region in gp37. Future studies should reveal the remaining structure of the long tail fibers, how they assemble into a functional unit, and how the long tail fibers trigger the infection process after successful recognition of a suitable host bacterium.
Project description:Several early genes of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) encode proteins that mediate immune evasion by interference with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) pathway of antigen presentation to cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). Specifically, the m152 gene product gp37/40 causes retention of MHC-I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment. Lack of MHC-I on the cell surface should activate natural killer (NK) cells recognizing the "missing self." The retention, however, is counteracted by the m04 early gene product gp34, which binds to folded MHC-I molecules in the ER and directs the complex to the cell surface. It was thus speculated that gp34 might serve to silence NK cells and thereby complete the immune evasion of MCMV. In light of these current views, we provide here results demonstrating an in vivo role for gp34 in protective antiviral immunity. We have identified an antigenic nonapeptide derived from gp34 and presented by the MHC-I molecule D(d). Besides the immunodominant immediate-early nonapeptide consisting of IE1 amino acids 168-176 (IE1(168-176)), the early nonapeptide m04(243-251) is the second antigenic peptide described for MCMV. The primary immune response to MCMV generates significant m04-specific CD8 T-cell memory. Upon adoptive transfer into immunodeficient recipients, an m04-specific CTL line controls MCMV infection with an efficacy comparable to that of an IE1-specific CTL line. Thus, gp34 is the first noted early protein of MCMV that escapes viral immune evasion mechanisms. These data document that MCMV is held in check by a redundance of protective CD8 T cells recognizing antigenic peptides in different phases of viral gene expression.
Project description:A right-handed parallel beta-helix of 400 residues in 13 tightly packed coils is a major motif of the chains forming the trimeric P22 tailspike adhesin. The beta-helix domains of three identical subunits are side-by-side in the trimer and make predominantly hydrophilic inter-subunit contacts (Steinbacher S et al., 1994, Science 265:383-386). After the 13th coil the three individual beta-helices terminate and the chains wrap around each other to form three interdigitated beta-sheets organized into the walls of a triangular prism. The beta-strands then separate and form antiparallel beta-sheets, but still defining a triangular prism in which each side is a beta-sheet from a different subunit (Seckler R, 1998, J Struct Biol 122:216-222). The subunit interfaces are buried in the triangular core of the prism, which is densely packed with hydrophobic side chains from the three beta-sheets. Examination of this structure reveals that its packed core maintains the same pattern of interior packing found in the left-handed beta-helix, a single-chain structure. This packing is maintained in both the interdigitated parallel region of the prism and the following antiparallel sheet section. This oligomerization motif for the tailspike beta-helices presumably contributes to the very high thermal and detergent stability that is a property of the native tailspike adhesin.
Project description:The Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) GP37 has synergistic effects on the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), however, the mechanism employed is unclear. In this study, in vitro and in vivo binding assays indicated that GP37 efficiently bound to the midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) of Spodoptera exigua larvae. Treatment with GP37 led to the damage of the PM's compacted structure and the generation of the PM perforations, and the enhancement of the PM's permeability. qPCR results further demonstrated that GP37 increased the ability of occlusion-derived virions (ODV) to cross the PM. R18-labeling experiments exhibited that GP37 also promoted the fusion of ODVs and insect midgut epithelia. Altogether, our present results revealed that the synergistic mechanism of GP37 to the infectivity of NPV might involve two parts. GP37 damaged the integrity of the PM after binding, which enhanced the PM's permeability and increased the ability of ODVs to cross the PM, finally facilitating the ODVs reaching the midgut. In addition, GP37 promoted the fusion of ODVs and insect midgut epithelia. Our data expand the understanding of the mechanism used by baculovirus synergistic factors and provide a foundation for the development of high-efficiency baculoviral insecticides.
Project description:Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.
Project description:Many microbes that survive in cold environments are known to secrete ice-binding proteins (IBPs). The structure-function relationship of these proteins remains unclear. A microbial IBP denoted AnpIBP was recently isolated from a cold-adapted fungus, Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus. The present study identified an orbital illumination (prism ring) on a globular single ice crystal when soaked in a solution of fluorescent AnpIBP, suggesting that AnpIBP binds to specific water molecules located in the ice prism planes. In order to examine this unique ice-binding mechanism, we carried out X-ray structural analysis and mutational experiments. It appeared that AnpIBP is made of 6-ladder ?-helices with a triangular cross section that accompanies an "ice-like" water network on the ice-binding site. The network, however, does not exist in a defective mutant. AnpIBP has a row of four unique hollows on the IBS, where the distance between the hollows (14.7 Å) is complementary to the oxygen atom spacing of the prism ring. These results suggest the structure of AnpIBP is fine-tuned to merge with the ice-water interface of an ice crystal through its polygonal water network and is then bound to a specific set of water molecules constructing the prism ring to effectively halt the growth of ice.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is prevalent in swine herds and clinical signs associated with this disease are meningitis, polyserositis, polyarthritis, and bacterial pneumonia. Six to eight week old pigs in segregated early weaning herds are particularly susceptible to the disease. Insufficient colostral antibody at weaning or the mixing of pigs with heterologous virulent H. parasuis strains from other farm sources in the nursery or grower-finisher stage are considered to be factors for the outbreak of Glässer's disease. Previously, a Mu-like bacteriophage portal gene was detected in a virulent swine isolate of H. parasuis by nested polymerase chain reaction. Mu-like bacteriophages are related phyologenetically to enterobacteriophage Mu and are thought to carry virulence genes or to induce host expression of virulence genes. This study characterizes the Mu-like bacteriophage, named SuMu, isolated from a virulent H. parasuis isolate. RESULTS: Characterization was done by genomic comparison to enterobacteriophage Mu and proteomic identification of various homologs by mass spectrometry. This is the first report of isolation and characterization of this bacteriophage from the Myoviridae family, a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage with a contractile tail, from a virulent field isolate of H. parasuis. The genome size of bacteriophage SuMu was 37,151?bp. DNA sequencing revealed fifty five open reading frames, including twenty five homologs to Mu-like bacteriophage proteins: Nlp, phage transposase-C-terminal, COG2842, Gam-like protein, gp16, Mor, peptidoglycan recognition protein, gp29, gp30, gpG, gp32, gp34, gp36, gp37, gpL, phage tail tube protein, DNA circulation protein, gpP, gp45, gp46, gp47, COG3778, tail fiber protein gp37-C terminal, tail fiber assembly protein, and Com. The last open reading frame was homologous to IS1414. The G?+?C content of bacteriophage SuMu was 41.87% while its H. parasuis host genome's?G?+?C content was 39.93%. Twenty protein homologs to bacteriophage proteins, including 15 structural proteins, one lysogeny-related and one lysis-related protein, and three DNA replication proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. One of the tail proteins, gp36, may be a virulence-related protein. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteriophage SuMu was characterized by genomic and proteomic methods and compared to enterobacteriophage Mu.
Project description:Using bioinformatics tools, we searched the predicted Theileria annulata and T. parva proteomes for putative schizont surface proteins. This led to the identification of gp34, a GPI-anchored protein that is stage-specifically expressed by schizonts of both Theileria species and is downregulated upon induction of merogony. Transfection experiments in HeLa cells showed that the gp34 signal peptide and GPI anchor signal are also functional in higher eukaryotes. Epitope-tagged Tp-gp34, but not Ta-gp34, expressed in the cytosol of COS-7 cells was found to localise to the central spindle and midbody. Overexpression of Tp-gp34 and Ta-gp34 induced cytokinetic defects and resulted in accumulation of binucleated cells. These findings suggest that gp34 could contribute to important parasite-host interactions during host cell division.
Project description:The distal-half tail fiber of bacteriophage T4 is made of three gene products: trimeric gp36 and gp37 and monomeric gp35. Chaperone P38 is normally required for folding gp37 peptides into a P37 trimer; however, a temperature-sensitive mutation in T4 (ts3813) that suppresses this requirement at 30 degrees C but not at 42 degrees C was found in gene 37 (R. J. Bishop and W. B. Wood, Virology 72:244-254, 1976). Sequencing of the temperature-sensitive mutant revealed a 21-bp duplication of wild-type gene 37 inserted into its C-terminal portion (S. Hashemolhosseini et al., J. Mol. Biol. 241:524-533, 1994). We noticed that the 21-amino-acid segment encompassing this duplication in the ts3813 mutant has a sequence typical of a coiled coil and hypothesized that its extension would relieve the temperature sensitivity of the ts3813 mutation. To test our hypothesis, we crossed the T4 ts3813 mutant with a plasmid encoding an engineered pentaheptad coiled coil. Each of the six mutants that we examined retained two amber mutations in gene 38 and had a different coiled-coil sequence varying from three to five heptads. While the sequences varied, all maintained the heptad-repeating coiled-coil motif and produced plaques at up to 50 degrees C. This finding strongly suggests that the coiled-coil motif is a critical factor in the folding of gp37. The presence of a terminal coiled-coil-like sequence in the tail fiber genes of 17 additional T-even phages implies the conservation of this mechanism. The increased melting temperature should be useful for "clamps" to initiate the folding of trimeric beta-helices in vitro and as an in vivo screen to identify, sequence, and characterize trimeric coiled coils.
Project description:Helix-helix interactions are important for the folding, stability, and function of membrane proteins. Here, two independent and complementary methods are used to investigate the nature and distribution of amino acids that mediate helix-helix interactions in membrane and soluble alpha-bundle proteins. The first method characterizes the packing density of individual amino acids in helical proteins based on the van der Waals surface area occluded by surrounding atoms. We have recently used this method to show that transmembrane helices pack more tightly, on average, than helices in soluble proteins. These studies are extended here to characterize the packing of interfacial and noninterfacial amino acids and the packing of amino acids in the interfaces of helices that have either right- or left-handed crossing angles, and either parallel or antiparallel orientations. We show that the most abundant tightly packed interfacial residues in membrane proteins are Gly, Ala, and Ser, and that helices with left-handed crossing angles are more tightly packed on average than helices with right-handed crossing angles. The second method used to characterize helix-helix interactions involves the use of helix contact plots. We find that helices in membrane proteins exhibit a broader distribution of interhelical contacts than helices in soluble proteins. Both helical membrane and soluble proteins make use of a general motif for helix interactions that relies mainly on four residues (Leu, Ala, Ile, Val) to mediate helix interactions in a fashion characteristic of left-handed helical coiled coils. However, a second motif for mediating helix interactions is revealed by the high occurrence and high average packing values of small and polar residues (Ala, Gly, Ser, Thr) in the helix interfaces of membrane proteins. Finally, we show that there is a strong linear correlation between the occurrence of residues in helix-helix interfaces and their packing values, and discuss these results with respect to membrane protein structure prediction and membrane protein stability.