Understanding patellofemoral pain with maltracking in the presence of joint laxity: complete 3D in vivo patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics.
ABSTRACT: Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome has a high morbidity, and its pathology is closely associated with patellofemoral joint kinematics. A series of in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to explore patellofemoral kinematics, and the findings are relevant to the diagnosis, classification, and management of patellofemoral diseases and even the whole knee joint. However, no definite conclusion on normal patellofemoral kinematics has been established. In this study, the measurement methodologies of patellofemoral kinematics (including data collection methods, loading conditions, and coordinate system) as well as their advantages and limitations were reviewed. Motion characteristics of the patella were analyzed. During knee flexion, the patellar flexion angle lagged by 30-40% compared to the tibiofemoral joint flexion. The patella tilts, rotates, and shifts medially in the initial stage of knee flexion and subsequently tilts, rotates, and shifts laterally. The finite patellar helical axis fluctuates near the femoral transepicondylar axis or posterior condylar axis. Moreover, factors affecting kinematics, such as morphology of the trochlear groove, soft tissue balance, and tibiofemoral motion, were analyzed. At the initial period of flexion, soft tissues play a vital role in adjusting patellar tracking, and during further flexion, the status of the patella is determined by the morphology of the trochlear groove and patellar facet. Our findings could increase our understanding of patellofemoral kinematics and can help to guide the operation plan for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Project description:Patellofemoral arthritis that is due to patellofemoral instability or chronic patellofemoral maltracking can be a difficult treatment problem. Isolated patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) is a good option that preserves bone and can more accurately reproduce native kinematics when compared with total knee arthroplasty. Newer PFA designs have demonstrated improved survivorship, although survivorship has not shown equivalence with total knee replacement. It has been postulated that improving patellar tracking could potentially improve overall outcomes and survivorship for PFA. It follows then that optimizing patellar tracking in patients with patellofemoral malalignment by adding a tibial tubercle osteotomy to a PFA may improve the ultimate outcome of the procedure. The objective of this technical note is to describe our preferred method for the treatment of patients with chronic patellofemoral lateral tracking and end-stage arthritis.
Project description:The actual in vivo tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-reconstructed knee joint are unknown.Current single-bundle PCL reconstruction is unable to correct the abnormal tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics caused by rupture of the ligament.Controlled laboratory study/case series; Level of evidence, 4.Seven patients with an isolated PCL injury in 1 knee and the contralateral side intact were included in the study. Magnetic resonance and dual fluoroscopic imaging techniques were used to compare the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics between the intact contralateral (control group), PCL-deficient, and PCL-reconstructed knee during physiologic loading with a single-legged lunge. Data were collected preoperatively and 2 years after single-bundle reconstruction.The PCL reconstruction reduced the abnormal posterior tibial translation in PCL-deficient knees to levels not significantly different from those of the intact knee. Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in an increased lateral tibial translation between 75 degrees and 120 degrees of flexion, and reconstruction was unable to restore these values to normal. No differences were detected among the groups in varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. The PCL reconstruction reduced the increased patellar flexion of PCL-deficient knees between 90 degrees and 120 degrees of knee flexion and the lateral shift at 120 degrees . The abnormal patellar rotation and tilt seen in PCL deficiency at flexion angles of 75 degrees and greater persisted after reconstruction.Single-bundle PCL reconstruction was successful in restoring normal anteroposterior translation of the tibia, as well as the patellar flexion and shift. However, single-bundle PCL reconstruction was unable to achieve the same success in mediolateral translation of the tibia or in the patellar rotation and tilt.The persistent abnormal mediolateral translation of the tibia, as well as decreased patellar rotation and tilt, provide a possible explanation for the development of cartilage degeneration after reconstruction of an isolated PCL injury.
Project description:Background:Habitual patellar dislocation in extension (HPD-E) is a distinctive subtype of recurrent patellar dislocation (RPD); HPD-E represents the most severe type of patellar maltracking in RPD. It has been reported that the presence of preoperative patellar maltracking is associated with a worse clinical outcome after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction (MPFL-R). Purpose:To describe the radiological characteristics of HPD-E and to compare clinical outcomes after MPFL-R among patients with and without preoperative HPD-E. Study Design:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods:From January 2012 to December 2015, a total of 230 consecutive patients (246 knees) with RPD were treated with MPFL-R alone or combined with tibial tubercle osteotomy. Among them, 28 patients diagnosed with HPD-E by preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT; HPD-E group) were matched in a 1:1 fashion to 28 control participants who did not show HPD-E (control group). Routine radiography and CT were performed to evaluate patellar height, trochlear dysplasia, tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, and torsional deformities. The mean patellar laxity index and lateral patellar translation assessed with stress radiography were measured preoperatively and postoperatively to quantify MPFL laxity. At minimum 2-year follow-up, patient-reported outcomes (Kujala, Lysholm, and Tegner scores), patellar maltracking, and redislocation rates were compared between the HPD-E and control groups. Results:The radiological characteristics of the HPD-E group were as follows: 89% (25/28) of patients had severe trochlear dysplasia (Dejour type B or D), and the mean femoral anteversion angle was 35.5° ± 4.7°. At the final follow-up, the HPD-E group had a significantly lower Kujala score (76.2 vs 84.5, respectively; P = .001), Lysholm score (75.4 vs 86.6, respectively; P < .001), and Tegner score (4.1 vs 5.8, respectively; P = .021) compared with the control group. The postoperative patellar laxity index (43% vs 19%, respectively; P < .001) and redislocation rate (25% vs 0%, respectively; P = .01) were significantly higher in the HPD-E group than in the control group. Conclusion:Preoperative 3-dimensional CT is a reliable method of identfying patients with HPD-E. Treatment of HPD-E by MPFL-R alone or combined with tibial tubercle osteotomy resulted in a higher redislocation rate, more severe MPFL residual laxity, and lower patient-reported outcome scores compared with patients without HPD-E who underwent MPFL-R.
Project description:A potential source of patellofemoral pain, one of the most common problems of the knee, is believed to be altered patellofemoral kinematics due to a force imbalance around the knee. Although no definitive etiology for this imbalance has been found, a weak vastus medialis is considered a primary factor. Therefore, this study's purpose was to determine how the loss of vastus medialis obliquus force alters three-dimensional in vivo knee joint kinematics during a volitional extension task.Eighteen asymptomatic female subjects with no history of knee pain or pathology participated in this IRB approved study. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics were derived from velocity data acquired using dynamic cine-phase contrast MRI. The same kinematics were then acquired immediately after administering a motor branch block to the vastus medialis obliquus using 3-5ml of 1% lidocaine. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis that the post- and pre-injection kinematics were no different.The null hypothesis was rejected for patellofemoral lateral shift (P=0.003, max change=1.8mm, standard deviation=1.7mm), tibiofemoral lateral shift (P<0.001, max change=2.1mm, standard deviation=2.9mm), and tibiofemoral external rotation (P<0.001, max change=3.7°, standard deviation=4.4°).The loss of vastus medialis obliquus function produced kinematic changes that mirrored the axial plane kinematics seen in individuals with patellofemoral pain, but could not account for the full extent of these changes. Thus, vastus medialis weakness is likely a major factor in, but not the sole source of, altered patellofemoral kinematics in such individuals.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher's exact test, p<0.050). Using the Caton-Deschamps index, 67% (8/12) of PF pain subjects with patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p<0.017). This study adds to our understanding of PF pain in two ways-(1) we demonstrate that patellar maltracking is more prevalent in PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and (2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated tibiofemoral and patellofemoral loading in children who exhibit crouch gait may contribute to skeletal deformities, pain, and cessation of walking ability. Surgical procedures used to treat crouch frequently correct knee extensor insufficiency by advancing the patella. However, there is little quantitative understanding of how the magnitudes of crouch and patellofemoral correction affect cartilage loading in gait. METHODS:We used a computational musculoskeletal model to simulate the gait of twenty typically developing children and fifteen cerebral palsy patients who exhibited mild, moderate, and severe crouch. For each walking posture, we assessed the influence of patella alta and baja on tibiofemoral and patellofemoral cartilage contact. RESULTS:Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral contact pressures during the stance phase of normal gait averaged 2.2 and 1.0?MPa. Crouch gait increased pressure in both the tibofemoral (2.6-4.3?MPa) and patellofemoral (1.8-3.3?MPa) joints, while also shifting tibiofemoral contact to the posterior tibial plateau. For extended-knee postures, normal patellar positions (Insall-Salvatti ratio 0.8-1.2) concentrated contact on the middle third of the patellar cartilage. However, in flexed knee postures, both normal and baja patellar positions shifted pressure toward the superior edge of the patella. Moving the patella into alta restored pressure to the middle region of the patellar cartilage as crouch increased. CONCLUSIONS:This work illustrates the potential to dramatically reduce tibiofemoral and patellofemoral cartilage loading by surgically correcting crouch gait, and highlights the interaction between patella position and knee posture in modulating the location of patellar contact during functional activities.
Project description:PURPOSE:When downsizing the femoral component to prevent mediolateral overhang, notching of the anterior femoral cortex may occur, which could be solved by flexing the femoral component. In this study, we investigated the effect of flexion of the femoral component on patellar tendon moment arm, patellofemoral forces and kinematics in posterior-referencing CR-TKA. Our hypothesis was that flexion of the femoral component increases the patellar tendon moment arm, reduces the patellofemoral forces and provides stable kinematics. METHODS:A validated musculoskeletal model of CR-TKA was used. The flexion of the femoral component was increased in four steps (0°, 3°, 6°, 9°) using posterior referencing, and different alignments were analysed in combination with three implant sizes (3, 4, 5). A chair-rising trial was analysed using the model, while simultaneously estimating quadriceps muscle force, patellofemoral contact force, tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. RESULTS:Compared to the reference case (size 4 and 0° flexion), for every 3° of increase in flexion of the femoral component the patellar tendon moment arm increased by 1% at knee extension. The peak quadriceps muscle force and patellofemoral contact force decreased by 2%, the patella shifted 0.8 mm more anteriorly and the remaining kinematics remained stable, with knee flexion. With the smaller size, the patellar tendon moment arm decreased by 6%, the quadriceps muscle force and patellofemoral contact force increased by 8 and 12%, and the patellar shifted 5 mm more posteriorly. Opposite trends were found with the bigger size. CONCLUSION:Flexing the femoral component with posterior referencing reduced the patellofemoral contact forces during a simulated chair-rising trial with a patient-specific musculoskeletal model of CR-TKA. There seems to be little risk when flexing and downsizing the femoral component, compared to when using a bigger size and neutral alignment. These findings provide relevant information to surgeons who wish to prevent anterior notching when downsizing the femoral component.
Project description:Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA) is common and leads to pain and disability. However, current classification criteria do not distinguish between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint OA. The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence of the clinical features of patellofemoral joint OA (PFJOA) and to explore the potential for making a confident clinical diagnosis in the community setting.This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 745 adults aged ? 50 years with knee pain. Information on risk factors and clinical signs and symptoms was gathered by a self-complete questionnaire, and standardised clinical interview and examination. Three radiographic views of the knee were obtained (weight-bearing semi-flexed posteroanterior, supine skyline and lateral) and individuals were classified into four subsets (no radiographic OA, isolated PFJOA, isolated tibiofemoral joint OA, combined patellofemoral/tibiofemoral joint OA) according to two different cut-offs: 'any OA' and 'moderate to severe OA'. A series of binary logistic and multinomial regression functions were performed to compare the clinical features of each subset and their ability in combination to discriminate PFJOA from other subsets.Distinctive clinical features of moderate to severe isolated PFJOA included a history of dramatic swelling, valgus deformity, markedly reduced quadriceps strength, and pain on patellofemoral joint compression. Mild isolated PFJOA was barely distinguished from no radiographic OA (AUC 0.71, 95% CI 0.66, 0.76) with only difficulty descending stairs and coarse crepitus marginally informative over age, sex and body mass index. Other cardinal signs of knee OA - the presence of effusion, bony enlargement, reduced flexion range of movement, mediolateral instability and varus deformity - were indicators of tibiofemoral joint OA.Early isolated PFJOA is clinically manifest in symptoms and self-reported functional limitation but has fewer clear clinical signs. More advanced disease is indicated by a small number of simple-to-assess signs and the relative absence of classic signs of knee OA, which are predominantly manifestations of tibiofemoral joint OA. Confident diagnosis of even more advanced PFJOA may be limited in the community setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Maltracking or subluxation is one of the complications of patellofemoral arthroplasty. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We questioned whether the computed navigation system can improve patellar tracking in patients with patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA). METHODS: Between 2007 and 2010 we performed 15 patellofemoral arthroplasties using the Ceraver PFA and navigation assistance. Fifteen other patients underwent surgery without navigation during the same period and acted as a control group. The rotation of the native trochlea as measured using the epicondylar line as a reference before surgery and the rotation of the trochlear component and the trochlear twist angle were assessed with computed tomography (CT) scan after surgery. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 3 years (range, 2-5 years). The group with navigation had no patellofemoral complications and better clinical scores. The group without navigation had abnormal patellofemoral tracking in 5 of the 15 patients. CT scan demonstrated excessive internal component rotation, as compared with patients without complications. This excessive internal rotation was proportional to the severity of the patellofemoral maltracking. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term results suggest that navigation can lead to better trochlear rotation which, in our hands, is associated with fewer cases of patellar maltracking and better overall clinical scores.