Catechin Isolated from Garcinia celebica Leaves Inhibit Plasmodium falciparum Growth through the Induction of Oxidative Stress.
ABSTRACT: Resistance of antimalarial drugs to Plasmodium falciparum has become a major concern in malaria eradication. Although it is also affected by several socioeconomic factors, a new antiplasmodial agent is needed for a global malaria control program.In this study, we attempted to uncover the antiplasmodial properties of Garcinia celebica, an Indonesian medicinal plant, along with the responsible compound and its possible mechanism.The G. celebica leaves were ethanol extracted and fractionated based on their polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. The antiplasmodial activity was tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum at 100 μg/ml for 72 h. The active compound of the most active ethyl acetate fraction was subsequently isolated using column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance.The IC50 of (+)-catechin, the characterized compound, against P. falciparum was 198 μM in 24 h and experiment. The isolated catechin inhibited P. falciparum growth in both trophozoite and schizont stages. An additional experiment also suggests that the antiplasmodial property of catechin occurs through the induction of the oxidative stress to P. falciparum.This result shows that the potential of catechin and its antimalarial properties should be explored further.Garcinia celebica leaf extract and fractions inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growthCatechin, the active compound of Garcinia celebica leaf extract, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner Abbreviations used: RBC: Red Blood Cells; IC50: Inhibition Concentrattino 50; MeOH: Methanol; RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute; EI: Electron Ionization.
Project description:Antimalarial bioassay-guided fractionation of the swamp lily Crinum erubescens led to the isolation of four compounds with potent antiplasmodial activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were determined from their spectroscopic data to be the known pesticidal compound cripowellin A and the known pesticidal and antiproliferative compound cripowellin B. 1D and 2D-NMR techniques were used to determine the identities of 3 and 4 as the new compounds cripowellin C and D. A fifth compound was identified as the known alkaloid hippadine, which was inactive against Plasmodium falciparum. The antiplasmodial IC50 values of compounds 1-4 were determined to be 30±2, 180±20, 26±2, and 260±20nM, respectively, and their antiproliferative IC50 values against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line were 11.1±0.4, 16.4±0.1, 25±2, and 28±1nM.
Project description:An extract of Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC50 value between 2.5 and 5 ?g ml-1 . After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C18 SPE and C18 reversed phase HPLC, the new butanolide, malleastrumolide A, was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 17.4 ?m and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.74 ?m.
Project description:Synthesis of new 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives followed by structure-activity relationship, in silico drug-likeness, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in silico metabolism, in silico pharmacophore modeling, and in vivo studies led to the identification of compounds 22 and 23 with significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity against drug sensitive (D6 IC50 ? 0.19 ?M) and multidrug resistant (FCR-3 IC50 ? 0.40 ?M and C235 IC50 ? 0.28 ?M) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Adequate selectivity index and absence of genotoxicity was also observed. Notably, compound 22 displays excellent parasitemia reduction (98 ± 1%), and complete cure with all treated mice surviving through the entire period with no signs of toxicity. One important factor is the agreement between in vitro potency and in vivo studies. Target exploration was performed; this chemotype series exhibits an alternative antimalarial mechanism.
Project description:Investigation of extracts from the plant Athroisma proteiforme (Humbert) Mattf. (Asteraceae) for antimalarial activity led to the isolation of the five new sesquiterpene lactones 1-5 together with centaureidin (6). The structures of the new compounds were deduced from analyses of physical and spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was confirmed by an X-ray crystallographic study. Athrolides C (3) and D (4) both showed antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values of 6.6 (3) and 7.2 ?M (4) against the HB3 strain and 5.5 (3) and 4.2 ?M (4) against the Dd2 strain of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The isolates 1-6 also showed antiproliferative activity against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 ?M.
Project description:Background: Malaria continues to present a major health problem, especially in developing countries. The development of new antimalarial drugs to counter drug resistance and ensure a steady supply of new treatment options is therefore an important area of research. Meroditerpenes have previously been shown to exhibit antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquinone sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10). In this study we explored the antiplasmodial activity of several semi-synthetic analogs of sargahydroquinoic acid. Methods: Sargahydroquinoic acid was isolated from the marine brown alga, Sargassum incisifolium and converted, semi-synthetically, to several analogs. The natural products, together with their synthetic derivatives were evaluated for their activity against the FCR-3 strain of Plasmodium falciparum as well as MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Results: Sarganaphthoquinoic acid and sargaquinoic acid showed the most promising antiplasmodial activity and low cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Synthetic modification of the natural product, sargahydroquinoic acid, resulted in the discovery of a highly selective antiplasmodial compound, sarganaphthoquinoic acid.
Project description:Aim: WHO Malaria report 2017 estimated 216 million cases of malaria and 445,000 deaths worldwide, with 91% of deaths affecting the African region. Results/methodology: Microwave promoted the synthesis of cycloalkyl amine substituted isoindoline-1,3-dione-4-aminoquinolines was urbanized for evaluating their antiplasmodial activities. Compound with the optimum combination of propyl chain length and hydroxyethyl piperazine proved to be the most potent among the synthesized scaffolds against chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 0.006 ?M. Heme-binding along with density functional theory studies were further carried out in order to delineate the mechanism of action of the most active compound. Conclusion: The synthesized scaffold can act as a therapeutic template for further synthetic modifications toward the search for a new antimalarial agent.
Project description:The efficacy of chloroquine, once the drug of choice in the fight against Plasmodium falciparum, is now severely limited due to widespread resistance. Amodiaquine is one of the most potent antimalarial 4-aminoquinolines known and remains effective against chloroquine-resistant parasites, but toxicity issues linked to a quinone-imine metabolite limit its clinical use. In search of new compounds able to retain the antimalarial activity of amodiaquine while circumventing quinone-imine metabolite toxicity, we have synthesized five 4-aminoquinolines that feature rings lacking hydroxyl groups in the side chain of the molecules and are thus incapable of generating toxic quinone-imines. The new compounds displayed high in vitro potency (low nanomolar IC50), markedly superior to chloroquine and comparable to amodiaquine, against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum, accompanied by low toxicity to L6 rat fibroblasts and MRC5 human lung cells, and metabolic stability comparable or higher than that of amodiaquine. Computational studies indicate a unique mode of binding of compound 4 to heme through the HOMO located on a biphenyl moeity, which may partly explain the high antiplasmodial activity observed for this compound.
Project description:Garcinia dauphinensis is a previously uninvestigated endemic plant species of Madagascar. The new phloroglucinols dauphinols A-F and 3'-methylhyperjovoinol B (1-7) and six known phloroglucinols (8-13) together with tocotrienol 14 and the three triterpenoids 15-17 were isolated from an ethanolic extract of G. dauphinensis roots using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR, MS, optical rotation, and ECD data. Theoretical ECD spectra and specific rotations for 2 were calculated and compared to experimental data in order to assign its absolute configuration. Among the compounds tested, 1 showed the most promising growth inhibitory activity against A2870 ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.9 ?M, while 2 had good antiplasmodial activity against the Dd2 drug-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 = 0.8 ± 0.1 ?M.
Project description:Twenty-three new series of toluene-sulfonamide dipeptide derivatives were synthesized and screened for antiplasmodial and antioxidant potencies. Many of the derivatives were active against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 ranging from 3.20 – 9.10 ?M. The ability of compounds 7h, 7m and 7n (IC50 of 7.53, 7.21 and 6.01 ?g/mL respectively) to scavenge DPPH free radicals were comparable to that of ascorbic acid. Additionally, molecular docking disclosed that four compounds exhibited theoretical inhibition constant at submicromolar concentrations (Ki = 0.72, 0.75, 0.57, and 0.53 ?M respectively) compare to the reference ligand (a pyrazole sulfonamide; Ki = 0.01 ?M). Overall, some of the derivatives possess antimalarial property as well as the ability to inhibit oxidative stress in malaria pathophysiology; and hence, are good candidates for further antimalarial drug research. Organic chemistry; Pharmaceutical chemistry, Synthesis; Dipeptides; Sulphonamides; Antimalarial; Antioxidant; N-myristoyltransferase; Docking.
Project description:In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine.Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents.According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25). Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively. The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts.This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.