Heritable L1 retrotransposition in the mouse primordial germline and early embryo.
ABSTRACT: LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a noted source of genetic diversity and disease in mammals. To expand its genomic footprint, L1 must mobilize in cells that will contribute their genetic material to subsequent generations. Heritable L1 insertions may therefore arise in germ cells and in pluripotent embryonic cells, prior to germline specification, yet the frequency and predominant developmental timing of such events remain unclear. Here, we applied mouse retrotransposon capture sequencing (mRC-seq) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to pedigrees of C57BL/6J animals, and uncovered an L1 insertion rate of ?1 event per eight births. We traced heritable L1 insertions to pluripotent embryonic cells and, strikingly, to early primordial germ cells (PGCs). New L1 insertions bore structural hallmarks of target-site primed reverse transcription (TPRT) and mobilized efficiently in a cultured cell retrotransposition assay. Together, our results highlight the rate and evolutionary impact of heritable L1 retrotransposition and reveal retrotransposition-mediated genomic diversification as a fundamental property of pluripotent embryonic cells in vivo.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited proliferation and can differentiate in vitro to generate derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been reported by Wissing and colleagues to occur during hiPSC derivation, including mobilization of engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. However, incidence and functional impact of endogenous retrotransposition in hiPSCs are yet to be established. Here we apply retrotransposon capture sequencing to eight hiPSC lines and three human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, revealing endogenous L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) mobilization during reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell cultivation. Surprisingly, 4/7 de novo L1 insertions are full length and 6/11 retrotransposition events occurred in protein-coding genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells. We further demonstrate that an intronic L1 insertion in the CADPS2 gene is acquired during hiPSC cultivation and disrupts CADPS2 expression. These experiments elucidate endogenous retrotransposition, and its potential consequences, in hiPSCs and hESCs.
Project description:The retrotransposon LINE-1 (L1) is a significant source of endogenous mutagenesis in humans. In each individual genome, a few retrotransposition-competent L1s (RC-L1s) can generate new heritable L1 insertions in the early embryo, primordial germ line, and germ cells. L1 retrotransposition can also occur in the neuronal lineage and cause somatic mosaicism. Although DNA methylation mediates L1 promoter repression, the temporal pattern of methylation applied to individual RC-L1s during neurogenesis is unclear. Here, we identified a de novo L1 insertion in a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line via retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq). The L1 insertion was full-length and carried 5' and 3' transductions. The corresponding donor RC-L1 was part of a large and recently active L1 transduction family and was highly mobile in a cultured-cell L1 retrotransposition reporter assay. Notably, we observed distinct and dynamic DNA methylation profiles for the de novo L1 and members of its extended transduction family during neuronal differentiation. These experiments reveal how a de novo L1 insertion in a pluripotent stem cell is rapidly recognized and repressed, albeit incompletely, by the host genome during neurodifferentiation, while retaining potential for further retrotransposition.
Project description:L1 retrotransposons are pervasive in the human genome. Approximately 25% of recent L1 insertions in the genome are inverted and truncated at the 5' end of the element, but the mechanism of L1 inversion has been a complete mystery. We analyzed recent L1 inversions from the genomic database and discovered several findings that suggested a mechanism for the creation of L1 inversions, which we call twin priming. Twin priming is a consequence of target primed reverse transcription (TPRT), a coupled reverse transcription/integration reaction that L1 elements are thought to use during their retrotransposition. In TPRT, the L1 endonuclease cleaves DNA at its target site to produce a double-strand break with two single-strand overhangs. During twin priming, one of the overhangs anneals to the poly(A) tail of the L1 RNA, and the other overhang anneals internally on the RNA. The overhangs then serve as primers for reverse transcription. The data further indicate that a process identical to microhomology-driven single-strand annealing resolves L1 inversion intermediates.
Project description:Long interspersed element type 1 (L1) retrotransposons are ubiquitous mammalian mobile elements and potential tools for in vivo mutagenesis; however, native L1 elements are relatively inactive in mice when introduced as transgenes. We have previously described a synthetic L1 element, ORFeus, containing two synonymously recoded ORFs relative to mouse L1. It is significantly more active for retrotransposition in cell culture than all native L1 elements tested. To study its activity in vivo, we developed a transgenic mouse model in which ORFeus expression was controlled by a constitutive heterologous promoter, and we established definitive evidence for ORFeus retrotransposition activity both in germ line and somatic tissues. Germ line retrotransposition frequencies resulting in 0.33 insertions per animal are seen among progeny of ORFeus donor element heterozygotes derived from a single founder, representing a >20-fold increase over native L1 elements. We observe somatic transposition events in 100% of the ORFeus donor-containing animals, and an average of 17 different insertions are easily recovered from each animal; modeling suggests that the number of somatic insertions per animal exceeds this number by perhaps several orders of magnitude. Nearly 200 insertions were precisely mapped, and their distribution in the mouse genome appears random relative to transcription units and guanine-cytosine content. The results suggest that ORFeus may be developed into useful tools for in vivo mutagenesis.
Project description:Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1s) are abundant retrotransposons that comprise approximately 20% of mammalian genomes. Active L1 retrotransposons can impact the genome in a variety of ways, creating insertions, deletions, new splice sites or gene expression fine-tuning. We have shown previously that L1 retrotransposons are capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells from rodents and humans and evidence of massive L1 insertions was observed in adult brain tissues but not in other somatic tissues. In addition, L1 mobility in the adult hippocampus can be influenced by the environment. The neuronal specificity of somatic L1 retrotransposition in neural progenitors is partially due to the transition of a Sox2/HDAC1 repressor complex to a Wnt-mediated T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activator. The transcriptional switch accompanies chromatin remodelling during neuronal differentiation, allowing a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can have an impact on gene expression and neuronal function, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate L1 expression should provide new insights into the role of L1 retrotransposition during brain development. Here we show that L1 neuronal transcription and retrotransposition in rodents are increased in the absence of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a protein involved in global DNA methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that patients with Rett syndrome (RTT), carrying MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that L1 retrotransposition can be controlled in a tissue-specific manner and that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition. Our findings add a new level of complexity to the molecular events that can lead to neurological disorders.
Project description:Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition induces insertional mutations that can result in diseases. It was recently shown that the copy number of L1 and other retroelements is stable in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, by using an engineered reporter construct over-expressing L1, another study suggests that reprogramming activates L1 mobility in iPSCs. Given the potential of human iPSCs in therapeutic applications, it is important to clarify whether these cells harbor somatic insertions resulting from endogenous L1 retrotransposition. Here, we verified L1 expression during and after reprogramming as well as potential somatic insertions driven by the most active human endogenous L1 subfamily (L1Hs). Our results indicate that L1 over-expression is initiated during the reprogramming process and is subsequently sustained in isolated clones. To detect potential somatic insertions in iPSCs caused by L1Hs retotransposition, we used a novel sequencing strategy. As opposed to conventional sequencing direction, we sequenced from the 3' end of L1Hs to the genomic DNA, thus enabling the direct detection of the polyA tail signature of retrotransposition for verification of true insertions. Deep coverage sequencing thus allowed us to detect seven potential somatic insertions with low read counts from two iPSC clones. Negative PCR amplification in parental cells, presence of a polyA tail and absence from seven L1 germline insertion databases highly suggested true somatic insertions in iPSCs. Furthermore, these insertions could not be detected in iPSCs by PCR, likely due to low abundance. We conclude that L1Hs retrotransposes at low levels in iPSCs and therefore warrants careful analyses for genotoxic effects.
Project description:L1 retrotransposons are active elements in the genome, capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells. Previously, we showed that chromatin remodeling during neuronal differentiation allows for a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can impact gene expression and neuronal function. Here we show that L1 neuronal retrotransposition in rodents is increased in the absence of MeCP2, a protein involved in global methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that Rett syndrome patients, with MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Genetic reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state (induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) by over-expression of specific genes has been accomplished for fibroblasts derived from controls and Rett syndrome patients. Different clones from each were compared to respective original fibroblasts and a human embryonic stem cell line. Gene expression profiles measured using human genome Affymetrix Gene Chip arrays were grouped by hierarchical clustering, and correlation coefficients were computed for all pair-wise comparisons.
Project description:Long interspersed nuclear element 1 is an autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon that comprises ?17% of the human genome. Its spontaneous retrotransposition and the accumulation of heritable L1 insertions can potentially result in genome instability and sporadic disorders. Moloney leukemia virus 10 homolog (MOV10), a putative RNA helicase, has been implicated in inhibiting L1 replication, although its underlying mechanism of action remains obscure. Moreover, the physiological relevance of MOV10-mediated L1 regulation in human disease has not yet been examined. Using a proteomic approach, we identified RNASEH2 as a binding partner of MOV10. We show that MOV10 interacts with RNASEH2, and their interplay is crucial for restricting L1 retrotransposition. RNASEH2 and MOV10 co-localize in the nucleus, and RNASEH2 binds to L1 RNAs in a MOV10-dependent manner. Small hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of either RNASEH2A or MOV10 results in an accumulation of L1-specific RNA-DNA hybrids, suggesting they contribute to prevent formation of vital L1 heteroduplexes during retrotransposition. Furthermore, we show that RNASEH2-MOV10-mediated L1 restriction downregulates expression of the rheumatoid arthritis-associated inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading proteinases in synovial cells, implicating a potential causal relationship between them and disease development in terms of disease predisposition.
Project description:Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition has been detected in early embryos, adult brains, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and many cancers, including epithelial GI tumors. We previously found numerous somatic L1 insertions in paired normal and GI cancerous tissues. Here, using a modified method of single-cell analysis for somatic L1 insertions, we studied adenocarcinomas of colon, pancreas, and stomach, and found a variable number of somatic L1 insertions in tumors of the same type from patient to patient. We detected no somatic L1 insertions in single cells of 5 of 10 tumors studied. In three tumors, aneuploid cells were detected by FACS. In one pancreatic tumor, there were many more L1 insertions in aneuploid than in euploid tumor cells. In one gastric cancer, both aneuploid and euploid cells contained large numbers of likely clonal insertions. However, in a second gastric cancer with aneuploid cells, no somatic L1 insertions were found. We suggest that when the cellular environment is favorable to retrotransposition, aneuploidy predisposes tumor cells to L1 insertions, and retrotransposition may occur at the transition from euploidy to aneuploidy. Seventeen percent of insertions were also present in normal cells, similar to findings in genomic DNA from normal tissues of GI tumor patients. We provide evidence that: 1) The number of L1 insertions in tumors of the same type is highly variable, 2) most somatic L1 insertions in GI cancer tissues are absent from normal tissues, and 3) under certain conditions, somatic L1 retrotransposition exhibits a propensity for occurring in aneuploid cells.
Project description:Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of some A3 proteins could restrict engineered human Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition in HeLa cells. However, whether endogenous A3 proteins play a role in restricting L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that HeLa cells express endogenous A3B and A3C, whereas human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, and A3G. To study the relative contribution of endogenous A3 proteins in restricting L1 retrotransposition, we first generated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to suppress endogenous A3 mRNA expression, and then assessed L1 mobility using a cell-based L1 retrotransposition assay. We demonstrate that in both HeLa and hESCs, shRNA-based knockdown of A3B promotes a ?2-3.7-fold increase in the retrotransposition efficiency of an engineered human L1. Knockdown of the other A3s produced no significant increase in L1 activity. Thus, A3B appears to restrict engineered L1 retrotransposition in a broad range of cell types, including pluripotent cells.