Vine Water Deficit Impacts Aging Bouquet in Fine Red Bordeaux Wine.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C-values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed correlations between δ13C-values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.
Project description:The Swedish wine industry has exponentially grown in the last decade. However, Swedish wines remain largely unknown internationally. In this study, the typicality and sensory space of a set of twelve wines, including five Swedish Solaris wines, was evaluated blind by Swedish wine experts. The aim of the work was to evaluate whether the Swedish wine experts have a common concept of what a typical Solaris wines should smell and taste like or not and, also, to bring out more information about the sensory space and chemical composition of Solaris wines. The results showed a lack of agreement among the wine experts regarding the typicality of Solaris wines. This, together with the results from the sensory evaluation, could suggest the possibility of different wine styles for Solaris wines. From a chemical perspective, the global volatile profile showed a larger variability between individual wines than between Solaris and non-Solaris. However, 4MMP, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-Methyl propanoate, and diethyl succinate were significantly higher in Solaris wines. Concerning non-volatile compounds, the results showed a significant discrimination between Solaris and non-Solaris wines, the former being characterized by higher ethanol %, Mg, succinic acid, tartaric acid, and sucrose levels.
Project description:Sangiovese is the most cultivated red grape variety in Italy where it is certified for the production of several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) wines, and it is one of the most cultivated Italian red grape varieties in California. Despite the global distribution of this variety, there is a lack of international studies on Sangiovese grapes and wines. For this reason, the present study aimed to compare 20 commercial Sangiovese wines from 2017 harvest, 9 produced in Italy (Tuscany) and 11 in California, in order to evaluate the intrinsic and perceived quality. The eligibility, identity, and style properties (the intrinsic quality) of the wines were evaluated. A group of 11 Italian experts evaluated the perceived quality by rating the typicality of the wines. The experimental data showed that the intrinsic quality of Sangiovese wine samples was affected by the growing area; in particular, the wine resulted very different for the color indices and polyphenol composition. The above differences in intrinsic quality levels did not lead to a different evaluation of the perceived quality (typicality) by the wine experts. The results evidenced that Sangiovese variety is recognizable also if grown outside its original terroir, and fresh and fruity wines were considered more typical. This study expands our current knowledge of Sangiovese wines and the contribution of regional characteristics to the composition of wine.
Project description:The concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar may be modified by climate variability between years and by management practices, such as irrigation, that may alter the typicality of its wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar Godello under rain-fed and two drip irrigation systems (above, drip irrigation (DI), and under the soil surface, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI)) over three consecutive years. Irrigation tended to increase must and wine total acidity; however, it did not alter must amino acid concentrations significantly. Irrigation reduced the concentrations of acetaldehyde and methanol in Godello wines. Moreover, irrigation tended to decrease the concentrations of compounds giving fruity aromas, such as acetaldehyde (by 31% in SDI) and isoamyl acetate (by 21% in SDI), when compared to rain-fed conditions. Sensory analysis revealed slight differences between treatments. Rain-fed and SDI were the treatments showing the greatest differences. Weather conditions affected more must and wine composition than in-season effects caused by irrigation.
Project description:Understanding the sensory attributes that explain the typicity of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines is essential for increasing value and growth of Australia's reputation as a fine wine producer. Content analysis of 2598 web-based wine reviews from well-known wine writers, including tasting notes and scores, was used to gather information about the regional profiles of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and to create selection criteria for further wine studies. In addition, a wine expert panel evaluated 84 commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Coonawarra, Margaret River, Yarra Valley and Bordeaux, using freely chosen descriptions and overall quality scores. Using content analysis software, a sensory lexicon of descriptor categories was built and frequencies of each category for each region were computed. Distinction between the sensory profiles of the regions was achieved by correspondence analysis (CA) using online review and expert panellist data. Wine quality scores obtained from reviews and experts were converted into Australian wine show medal categories. CA of assigned medal and descriptor frequencies revealed the sensory attributes that appeared to drive medal-winning wines. Multiple factor analysis of frequencies from the reviews and expert panellists indicated agreement about descriptors that were associated with wines of low and high quality, with greater alignment at the lower end of the wine quality assessment scale.
Project description:The present work deals with the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in wines from the Slovak Tokaj wine region. Studied wine samples were divided into three groups-varietal wines from registered Tokaj vine varieties, film wines Tokajské samorodné dry, and naturally sweet botrytized wines Tokaj selections. The VOCs from wines were extracted using optimized solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRTOF-MS). In total, 176 VOCs were identified in all 46 studied samples. It was found that the total number of VOCs in varietal wines was generally higher than in botrytized wines. All three studied categories showed characteristic VOC profiles with significant differences. Varietal wines were characterized by higher concentrations of esters and terpenoids originating from grapes. The presence of ?-octalactone, (E)-6-methylhept-2-en-4-one, and lack of benzaldehyde were typical for Tokajské samorodné dry. Tokaj selections expressed the highest concentration of diethyl malate, benzaldehyde, and furfurals. Several interesting trends were also observed. The concentration of fermentation products was highest in varietal wines, while long-term matured Tokaj special wines were typified by the presence of compounds related to noble-rotten raisins (2-phenylacetaldehyde, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, and 2-phenylethanol), wood (cis-whisky lactone), and aging (1,1,6-trimethyl-2H-naphthalene, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural).
Project description:SO2 is a very important wine preservative. However, there are several drawbacks associated with the use of SO2 in wine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of SO2 in the Tempranillo wine by a Mazuelo grape stem extract and by a commercial vine wood extract (Vinetan®). The results were compared with a control sample (with no addition of any extract). After 12 months of storage in a bottle, total anthocyanin content, together with total polyphenol and flavonoid content were slightly higher for control wines than for those treated with extracts. These differences were of little relevance, as no differences in antioxidant activity were found between any of the wines at the end of the study. The sensory analysis revealed that the use of both extracts as partial substitutes of SO2 could lead to wines with good organoleptic properties, similar or even better to the control ones.
Project description:Climate is a major factor of the physical environment influencing terroir expression in viticulture. Thermal conditions strongly impact vine development and grape composition. Spatializing this parameter at local scale allows for more refined vineyard management. In this study, temperature variability was investigated over an area of 19,233 ha within the appellations of Saint-Émilion, Pomerol, and their satellites (Bordeaux, France). A network of 90 temperature sensors was deployed inside grapevine canopies of this area and temperatures were measured from 2012 through 2018. To determine the effect of temperature on vine development, the phenological stages (budbreak, flowering, and véraison) were recorded on 60 reference plots planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot located near the temperature sensors. Results showed great spatial variability in temperature, especially minimum temperature, with an amplitude of up to 10°C on a given day. The spatial variability of the Winkler index measured in the canopy inside a given vintage was around 320 degree-days. This research explores the main factors affecting spatial variability in temperature, such as environmental factors and meteorological conditions. The impact of temperature on vine behavior was also analyzed. Observed phenological dates were compared to those estimated using the Grapevine Flowering Véraison model. Maps of temperatures and phenological observations were created over this area and provided a useful tool for improved adaptation of plant material and training systems to local temperature variability and change.
Project description:Downy mildew is a severe disease of grapevines treated by repeated fungicide applications during the growing season. The impact of these treatments on human health is currently under scrutiny. Fungicide application long before disease onset is not thought to be greatly beneficial for grape production, but the first fungicide treatment is applied at least six weeks before disease onset in more than 50% of the vineyards in the Bordeaux region, a major French vine-growing area. We estimate that applying one fungicide every two weeks at disease onset would reduce fungicide applications against downy mildew by 56% (95%IC?=?[51.0%, 61.3%]), on average, relative to current levels. This decrease is slightly greater than the level of exposure reduction resulting from the random suppression of one out of every two fungicide treatments (i.e. 50%). The reduction is lower when treatments are sprayed weekly but still reaches at least 12.4% (95%IC?=?[4.3%, 20.8%]) in this case. We show that this and other strategies reducing the number of treatments would decrease operator exposure to pesticides as effectively as the use of various types of personal protective equipments in the Bordeaux region. The implementation of this strategy would significantly decrease fungicide use, health risks, and adverse environmental impacts of vineyards.
Project description:This data article describes the soils characterisation, bedrock geochemical composition and descriptive statistics of 87Sr/86Sr in wines, grape saps, labile fractions of soils (bio-available), whole soils, and bedrocks used to explore the Sr isotope conservation from rocks and soils to vine and wine. These data also describe the reproducibility of the isotopic composition of wine over four harvest years (2008-2011) on 11 selected experimental parcels (sampling point). The data reported in this paper are related to the research article (Braschi et al., 2018) .
Project description:The aromatic profile of a wine is one of the main characteristics appreciated by consumers. Due to climate change, vineyards need to adapt to new conditions, and one of the strategies that might be followed is to develop new white varieties from Monastrell and other cultivars by means of intervarietal crosses, since white varieties are a minority in south-eastern Spain. Such crosses have already been obtained and have been seen to provide quality white wines of high acidity and with a good aromatic composition. To confirm this, a quantitative analysis was carried out during two vintages (2018 and 2019) in order to study and compare the volatile composition of Verdejo (V) wine with the aromatic composition of several wines made from different crosses between Cabernet Sauvignon (C), Syrah (S), Tempranillo (T), and Verdejo (V) with Monastrell (M), by means of headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis. Wine volatile compounds (alcohols, volatile acids, ethyl esters, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and two other compounds belonging to a miscellaneous group) were identified and quantified using a HS-SPME-GS-MS methodology. An additional sensory analysis was carried out by a qualified tasting panel in order to characterize the different wines. The results highlighted how the crosses MT103, MC69, and MC180 showed significant differences from and better quality than the Verdejo wine. These crosses produced higher concentrations of several aromatic families analyzed, which was supported by the views of the tasting panel, thus confirming their excellent aromatic potential as cultivars for producing grapes well adapted to this area for making white wines.