Effect of long-term proton pump inhibitor administration on gastric mucosal atrophy: A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, some studies have reported that PPIs can alter the gastric mucosal architecture; however, the relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis study was designed to quantify the association between long-term PPI administration and gastric atrophy.A PubMed search was conducted to identify studies using the keywords proton pump inhibitors or PPI and gastric atrophy or atrophic gastritis; the timeframe of publication searched was up to May 2016. Heterogeneity among studies was tested with the Q test; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P values were calculated by I2 tests and regarded as statistically significant when <0.05.We identified 13 studies that included 1465 patients under long-term PPI therapy and 1603 controls, with a total gastric atrophy rate of 14.50%. There was a higher presence of gastric atrophy (15.84%; statistically significant) in PPI group compared to the control group (13.29%) (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.00-2.41).The pooled data suggest that long-term PPI use is associated with increased rates of gastric atrophy. Large-scale multicenter studies should be conducted to further investigate the relationship between acid suppressants and precancerous diseases.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used to lessen symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the effects of PPI therapy on the gastrointestinal microbiota in GERD patients remain unclear. We examined the association between the PPI usage and the microbiota present in gastric mucosal and fecal samples from GERD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GERD patients taking PPIs were further divided into short-term and long-term PPI user groups. We showed that PPI administration lowered the relative bacterial diversity of the gastric microbiota in GERD patients. Compared to the non-PPI-user and HC groups, higher abundances of Planococcaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Sphingomonadaceae were found in the gastric microbiota from the PPI-user group. In addition, the Methylophilus genus was more highly abundant in the long-term PPI user group than in the short-term PPI-user group. Despite the absence of differences in alpha diversity, there were significant differences in the fecal bacterial composition of between GERD patients taking PPIs and those not taking PPIs. There was a higher abundance of Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, Acidaminococcaceae, Micrococcaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae present in the fecal microbiota from the PPI-user group than those from the non-PPI-user and HC groups. Additionally, a significantly higher abundance of Ruminococcus was found in GERD patients on long-term PPI medication than that on short-term PPI medication. Our study indicates that PPI administration in patients with GERD has a significant effect on the abundance and structure of the gastric mucosal microbiota but only on the composition of the fecal microbiota.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs. Concerns have been raised about a potentially increased risk of gastric cancer following long-term use. Our aim is to assess the risk of gastric cancer associated with PPI use, taking into account underlying indications. DESIGN:This is a population-based cohort study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare the risk of gastric cancer among long-term PPI users with the corresponding background population, while taking confounding by indication into account. SETTING:Population-based study in Sweden (2005-2012). PARTICIPANTS:This study included virtually all adults residing in Sweden exposed to maintenance therapy with PPIs. EXPOSURE/INTERVENTION:Maintenance use of PPIs, defined as at least 180 days during the study period. Maintenance use of histamine 2 receptor antagonist was evaluated for comparison reasons. OUTCOME MEASURES:Gastric cancer (cardia and non-cardia), and subgroup analysis for gastric adenocarcinoma, as defined by the Swedish Cancer Registry. RESULTS:Among 797?067 individuals on maintenance PPI therapy, the SIR of gastric cancer was over threefold increased (SIR=3.38, 95%?CI 3.23 to 3.53). Increased SIRs were found in both sexes and all age groups, but were especially increased among PPI users younger than 40 years (SIR=22.76, 95%?CI 15.94 to 31.52). Increased SIRs were found for each indication studied, including those without an association with gastric cancer, for example, gastro-oesophageal reflux (SIR=3.04, 95%?CI 2.80 to 3.31), and those with a supposedly decreased risk, for example, aspirin users (SIR=1.93, 95%?CI 1.70 to 2.18). The association was similar for cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer. Analyses restricted to adenocarcinoma showed similar results to those for all gastric cancers. Long-term users of histamine 2 receptor antagonists, which have the same indications as PPIs, were not at any increased risk. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term PPI use might be an independent risk factor for gastric cancer. This challenges broad maintenance PPI therapy, particularly if the indication is weak.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Helicobacter pylori</i> (<i>H. pylori</i>) eradication therapy may improve gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, but the results of previous studies have not always been consistent. The aim of this study was to compare the histological changes of intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy among the use of acid-suppressing drugs after <i>H. pylori</i> eradication.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 242 patients who underwent successful eradication therapy for <i>H</i>. <i>pylori</i> gastritis and surveillance endoscopy examination from 1996 to 2015 was analyzed. Changes in the histological scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy according to drug use (proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and non-acid suppressant use) were evaluated in biopsies of the antrum and corpus using a generalized linear mixed model in all patients.<h4>Results</h4>The mean follow-up period and number of biopsies were 5.48 ± 4.69 years and 2.62 ± 1.67 times, respectively. Improvement in the atrophy scores of both the antrum (<i>p</i> = 0.042) and corpus (<i>p</i> = 0.020) were significantly superior in patients with non-acid suppressant drug use compared with those of PPI and H2RA use. Metaplasia scores in both the antrum and corpus did not improve in all groups, and no significant differences were observed among groups in the antrum (<i>p</i> = 0.271) and corpus (<i>p</i> = 0.077).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Prolonged acid suppression by PPIs or H2RAs may limit the recovery of gastric atrophy following <i>H. pylori</i> eradication.
Project description:Omeprazole is the most commonly used proton pump inhibitor (PPI), a class of medications whose therapeutic mechanism of action involves formation of a disulfide linkage to cysteine residues in the H+/K+ ATPase pump on gastric secretory cells. Covalent linkage between the sole sulfur group of omeprazole and selected cysteine residues of the pump protein results in inhibition of acid secretion in the stomach, an effect that ameliorates gastroesophageal reflux and peptic ulcer disease. PPIs, though useful for specific conditions when used transiently, are associated with diverse untoward effects when used long term. The mechanisms underlying these potential off-target effects remain unclear. PPIs may, in fact, interact with non-canonical target proteins (non-pump molecules) resulting in unexpected pathophysiological effects, but few studies describe off-target PPI binding. Here, we describe successful cloning of monoclonal antibodies against protein-bound omeprazole. We developed and used monoclonal antibodies to characterize the protein target range of omeprazole, stability of omeprazole-bound proteins, and the involvement of cysteines in binding of omeprazole to targets. We demonstrate that a wide range of diverse proteins are targeted by omeprazole. Protein complexes, detected by Western blotting, are resistant to heat, detergents, and reducing agents. Reaction of omeprazole occurs with cysteine-free proteins, is not fully inhibited by cysteine alkylation, occurs at neutral pH, and induces protein multimerization. At least two other clinically used PPIs, rabeprazole and tenatoprazole, are capable of binding to proteins in a similar fashion. We conclude that omeprazole binds to multiple proteins and is capable of forming highly stable complexes that are not dependent on disulfide linkages between the drug and protein targets. Further studies made possible by these antibodies may shed light on whether PPI-protein complexes underlie off-target untoward effects of chronic PPI use.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux and prevent gastric ulcers, and have been considered as low risk. However, recent studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and gut microbiota, suggesting that PPIs use increases the risk of enteric infections, including Clostridium difficile infection. To investigate gut microbiota in Japanese PPIs users, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from PPI users and healthy adults. In total, 36 PPI users and 36 PPI non-users (as control subjects) matched by age and sex were recruited and fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. There were significant differences in the microbial structure between PPI non-users and PPI users. In contrast, the analysis of ?-diversity revealed no significant differences between PPI non-users and PPI users. When comparing in genus level between these two groups, the genera Streptococcus was significantly abundant and the genera Faecalibacterium was significantly decreased in PPI users. Our findings indicate a probable association between PPI use and the alternation of microbiota. These alterations might provide a mechanism by which PPIs predispose enteric infection such as Clostridium difficile infection.
Project description:Until now, it has been unclear how proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) support Helicobacter pylori therapy. We tested whether the PPI omeprazole acts on the spatial orientation of H. pylori in the gastric mucus of infected Mongolian gerbils. Following repetitive PPI administration once daily but not following single doses or administration every 8 h, the bacterial spatial distribution changed, indicating a loss of orientation. Therefore, the therapeutic scheme of PPI administration may affect efficiency of treatment.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) act by irreversibly binding to the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase of the proton pump in parietal cells and may possibly affect the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts.We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of PPI treatment on the parameters of bone turnover and compared PPI with revaprazan, which acts by reversibly binding to H(+)-K(+)-ATPase in proton pumps. This study was a parallel randomized controlled trial. For 8 weeks, either a PPI or revaprazan was randomly assigned to patients with gastric ulcers. The parameters of bone turnover were measured at the beginning of and after the 8-week treatment period.Twenty-six patients (PPI, n=13; revaprazan, n=13) completed the intention-to-treat analysis. After the 8-week treatment period, serum calcium and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were increased in the PPI group (serum calcium, p=0.046; urine DPD, p=0.046) but not in the revaprazan group. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, age ?60 years was an independent predictor for the changes in serum calcium and urine DPD.In elderly patients, administering a PPI for 8 weeks altered bone parameters. Our study suggested that PPIs might directly alter bone metabolism via the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts.
Project description:RATIONALE:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are popular drugs for gastroesophageal reflux, which are now available for long-term use without medical supervision. Recent reports suggest that PPI use is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and neurological morbidity. OBJECTIVE:To study the long-term effect of PPIs on endothelial dysfunction and senescence and investigate the mechanism involved in PPI-induced vascular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS:Chronic exposure to PPIs impaired endothelial function and accelerated human endothelial senescence by reducing telomere length. CONCLUSIONS:Our data may provide a unifying mechanism for the association of PPI use with increased risk of cardiovascular, renal, and neurological morbidity and mortality.
Project description:The efficacy of using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) prior to gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to reduce gastric bleeding remains controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the literature to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative PPI use to reduce post-ESD bleeding.PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify randomized trials eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from four studies (406 patients) were combined to calculate a pooled risk difference (RD) for developing post-ESD bleeding.Compared with patients who received no premedication, the pooled RD for post-ESD bleeding in patients who received preoperavive PPI was -0.027 (95% confidence interval: -0.070-0.017, p?=?0.228), without significant heterogeneity. Preoperavive PPI use significantly increased gastric pH (weighted mean difference: 1.289, 95% CI: 0.227-2.352, p?=?0.0174).This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that premedication with PPI had no advantage for the prevention of post-ESD bleeding, despite increasing gastric pH.
Project description:Importance:Capecitabine is an oral cytotoxic chemotherapeutic commonly used across cancer subtypes. As with other oral medications though, it may suffer from drug interactions that could impair its absorption. Objective:To determine if gastric acid suppressants such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may impair capecitabine efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants:This secondary analysis of TRIO-013, a phase III randomized trial, compares capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapeOx) with or without lapatinib in 545 patients with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic gastroesophageal cancer (GEC); patients were randomized 1:1 between CapeOx with or without lapatinib. Proton pump inhibitor use was identified by medication records. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients treated with PPIs vs patients who were not. Specific subgroups were accounted for, such as younger age (<60 years), Asian ethnicity, female sex, and disease stage (metastatic/advanced) in multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. The TRIO-013 trial accrued and randomized patients between June 2008 and January 2012; this analysis took place in January 2014. Interventions:Patients were divided based on PPI exposure. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary study outcome was PFS and OS between patients treated with PPIs vs patients who were not. Secondary outcomes included disease response rates and toxicities. Results:Of the 545 patients with GEC (median age, 60 years; 406 men [74%]) included in the study, 229 received PPIs (42.0%) and were evenly distributed between arms. In the placebo arm, PPI-treated patients had poorer median PFS, 4.2 vs 5.7 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.29-1.81, P?<?.001); OS, 9.2 vs 11.3 months (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.62; P?=?.04); and disease control rate (83% vs 72%; P?=?.02) vs patients not treated with PPIs. In multivariate analysis considering age, race, disease stage, and sex, PPI-treated patients had poorer PFS (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.94; P?<?.001) and OS (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.71; P?=?.001). In patients treated with CapeOx and lapatinib, PPIs had less effect on PFS (HR, 1.08; P?=?.54) and OS (HR, 1.26; P?=?.10); however, multivariate analysis in this group demonstrated a significant difference in OS (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.66; P?=?.03). Conclusions and Relevance:Proton pump inhibitors negatively effected capecitabine efficacy by possibly raising gastric pH levels, leading to altered dissolution and absorption. These results are consistent with previous erlotinib and sunitinib studies. Whether PPIs affected lapatinib is unclear given concurrent capecitabine. Given capecitabine's prevalence in treatment breast cancer and colon cancer, further studies are under way. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00680901.