Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature.
ABSTRACT: One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of "the ideal breast size", although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.
Project description:Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient's condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.
Project description:PURPOSE:Breast cancer surgical techniques are evolving. Few studies have analyzed national trends for the multitude of surgical options that include partial mastectomy (PM), mastectomy without reconstruction (M), mastectomy with reconstruction (M+R), and PM with oncoplastic reconstruction (OS). We hypothesize that the use of M is declining and likely correlates with the rise of surgery with reconstructive options (M+R, OS). METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using the ACS-NSQIP database from 2005 to 2016 and ICD codes for IBC and DCIS. Patients were then grouped together based on current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for PM, M, M+R, and OS. In each group, categories were sorted again based on additional reconstructive procedures. Data analysis was conducted via Pearson's chi-squared test for demographics, linear regression, and a non-parametric Mann- Kendall test to assess a temporal trend. RESULTS:The patient cohort consisted of 256,398 patients from the NSQIP data base; 197,387 meet inclusion criteria diagnosed with IBC or DCIS. Annual breast surgery trends changed as follows: PM 46.3-46.1% (p?=?0.21), M 35.8-26.4% (p?=?0.001), M+R 15.9-23.0% (p?=?0.03), and OS 1.8-4.42% (p?=?0.001). Analyzing the patient cohort who underwent breast conservation, categorical analysis showed a decreased use of PM alone (96-91%) with an increased use of OS (4-9%). For the patient cohort undergoing mastectomy, M alone decreased (69-53%); M+R with muscular flap decreased (9-2%); and M+R with implant placement increased (20-40%)-all three trends p?<?0.0001. CONCLUSION:The modern era of breast surgery is identified by the increasing use of reconstruction for patients undergoing breast conservation (in the form of OS) and mastectomy (in the form of M+R). Our study provides data showing significant trends that will impact the future of both breast cancer surgery and breast training programs.
Project description:The reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex is the last step in the breast reconstruction process. Several techniques have been described over the years. The aim of this review is to provide clarity on the currently available reconstructive options.
Project description:Successful reconstruction of vaginal and perineal defects requires close communication and cooperation between the extirpative and reconstructive surgeon. A variety of reconstructive options is available, dependent on the nature of the defect and extent of the ablative surgery. In all cases, obliteration of pelvic dead space and separation of intraabdominal contents from the perineum are important considerations to ensure uncomplicated perineal wound healing. The decision for vaginal reconstruction is also contingent upon the age, sexual function, and wishes of the patient. In this article, we review options for vaginal and perineal reconstruction in acquired defects.
Project description:The scrotal and perineal area serves a special function. It is the pelvic outlet for the gastrointestinal tract, urinary system, and sexual function. In the male, the scrotum allows testicular mobility to reduce trauma and allow optimal thermal regulation for spermatogenesis. Trauma, infection, and cancer resection create defects that require reconstruction. The reconstructive goal here is to obtain durable coverage, function, and lastly aesthetic outcome. Pedicled local and regional flaps are the mainstay for this area. Due to the special function and appearance of the scrotum, reconstructive options for total scrotal defect always fall far short of the native scrotum. On the other hand, perineal reconstruction is overall satisfactory.
Project description:As endoscopic skull base resections have advanced, appropriate reconstruction has become paramount. The reconstructive options for the skull base include both avascular and vascular grafts. We review these and provide an algorithm for endoscopic skull base reconstruction. One hundred and sixty-six skull base dural defects, reconstructed with an endonasal vascular flap, were examined. As an adjunct, avascular reconstruction techniques are discussed to illustrate all options for endonasal skull base reconstruction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak rates are also discussed. Small CSF leaks may be successfully repaired with various avascular grafting techniques. Endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) to the skull base often have larger dural defects with high-flow CSF leaks. Success rates for some EEA procedures utilizing avascular grafts approach 90%, yet in high-flow leak situations, success rates are much lower (50 to 70%). Defect location and complexity guides vascularized flap choice. When nasoseptal flaps are unavailable, anterior/sellar defects are best managed with an endoscopically harvested pericranial flap, whereas clival/posterior defects may be reconstructed with an inferior turbinate or temporoparietal flap. An endonasal skull base reconstruction algorithm was constructed and points to increased use of various vascularized reconstructions for more complex skull base defects.
Project description:Autologous breast reconstruction is capable of creating a breast that closely resembles a natural breast. Reduction and mastopexy in this type of reconstruction yields several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. Revision surgery is common to achieve symmetry; however, reduction, mastopexy, and other revision techniques are sparse in the current literature. Often, these techniques are passed from mentor to student during plastic surgery training or are learned with experience in managing one's own patients. Reviewing anatomical principles unique to this subset of patients is essential. We must also consider factors unique to this group including the effects of delayed reconstruction, radiation, skin paddle size, and flap volume. In this article, the authors describe some of the common principles used by experienced reconstructive surgeons to perform reduction and mastopexy in autologous breast reconstruction to achieve a natural, aesthetically pleasing breast reconstruction. In addition, they have included several case examples to further illustrate these principles.
Project description:During reconstructive breast surgery, intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion has been solely based on subjective clinical judgment. However, in the last decade, intraoperative indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) has become an influential tool to visualize blood flow to the tissue of interest. This angiography technique produces real-time blood flow information to provide an objective assessment of tissue perfusion. Methods:A comprehensive literature search of articles pertaining to ICGA in breast reconstruction surgery was performed. The overall findings of the articles are outlined here by surgical procedure: skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, implant-based reconstruction, and autologous reconstruction. Results:Overall, there were 133 articles reviewed, describing the use of ICGA in breast reconstruction surgery. We found that ICGA can provide valuable information that aids in flap design, anastomotic success, and perfusion assessment. We also included example photographs and videos of ICGA use at our institution. Conclusions:ICGA can reduce postoperative tissue loss and aid in intraoperative flap design and inset. Despite the benefits of ICGA, its technical use and interpretation have yet to be standardized, limiting its widespread acceptance.
Project description:Breast reconstruction (BR) should be offered and discussed to each woman with breast cancer who planned for mastectomy, except the cases with severe comorbidities. However, the majority of these patients do not undergo reconstructive surgery. A 20-question survey was administered to a group of 50 women (age 29-83 years, median 53) treated with mastectomy. 22.4 % underwent reconstruction of the breast, 24.5 % declared an interest in BR in the future, 53.1 % were not interested in reconstructive surgery. 51.2 % obtained information concerning BR before surgery, 58.1 % after and 44.2 % both before and after mastectomy. 59.2 % were informed about reimbursement. Information given before surgery had a statistically significant impact on performing reconstruction or a declared interest in BR (X 2 = 4.950, df = 1, p < 0.05), as well as information about reimbursement (X 2 = 8.875, df = 1, p < 0.05). Age <55 years was another significant factor (X 2 = 13.522, df = 1, p < 0.05, C Pearson = 0.525). Level of education did not impact upon the choice (p > 0.05). The main reasons for the refusal were fear of complications (47.4 %), priority to recovery over aesthetic (36.8 %), age, defined by the patient as "advanced" (31.6 %), high level of acceptance of the body after amputation (31.6 %), fear of cancer recurrence (26.3 %) and fear of the pain and discomfort (15.8 %). Each patient who planned for mastectomy should obtain sufficient information regarding breast reconstruction. Exact information is of special benefit to women discouraged by imagined disadvantages of surgery. Patients' education impacts the quality of life-not only before surgery but also lifelong after finishing the treatment.
Project description:A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction.